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rugged, volcanic topography in Hawaii


_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates,
uranium, bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten,
zinc, crude oil, natural gas, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 26%; forest and woodland 29%; other 25%; includes irrigated 2%


_#_Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water
quality; acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution;
management of sparse natural water resources in west; desertification;
tsunamis, volcanoes, and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin;
continuous permafrost in northern Alaska is a major impediment to
development


_#_Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and
China)


_*_People
_#_Population: 252,502,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - American(s); adjective - American


_#_Ethnic divisions: white 85%, black 12%, other 3% (1985)


_#_Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%,
Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic
25%, Jewish 2%, other 5%, none 7%


_#_Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority


_#_Literacy: 97% (male 97%, female 97%) age 15 and over having
completed 5 or more years of schooling (1980)


_#_Labor force: 126,424,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed);
civilian labor force 124,787,000 (1990)


_#_Organized labor: 16,729,000 members; 16.1% of total wage and
salary employment which was 103,905,000 (1990)


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA


_#_Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition


_#_Capital: Washington, DC


_#_Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama,
Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana,
Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North
Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming


_#_Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)


_#_Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789


_#_Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland
Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands,
Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico,
Virgin Islands, Wake Island.
Since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship
with three of the four political units. The Northern Mariana Islands is
a Commonwealth associated with the US (effective 3 November 1986). Palau
concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved by
the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in
Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust
Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November
1986). The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free
Association with the US (effective 21 October 1986).


_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President George BUSH
(since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since
20 January 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Clayton YEUTTER, national committee chairman; Jeanie
AUSTIN, co-chairman;
Democratic Party, Ronald H. BROWN, national committee chairman;
several other groups or parties of minor political significance


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results - George BUSH (Republican Party) 53.37%,
Michael DUKAKIS (Democratic Party) 45.67%, other 0.96%;

Senate - last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results - Democratic Party 51%, Republican Party 47%, other 2%;
seats - (100 total) Democratic Party 56, Republican Party 44;

House of Representatives - last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results - Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 44%, other 4%;
seats - (435 total) Democratic Party 267, Republican Party 167,
Socialist 1


_#_Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus
HALL, general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members),
Jack BARNES, national secretary


_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, BIS,
CCC, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8,
G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UN
Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN,
Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza,
New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444 (afternoon hours)


_#_Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of
five stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes
represent the 13 original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and
colors have been the basis for a number of other flags including Chile,
Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The US has the most powerful, diverse, and
technologically advanced economy in the world, with a per capita GNP
of $21,800, the largest among major industrial nations. In 1989 the
economy enjoyed its seventh successive year of substantial growth, the
longest in peacetime history. The expansion featured moderation in
wage and consumer price increases and a steady reduction in
unemployment to 5.2% of the labor force. In 1990, however, growth
slowed to 1% because of a combination of factors, such as the
worldwide increase in interest rates, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in
August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and a general decline
in business and consumer confidence. Ongoing problems for the
1990s include inadequate investment in education and other economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and
trade deficits.


_#_GNP: $5,465 billion, per capita $21,800; real growth rate 1.0%
(1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $1,106 billion; expenditures $1,272 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $393.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and
raw materials, consumer goods, agricultural products;

partners - Western Europe 27.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 12.1% (1989)


_#_Imports: $516.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities - crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery,
automobiles, consumer goods, industrial raw materials, food and
beverages;

partners - Western Europe 21.5%, Japan 19.7%, Canada 18.8% (1989)


_#_External debt: $581 billion (December 1989)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.0% (1990)


_#_Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 3,020,000 million kWh
produced, 12,080 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly
diversified; petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace,
telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food processing, consumer
goods, fishing, lumber, mining


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force;
favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock
production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of
grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.0 million metric tons
(1988)


_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic
consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons
or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program
aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production


_#_Economic aid: donor - commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89),
$115.7 billion


_#_Currency: United States dollar (plural - dollars);
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: British pounds (5) per US$ - 0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985);


Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$ - 1.1559 (January 1991), 1.1668
(1990), 1.1840 (1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986),
1.3655 (1985);


French francs (F) per US$ - 5.1307 (January 1991), 5.4453 (1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852
(1985);


Italian lire (Lit) per US$ - 1,134.4 (January 1991), 1,198.1 (1990),
1.372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4
(1985);


Japanese yen (3) per US$ - 133.88 (January 1991), 144.79 (1990),
137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54
(1985);


German deutsche marks (DM) per US$ - 1.5100 (January 1991), 1.6157
(1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986),
2.9440 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 270,312 km


_#_Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways


_#_Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive
of the Great Lakes (est.)


