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The 1991 CIA World Factbook online

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off the southern coast in 1986 with production reaching 54,000 b/d in
1990 and expected to increase in the years ahead. Following the
end of the war in 1975, heavy-handed government measures undermined
efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the
south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains
heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from
Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down
from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness and is
showing signs of accelerating upwards again. Per capita output is among
the world's lowest. Since late 1986 the government has sponsored a
broad reform program that seeks to turn more economic activity over to
the private sector.


_#_GNP: $15.2 billion, per capita $230; real growth rate 2.4%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 65% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 33% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $892 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $344 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals,
crude petroleum, ores, seafood;

partners - USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore


_#_Imports: $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - petroleum products, steel products, railroad
equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain;

partners - USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore


_#_External debt: $16.8 billion (1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for 30%
of GNP


_#_Electricity: 2,740,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining,
cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes
make up 50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee,
tea, bananas) and animal products other 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient
in food staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $12.0 billion


_#_Currency: new dong (plural - new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu


_#_Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1 - 7,530 (May 1991),
7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990), 2,047 (1988), 225 (1987),
18 (1986), 12 (1985); note - 1985-89 figures are end of year


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km
not restored to service


_#_Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km
gravel or improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth


_#_Pipelines: 150 km, refined products


_#_Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km
navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft


_#_Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City


_#_Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,596
GRT/539,174 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 69 cargo, 4 refrigerated
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk; note - Vietnam owns 11 cargo ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 106,759 DWT under the registry of Panama and
Malta


_#_Civil air: controlled by military


_#_Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways;
10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984);
stations - 16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio
receivers; at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines and Naval Infantry), Air
Force


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,260,120; 10,377,105 fit for
military service; 809,617 reach military age (17) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Virgin Islands
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 188 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively
low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to
November


_#_Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level
land


_#_Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf


_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
26%; forest and woodland 6%; other 47%


_#_Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent
severe droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater
resources


_#_Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east
of Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage - a key shipping lane for the
Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors
in the Caribbean


_*_People
_#_Population: 99,404 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Virgin Islander(s); adjective - Virgin Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and
29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto
Rican 5%, other 8%; black 80%, white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%


_#_Religion: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%,
other 7%


_#_Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely
spoken


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: 45,500 (1988)


_#_Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States


_#_Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior


_#_Capital: Charlotte Amalie


_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)


_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)


_#_Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the
constitution


_#_Legal system: based on US


_#_National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March
(1917)


_#_Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Senate


_#_Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over
$50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases;
Territorial Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims,
juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President George
BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander A.
FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since
5 January 1987)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON;
Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin BROWN;
Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections


_#_Elections:

Governor - last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990);
results - Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) defeated
Adelbert BRYAN (ICM);

Senate - last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November
1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives - last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results - the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative


_#_Member of: ECLAC (associate), IOC


_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)


_#_Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between
the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an
eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other
with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue
panel


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for
more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector
consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly
plants. The agricultural sector is small, most food being imported.
International business and financial services are a small but growing
component of the economy. The world's largest petroleum refinery is at
Saint Croix.


_#_GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $9,000; real growth rate NA% (1985)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1990)


_#_Budget: revenues $470 million; expenditures $322 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)


_#_Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - refined petroleum products;

partners - US, Puerto Rico


_#_Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities - crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building
materials;

partners - US, Puerto Rico


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12%


_#_Electricity: 358,000 kW capacity; 532 million kWh produced,
5,360 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum
distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics


_#_Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit,
sorghum, Senepol cattle


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $34.5 million


_#_Currency: US currency is used


_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used


_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 856 km total


_#_Ports: Saint Croix - Christiansted, Frederiksted;
Saint Thomas - Long Bay, Crown Bay, Red Hook; Saint John - Cruz Bay


_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m; international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix


_#_Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations - 4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV;
modern system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio,
and satellite facilities; 90,000 radios; 56,000 TVs


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
[email protected]_Wake Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 19.3 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands


_#_Climate: tropical


_#_Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater
volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim;
average elevation less than four meters


_#_Natural resources: none


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%


_#_Environment: subject to occasional typhoons


_#_Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the
Northern Mariana Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific
flights


_*_People
_#_Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants;
302 temporary population


_#_Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during
the Vietnam conflict


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air
Force (under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since
24 June 1972


_#_Flag: the US flag is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US
military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.


