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SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen); Vice
President Ali Salim al-BIDH (since 22 May 1990, secretary general of the
Yemeni Socialist Party); Presidential Council Member Salim Salih
MUHAMMED (southern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Kadi Abdul-Karim
al-ARASHI (northern Yemen); Presidential Council Member Abdul-Aziz
ABDUL-GHANI (northern Yemen); Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr
al-ATTAS (since 22 May 1990, former president of South Yemen)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
General People's Congress, Ali Abdallah SALIH;
Yemeni Socialist Party (YSP; formerly South Yemen's ruling party - a
coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties), Ali Salim

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives - last held NA (next to be held
26-27 May, 12 June, and 24 July 1991);
results - percent of vote NA;
seats - (301); number of seats by party NA; note - the 301 members of
the new House of Representatives will come from North Yemen's
Consultative Assembly (159 members), South Yemen's Supreme People's
Council (111 members), and appointments by the New Presidential Council
(31 members)

_#_Communists: small number in North, greater but unknown number
in South

_#_Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups,
Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions - pro-Iraqi Bathists, Nasirists,
National Democratic Front (NDF)

_#_Member of: ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Muhsin Ahmad al-AYNI;
Chancery at Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in
Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at Dhahr Himyar Zone,
Sheraton Hotel District, Sanaa (mailing address is P. O. Box 22347 Sanaa,
Republic of Yemen or Sanaa - Department of State, Washington, D. C.
20521-6330); telephone [967] (2) 238-842 through 238-852

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black;
similar to the flag of Syria which has two green stars and of
Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a
horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

_#_Overview: Whereas the northern city Sanaa is the political
capital of a united Yemen, the southern city Aden, with its refinery
and port facilities, is the economic and commercial capital. Future
economic development depends heavily on Western-assisted development
of promising oil resources. South Yemen's willingness to merge stemmed
partly from the steady decline in Soviet economic support.

North - The low level of domestic industry and agriculture have made
northern Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential
needs. Large trade deficits have been made up for by remittances from
Yemenis working abroad and foreign aid. Once self-sufficient in food
production, northern Yemen has been a major importer. Land once used for
export crops - cotton, fruit, and vegetables - has been turned over to
growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no
significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late
1987 and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

South - This has been one of the poorest Arab countries, with a per
capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely
dispersed population, and an arid climate have made economic development
difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3%
since the mid-1970s. The economy had been organized along socialist
lines, dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been
constrained by a lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized
control over production decisions, investment allocation, and import

_#_GDP: $5.3 billion, per capita $545; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices):

North - 16.9% (1988);

South - 0% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate:

North - 13% (1986);

South - NA%


North - revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $590 million (1988 est.);

South - revenues and grants $435 million; expenditures $1.0 billion,
including capital expenditure of $460 million (1988 est.)


North - $606 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities - crude oil, cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables;

partners - FRG 29%, US 26%, Netherlands 12%;

South - $113.8 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - cotton, hides, skins, dried and salted fish;

partners - Japan, North Yemen, Italy


North - $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities - textiles and other manufactured consumer goods,
petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour, other foodstuffs, and cement;

partners - Saudi Arabia 12%, France 6%, US 5%, Australia 5%

South - $553.9 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - grain, consumer goods, crude oil, machinery,

partners - USSR, UK, Ethiopia

_#_External debt: $5.75 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production:

North - growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988);

South - growth rate NA% in manufacturing

_#_Electricity: 670,000 kW capacity; 1,100 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and petroleum refining;
small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food
processing; handicrafts; fishing; small aluminum products factory; cement


North - accounted for 26% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm
products - grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee,
cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain;

South - accounted for 17% of GNP and 45% of labor force;
products - grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock;
fish and honey major exports; most food imported

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $389
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.2 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $2.4 billion


North Yemeni riyal (plural - riyals); 1 North Yemeni riyal
(YR) = 100 fils;

South Yemeni dinar (plural - dinars); 1 South Yemeni dinar
(YD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates:

North Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1 - 9.7600 (January 1990), 9.7600 (1989),
9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985);

South Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1 - 0.3454 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 15,500 km; 4,000 km bituminous, 11,500 km natural
surface (est.)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km; refined products, 32 km

_#_Ports: Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Khalf, Mocha, Nishtun,
Ras Kathib, Salif

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 49 total, 40 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the North has a poor but improving system with
new radio relay and cable networks, while the South has a small system of
open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor cable, and radio communications
stations; 65,000 telephones (est.); stations - 4 AM, no FM, 22 TV;
satellite earth stations - 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Intersputnik, 2 ARABSAT; radio relay to Saudi Arabia, and

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,906,887;
1,084,122 fit for military service;
134,158 reach military age (14) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.06 billion, 20% of GDP (1990)
[email protected]_Yugoslavia
_#_Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

_#_Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km,
Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania
546 km

_#_Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with
Bulgaria and Greece

_#_Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy
winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography;
plain in north

