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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Socialist Unity Party (SBP), leader NA;
Democratic Center Party (DMP), Bedrettin DALAN;
Great Anatolia Party (BAP), leader NA;
Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT;
Refah Party (RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN;
Democratic Center Party (DSP), Bedrettin DALAN;
Grand National Party (GNP), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


Grand National Assembly - last held 29 November 1987
(next to be held November 1992);
results - ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, DYP 19%, other 20%;
seats - (450 total) ANAP 275, SHP 82, DYP 60, HEP 9, SBP 4,
DMP 2, BAP 1, independent 6, vacant 11

_#_Communists: strength and support negligible

_#_Member of: AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at
1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200;
there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
and New York;

US - Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard,
Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09257-0006);
telephone [90] (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in
Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

_#_Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is
toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside
the crescent opening

_#_Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980
continue to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown
steadily since the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP
increasing more than 6% annually. Agriculture remains the most important
economic sector, employing about 55% of the labor force, accounting for
almost 20% of GDP, and contributing about 20% to exports. Impressive
growth in recent years has not solved all of the economic problems facing
Turkey. Inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget
deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a
substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market
economy. The government has launched a multimillion-dollar development
program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a
dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to generate electric power
and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge
additional quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in
the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

_#_GDP: $178.0 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth rate 7.6%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $27.6 billion; expenditures $34.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1991)

_#_Exports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - industrial products 78%, crops and livestock
products 20%;

partners - FRG 18%, Italy 8%, Iraq 8%, US 8%, UK 5%, France 4%

_#_Imports: $16.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals,
pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers,

partners - FRG 15%, US 11%, Iraq 10%, Italy 7%, France 6%, UK 5%

_#_External debt: $42.8 billion (June 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 32% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 14,315,000 kW capacity; 41,000 million kWh produced,
720 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite,
copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of
population; products - tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets,
pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in
food most years

_#_Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $8.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion

_#_Currency: Turkish lira (plural - liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1 - 2,873.9 (December
1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987),
674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

_#_Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel
or crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

_#_Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products;
708 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

_#_Merchant marine: 340 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,583,720
GRT/6,220,642 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 190 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7
combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 72 bulk, 4 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft (1990)

_#_Airports: 115 total, 109 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk
radio relay network; 3,400,000 telephones; stations - 15 AM; 45 (60
repeaters) FM; 67 (504 repeaters) TV; satellite communications
ground stations operating in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT
systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval
Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,861,358; 9,083,559 fit for
military service; 606,871 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $5.6 billion, 5% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Turks and Caicos Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 389 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

_#_Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

_#_Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures;
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%

_#_Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent

_#_Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North
Atlantic Ocean

_#_Population: 9,983 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

_#_Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

_#_Religion: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

_#_Language: English (official)

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist
industries; some subsistence agriculture

_#_Organized labor: Saint George's Industrial Trade Union

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a
Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

_#_Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small
number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government - Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since
3 March 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS;
Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan MALCOLM and Norman SAUNDERS;
National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel MISSICK

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislative Council - last held on 3 March 1988
(next to be held NA);
results - PDM 60%, PNP 30%, other 10%;
seats - (20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: CDB

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the
interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by
the UK;

US - none

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

_#_Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore
banking. Subsistence farming - corn and beans - exists only on the Caicos
Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be

_#_GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

_#_Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84);

commodities - lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells;

partners - US, UK

_#_Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84);

commodities - foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing;

partners - US, UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11.1 million kWh produced,
1,140 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

_#_Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans;
fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $100 million

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

_#_Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

_#_Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks
Air Ltd. (cargo service)

_#_Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446
telephones; stations - 3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
[email protected]_Tuvalu
_#_Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 24 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

_#_Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

_#_Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South
Pacific Ocean

_#_Population: 9,317 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Tuvaluans(s); adjective - Tuvaluan

_#_Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

_#_Religion: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.06%

_#_Language: Tuvaluan, English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: democracy

_#_Capital: Funafuti

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

_#_Constitution: 1 October 1978

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Palamene)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16
October 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Parliament - last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (12 total)

_#_Member of: ACP, C (special), ESCAP, SPC, SPF, UPU

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant);

US - none

_#_Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with
nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

_#_Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls
with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few
exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic
activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of
a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of
stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received
annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by
Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South

_#_GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $4.3 million; expenditures $4.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.);

commodities - copra;

partners - Fiji, Australia, NZ

_#_Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.);

commodities - food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured

partners - Fiji, Australia, NZ

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA

_#_Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
330 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, copra

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $96 million

_#_Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural - dollars);
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A)
per US$1 - 1.2834 (January 1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752
(1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_#_Highways: 8 km gravel

_#_Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

_#_Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,043 GRT/450 DWT

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300
radiotelephones; 4,000 radios; 108 telephones

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Uganda
_#_Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan
435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December
to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

_#_Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

_#_Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 30%; other 13%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil

_#_Note: landlocked

_#_Population: 18,690,070 (July 1991), growth rate 3.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 94 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 52 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Ugandan(s); adjective - Ugandan

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%,
rest indigenous beliefs

_#_Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used;
other Bantu and Nilotic languages

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 35%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); subsistence agriculture 94%, wage
earners (est.) 6%; 50% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 125,000 union members

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Kampala

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern,
Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

_#_Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 8 September 1967, in process of constitutional

_#_Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English
common law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court


Chief of State - President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
29 January 1986); Vice President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since
NA January 1991);

Head of Government - Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA
January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - National Resistance
Movement (NRM); note - the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan
People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party
(CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


National Resistance Council - last held 11-28 February 1989
(next to be held after January 1995);
results - NRM is the only party;
seats - (278 total, 210 indirectly elected) 210 members elected
without party affiliation

_#_Other political parties or pressure groups:
Uganda People's Front (UPF),
Uganda People's Christian Democratic Army (UPCDA),
Ruwenzori Movement

_#_Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina
KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202)
726-7100 through 7102;

US - Ambassador James CARSON; Embassy at Parliament
Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone
[256] (41) 259792, 259793, 259795

_#_Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black,
yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts
a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

_#_Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including
fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper
and cobalt. The economy has been devastated by much political
instability, mismanagement, and civil war since independence in 1962,
keeping Uganda poor with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains
below the levels of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.)
Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over
80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts
for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government has
acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking
currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing
petroleum prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes
are especially aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over
300% in 1987, and boosting production and export earnings.

_#_GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $290 (1988); real growth rate 6.1%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (FY90)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $273 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - coffee 97%, cotton, tea;

partners - US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

_#_Imports: $652 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities - petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods,
metals, transportation equipment, food;

partners - Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

_#_External debt: $1.9 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 15.0% (1989 est.); accounts
for 5% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced,
18 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash
crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops - cassava, potatoes, corn,
millet, pulses; livestock products - beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $169 million

_#_Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural - shillings);
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 563.18 (January
1991), 428.85 (1990), 223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00
(1986), 6.72 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

_#_Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone,
gravel, and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake
George, Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water

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