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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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Head of Government - Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since
30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Party (Vanua'aku Pati), Donald KALPOKAS;
Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine CARLOT;
Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak SOPE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Parliament - last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held
by November 1991); byelections were held in December 1988 to fill
vacancies resulting from the expulsion of opposition members for
boycotting sessions; results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (46 total)
National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19, independent 1

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in

US - the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom)
with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated
by a black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the
two points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

_#_Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming
that provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and
tourism are the other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are
negligible; the country has no known petroleum deposits. A small
light industry sector caters to the local market. Tax revenues come
mainly from import duties.

_#_GDP: $137 million, per capita $860; real growth rate 4.3% (1989

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $90.0 million; expenditures $103.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $45.0 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $14.5 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - copra 59%, cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%;

partners - Netherlands 34%, France 27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New
Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

_#_Imports: $58.4 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - machines and vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%,
basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and fuels 11%, chemicals 6%;

partners - Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5%

_#_External debt: $30 million (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 17,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
180 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat

_#_Agriculture: export crops - copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish;
subsistence crops - copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $565 million

_#_Currency: vatu (plural - vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1 - 109.62 (January 1991), 116.57
(1990), 116.04 (1989), 104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986),
106.03 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather

_#_Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

_#_Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,242,850
GRT/3,447,671 DWT; includes 33 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 8 container,
11 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 5 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 55 bulk,
1 combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; the USSR
has 2 ships under the Vanuatu flag

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 32 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones;
satellite communications ground stations - 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no military forces; Vanuatu Police Force, paramilitary

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 41,183; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
[email protected]_Vatican City
_#_Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

_#_Coastline: none - landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

_#_Terrain: low hill

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: urban

_#_Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

_#_Population: 778 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also Swiss and other

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: high dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000
lay workers who live outside the Vatican

_#_Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members

_#_Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note - the Vatican City
is the physical seat of the Holy See, which is the central government of
the Roman Catholic Church

_#_Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

_#_Capital: Vatican City

_#_Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

_#_Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March

_#_National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II),
22 October (1978); note - Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

_#_Executive branch: pope

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

_#_Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy


Chief of State - Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16
October 1978);

Head of Government - Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo SODANO

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old


Pope - last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of
the current pope);
results - Karol WOJTYlA was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

_#_Communists: NA

_#_Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

_#_Member of: CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM
(observer), ITU, OAS (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU,
WIPO, WTO (observer)

_#_Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop
Agostino CACCIAVILLAN; 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 333-7121;

US - Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli,
Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794);
telephone [396] 639-0558

_#_Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with
the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white

_#_Overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported
financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman
Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps, tourist
mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to,
or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city
of Rome.

_#_Budget: revenues $76.6 million; expenditures $168 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by

_#_Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics
and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

_#_Currency: Vatican lira (plural - lire);
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1 - 1,134.4 (January
1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987),
1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985); note - the Vatican lira is at par with the
Italian lira which circulates freely

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the
Rome station of Saint Peter's)

_#_Highways: none; all city streets

_#_Telecommunications: stations - 3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line
automatic telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards
are posted at entrances to the Vatican City
[email protected]_Venezuela
_#_Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050
km, Guyana 743 km

_#_Coastline: 2,800 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river;
maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

_#_Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest;
central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite,
other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
20%; forest and woodland 39%; other 37%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic
droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

_#_Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

_#_Population: 20,189,361 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Venezuelan(s); adjective - Venezuelan

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%

_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about
200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 87%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 5,800,000; services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16%

_#_Organized labor: 32% of labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Caracas

_#_Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular - estado),
2 territories* (territorios, singular - territorio), 1 federal district**
(distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal);
Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo,
Cojedes, Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**,
Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta,
Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note - the federal
dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total
of 72 individual islands

_#_Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 23 January 1961

_#_Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of
legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic
(Congreso de la Republica) consists of an upper chamber or Senate
(Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de


Chief of State and Head of Government - President Carlos Andres
PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Eduardo FERNANDEZ, secretary general;
Democratic Action (AD), Gonzalo BARRIOS, president, and Humberto CELLI,
secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and
Freddy MUNOZ, secretary general

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly


President - last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993);
results - Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%,
Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%;

Senate - last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4;
note - 3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime
senate seats;

Chamber of Deputies - last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results - AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%;
seats - (201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, other 19

_#_Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic
Action-dominated labor organization

_#_Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI
Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US - Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL; Embassy at Avenida Francisco
de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address
is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037);
telephone [58] (2) 285-3111 or 2222; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red
with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of
seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

_#_Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted
for 21% of GDP, 60% of central government revenues, and 81% of export
earnings in 1989. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment
program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and
price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest
rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8%
decline in GDP in 1989, but the economy recovered part way in 1990.

_#_GDP: $42.4 billion, per capita $2,150; real growth rate 4.4%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - petroleum 81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore,
agricultural products, basic manufactures;

partners - US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)

_#_Imports: $8.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and
transport equipment;

partners - US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)

_#_External debt: $33.2 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 11% (1989 est.); accounts for
one-fourth of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 19,733,000 kW capacity; 54,660 million kWh produced,
2,780 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials,
food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force;
products - corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee,
beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf
for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large
quantities of cocaine do transit the country

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $10 million

_#_Currency: bolivar (plural - bolivares);
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1 - 51.331 (January 1991),
46.900 (1990), 34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833
(1986), 7.5000 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all
single track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

_#_Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel,
14,450 km earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo
accept oceangoing vessels

_#_Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products;
4,010 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto
Cabello, Puerto Ordaz

_#_Merchant marine: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 811,650
GRT/1,294,077 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo,
22 cargo, 1 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 9 bulk,
1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 296 total, 277 usable; 137 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones;
stations - 181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite communications ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (including Navy,
Marines, Coast Guard), Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,220,183; 3,782,548 fit for
military service; 216,132 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.9 billion, 4.3% of GDP (1991)
[email protected]_Vietnam
_#_Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km,
Laos 1,555 km

_#_Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with
Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with
China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; unresolved maritime boundary with
Thailand; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand

_#_Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy
season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to

_#_Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands;
hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil deposits, forests

_#_Land use: arable land 22%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 40%; other 35%; includes irrigated 5%

_#_Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive

_#_Population: 67,568,033 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Vietnamese (sing. and pl.);
adjective - Vietnamese

_#_Ethnic divisions: predominantly Vietnamese 85-90%; Chinese 3%;
ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other
mountain tribes

_#_Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous
beliefs, Islamic, Protestant

_#_Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer,
tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 92%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 32.7 million; agricultural 65%, industrial and
service 35% (1990 est.)

_#_Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are
members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

_#_Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

_#_Type: Communist state

_#_Capital: Hanoi

_#_Administrative divisions: 41 provinces (tinh, singular and plural),
3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang,
Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dak Lak, Dong Nai,
Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Kon Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh,
Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*,
Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai,
Nghe Tinh, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai,
Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Song Be, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa,
Thua Thien, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Phu, Vung Tau-Con Dao;
note - diacritical marks are not included

_#_Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 18 December 1980

_#_Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of
State, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court


Chief of State - Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since
18 June 1987);

Head of Government - Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier)
Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party - Vietnam Communist Party
(VCP), Nguyen Van LINH

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


National Assembly - last held 19 April 1987
(next to be held April 1992);
results - VCP is the only party;
seats - (496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

_#_Communists: nearly 2 million

_#_Member of: ACCT, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

_#_Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with
extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities.
The economy is primarily agricultural; the sector employs about 65% of
the labor force and accounts for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple
crop; substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes
are also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open
market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north,
including coal, which is an important export item. Oil was discovered

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