_#_Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)


_#_Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston,
Cleveland, Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston,
Jacksonville, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans,
New York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San
Francisco, Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington


_#_Merchant marine: 404 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA
GRT/NA DWT); includes 3 passenger-cargo, 44 cargo, 23 bulk,
180 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 11 liquefied gas, 130
intermodal; in addition there are 231 government-owned vessels


_#_Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft,
including 2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)


_#_Airports: 14,177 total, 12,417 usable; 4,820 with permanent
surface-runways; 63 with runways over 3,659 m; 325 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 2,524 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations - 4,892 AM,
5,200 FM (including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting),
7,296 TV (including 796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200
commercial cable); 495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV
sets (1982); satellite communications ground stations - 45 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including
Marine Corps), Department of the Air Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 66,458,000; NA fit for military
service


_#_Defense expenditures: $312.9 billion, 5.7% of GNP (1990)
_%_
[email protected]_Uruguay
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State


_#_Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km


_#_Coastline: 660 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted
beyond 12 nm)


_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute;
two short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo
de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence
of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)


_#_Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown


_#_Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal
lowland


_#_Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals


_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 78%; forest and woodland 4%; other 10%; includes irrigated 1%


_#_Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods


_*_People
_#_Population: 3,121,101 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Uruguayan(s); adjective - Uruguayan


_#_Ethnic divisions: white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%


_#_Religion: Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends
church regularly) 66%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other
30%


_#_Language: Spanish


_#_Literacy: 96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; government 25%, manufacturing 19%,
agriculture 11%, commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport,
and communications 12%, other services 21% (1988 est.)


_#_Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers'
Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Montevideo


_#_Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia,
Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu,
Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo,
Treinta y Tres


_#_Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)


_#_Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended
27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980


_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)


_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives (Camera de
Representantes)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Luis Alberto
LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since
1 March 1990)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
National (Blanco) Party, Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera;
Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez;
Broad Front Coalition, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera - includes Communist Party
led by Jaime PEREZ
and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio
FERNANDEZ Huidobro;
New Space Coalition consists of the Party of the Government
of the People (PGP), Hugo BATALLA;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Hector LESCANO;
and Civic Union, Humberto CIGANDA


_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November
1994);
results - Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE
Ibanez (Colorado) 29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%;

Chamber of Senators - last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1994);
results - Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%;
seats - (30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Representatives - last held NA November 1989 (next to
be held November 1994);
results - Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, other
1%;
seats - (99 total) number of seats by party NA


_#_Communists: 50,000


_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM
(observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UNMOGIP, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLICUDDEY;
Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202)
331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los
Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans;

US - Ambassador Richard C. BROWN; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776,
Montevideo (mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone [598] (2)
23-60-61


_#_Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom)
alternating with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side
corner with a yellow sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May
and 16 rays alternately triangular and wavy


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession
of the early 1980s. In 1988 real GDP grew by only 0.5% and in 1989 by
1.5%. The recovery was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing
sectors, agriculture alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11%
of the labor force, and generating a large proportion of export earnings.
Raising livestock, particularly cattle and sheep, is the major
agricultural activity. In 1990, despite healthy exports and an improved
current account, domestic growth remained weak because of government
concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions, and
prolonged strikes. Bringing down high inflation, reducing a large fiscal
deficit, and avoiding frequent strikes remain major economic problems
for the government.


_#_GDP: $9.2 billion, per capita $2,970; real growth rate 1%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 129% (1990)


_#_Unemployment rate: 8.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)


_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%,
fish 7%, rice 4%;

partners - Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)


_#_Imports: $1.28 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities - fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery,
transportation equipment, industrial chemicals;

partners - Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)


_#_External debt: $4.2 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.1% (1989 est.)


_#_Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 5,274 million kWh produced,
1,740 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles,
footwear, leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining,
wine


_#_Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing;
wheat, rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $293 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million


_#_Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural - pesos);
1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos


_#_Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 1,626.4
(January 1991), 1,171.0 (1990), 605.5 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67
(1987), 151.99 (1986), 101.43 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government
owned


_#_Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel,
40,200 km earth


_#_Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river
craft


_#_Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este


_#_Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212
GRT/116,613 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker


_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 91 total, 86 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in
Montevideo; new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones;
stations - 99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm and Marines), Air
Force, Coast Guard, Grenadier Guards, Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 735,971; 597,302 fit for
military service; no conscription


_#_Defense expenditures: $168 million, 2.2% of GDP (1988)
_%_
[email protected]_Vanuatu
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more
than 80 islands


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut


_#_Land boundary: none


_#_Coastline: 2,528 km


_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds


_#_Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains


_#_Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish


_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
2%; forest and woodland 1%; other 91%


_#_Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to
April); volcanism causes minor earthquakes


_#_Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia


_*_People
_#_Population: 170,319 (July 1991), growth rate 3.1% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural);
adjective - Ni-Vanuatu


_#_Ethnic divisions: indigenous Melanesian 94%, French 4%, remainder
Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders


_#_Religion: Presbyterian 36.7%, Anglican 15%, Catholic 15%,
indigenous beliefs 7.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6.2%, Church of Christ
3.8%, other 15.7%


_#_Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama
or Bichelama)


_#_Literacy: 53% (male 57%, female 48%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1979)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions - largest include Oil
and Gas Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu


_#_Type: republic


_#_Capital: Port-Vila


_#_Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo,
Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo,
Shepherd, Tafea


_#_Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New
Hebrides)


_#_Constitution: 30 July 1980


_#_Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French
and British systems


_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)


_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note - the National
Council of Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 76 of 89)