_#_Electricity: supplied by US military


_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore
anchorages for large ships


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440 to 3,659 m


_#_Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway
to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite;
stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV


_#_Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only
by US military and some commercial cargo planes


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
[email protected]_Wallis and Futuna
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2; includes Ile Uvea
(Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile Alofi, and 20
islets


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 129 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool,
dry season (May to October)


_#_Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 75%


_#_Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs


_#_Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand


_*_People
_#_Population: 16,590 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 71 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna
Islanders; adjective - Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander


_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian


_#_Religion: largely Roman Catholic


_#_Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)


_#_Literacy: 50% (male 50%, female 51%) at all ages can read and write
(1969)


_#_Labor force: NA


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands


_#_Type: overseas territory of France


_#_Capital: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)


_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)


_#_Independence: none (overseas territory of France)


_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)


_#_Legal system: French


_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)


_#_Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note - there
are three traditional kings with limited powers


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly
(Assemblee Territoriale)


_#_Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French
law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings
administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government - Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC
(since 15 July 1988)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR);
Union Populaire Locale (UPL);
Union Pour la Democratie Francaise (UDF);
Lua kae tahi (Giscardians);
Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)


_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18


_#_Elections:

Territorial Assembly - last held 15 March 1987
(next to be held March 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (20 total) RPR 7, UPL 6, UDF and Lua kae tahi 7;

French Senate - last held NA September 1989
(next to be held by September 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) RPR 1;

French National Assembly - last held 12 June 1988 (next to be held
by September 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (1 total) MRG 1


_#_Member of: FZ, SPC


_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
local interests are represented in the US by France


_#_Flag: the flag of France is used


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is limited to traditional subsistence
agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood
from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs),
and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government.
Revenues come from French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing
rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from
expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food,
fuel, clothing, machinery, and transport equipment, but its exports
are negligible, consisting of copra and handicrafts.


_#_GDP: $7.5 million, per capita $470; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $2.7 million; expenditures $2.7 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1983)


_#_Exports: negligible;

commodities - copra, handicrafts;

partners - NA


_#_Imports: $6.9 million (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities - foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation
equipment, fuel;

partners - France, Australia, New Zealand


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber


_#_Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence
crops of yams, taro, bananas, and herds of pigs and goats


_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $118 million


_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1 - 93.28 (January 1991), 99.0 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988),
109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note - linked at the rate of
18.18 to the French franc


_#_Fiscal year: NA


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea, 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface
on Ile Futuna


_#_Inland waterways: none


_#_Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava


_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
[email protected]_West Bank
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai,
and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and
reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the
final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with
their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be
negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies
that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view
of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the
Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967
Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made
between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for
the final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that
of the rest of the West Bank.


_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank,
East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land, and the
northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus


_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware


_#_Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined


_#_Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with
altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters


_#_Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west,
but barren in east


_#_Natural resources: negligible


_#_Land use: arable land 27%, permanent crops 0%, meadows and pastures
32%, forest and woodland 1%, other 40%


_#_Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal
aquifers


_#_Note: landlocked; there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank
and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,086,081 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991);
in addition, there are 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
120,000 in East Jerusalem (1990 est.)


_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: NA


_#_Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%


_#_Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 80%, Jewish 12%, Christian
and other 8%


_#_Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely
understood


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers - small industry,
commerce, and business 29.8%, construction 24.2%, agriculture 22.4%,
service and other 23.6% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: NA


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military
authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the
final status of the West Bank will be determined by negotiations among
the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how the area
is to be governed.


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by
Israeli military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising.
Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial
resources have been discouraged by a lack of financial resources and
Israeli policy. Capital investment has largely gone into residential
housing, not into productive assets that could compete with Israeli
industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states but remittances from the
Gulf dropped dramatically in the wake of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in
August 1990. Israeli reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West
Bank since 1987 have pushed unemployment up and lowered living standards.
The Persian Gulf crisis of 1990-91 also dealt a blow to the economy.
Many Palestinians returned from the Gulf, exacerbating unemployment.
Export revenues have plunged because of the loss of export markets in
Jordan and the Gulf.


_#_GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15% (1988
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%


_#_Unemployment rate: 40% (1990 est.)


_#_Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)


_#_Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities - NA;
partners - Jordan, Israel


_#_Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities - NA;
partners - Jordan, Israel


_#_External debt: $NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: power supplied by Israel



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 78 of 89)