_#_Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore,
antimony, chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural
gas, nickel, uranium

_#_Land use: arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
25%; forest and woodland 36%; other 8%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

_#_Note: controls the most important land routes from
central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

_#_Population: 23,976,040 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Yugoslav(s); adjective - Yugoslav

_#_Ethnic divisions: Serb 36.3%, Croat 19.7%, Muslim 8.9%, Slovene
7.8%, Albanian 7.7%, Macedonian 5.9%, Yugoslav 5.4%, Montenegrin 2.5%,
Hungarian 1.9%, other 3.9% (1981 census)

_#_Religion: Eastern Orthodox 50%, Roman Catholic 30%, Muslim 9%,
Protestant 1%, other 10%

_#_Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official);
Albanian, Hungarian

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 96%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 9,600,000; agriculture 22%, mining and manufacturing
27%; about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

_#_Organized labor: badly fractured labor movement, with no unified
national labor federation; several republics have competing union
federations within their borders

_#_Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
abbreviated SFRY

_#_Type: federal republic in form; four of six republics have
non-Communist governments

_#_Capital: Belgrade

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 republics (republike,
singular - republika); Bosna i Hercegovina (Bosnia and Hercegovina),
Crna Gora (Montenegro), Hrvatska (Croatia), Makedonija (Macedonia),
Slovenija (Slovenia), Srbija (Serbia);
note - there are two nominally autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine,
singular - autonomna pokajina) within Srbija - Kosovo and Vojvodina

_#_Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established
from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire,
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

_#_Constitution: 21 February 1974, amendments to the Constitution
have passed the Federal Assembly and are being considered at the
republic level

_#_Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal
theory; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; a new legal
code is being formulated

_#_National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

_#_Executive branch: president of the Presidency, vice president of
the Presidency, Presidency, president of the Federal Executive
Council, two vice presidents of the Federal Executive Council, Federal
Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal (Skupstina) consists of
an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces (Vece Republika
i Pokrajina) and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

_#_Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court


Chief of State - President of the Presidency Stjepan MESIC
from Hrvatska (Croatia), one-year term expires 15 May 1992;
Vice President of the Presidency Branko KOSTIC from Crna Gora
(Montenegro), one-year term expires 15 May 1992; note - the offices of
president and vice president rotate annually among members of the
Presidency with the current vice president assuming the
presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the
longest without filling the position (the current sequence is
Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i
Hercegovina, Slovenija, and Srbija);

Head of Government - President of the Federal Executive Council
Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal
Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989);
Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL
(since 16 March 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: there are over 100 political
parties operating, some only in one republic and others country-wide

_#_Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

_#_Elections: direct federal elections may never be held because of
inter-republic differences over Yugoslavia's future structure

_#_Other political or pressure groups: there are no national
political groups; all significant groups are found within the republics

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), BIS, CCC, CERN (observer),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC;
Chancery at 2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-6566; there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago,
Cleveland, New York, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco;

US - Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; mailing address Box 5070,
Belgrade or APO New York 09213-5070; telephone [38] (11) 645-655; there
is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red
with a large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the
center over all three bands

_#_Overview: For 20 years Communist Yugoslavia had been trying to
replace the Stalinist command economy with a decentralized semimarket
system that features worker self-management councils in all large plants.
This hybrid system neared collapse in late 1989 when inflation soared.
The government applied shock therapy in 1990 under an IMF standby
program that provides tight control over monetary expansion, a freeze
on wages, the pegging of the dinar to the deutsche mark, and a partial
price freeze on energy, transportation, and communal services. This
program brought hyperinflation to a halt and encouraged a rise in
foreign investment. Since June 1990, however, inflation has
rebounded and threatens to rise further in 1991. Estimated annual
inflation for 1990 is 164%. Other huge problems remain: rising
unemployment, the low quality of industrial output, and striking
differences in income between the poorer southern regions and the
comparatively well-off northern areas. Even so, political issues far
outweigh economic problems in importance.

_#_GNP: $120.1 billion, per capita $5,040; real growth rate - 6.3%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 164% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $13.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - raw materials and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods
31%, capital goods and equipment 19%;

partners - EC 53%, USSR and Eastern Europe 27%,
less developed countries 12.9%, US 4.8%, other 2.3%

_#_Imports: $17.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - raw materials and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods
and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%;

partners - EC 53.5%, USSR and Eastern Europe 22.8%,
less developed countries 15.4%, US 4.6%, other 3.7%

_#_External debt: $18.0 billion, medium and long term (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 10.9% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 83,400 million kWh produced,
3,500 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum,
chemicals, textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper,
motor vehicles, building materials

_#_Agriculture: diversified, with many small private holdings and
large combines; main crops - corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets,
sunflowers; occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs,
live animals

_#_Economic aid: donor - about $3.5 billion in bilateral aid to
non-Communist less developed countries (1966-89)

_#_Currency: Yugoslav dinar (plural - dinars);
1 Yugoslav dinar (YD) = 100 paras; note - on 1 January 1990, Yugoslavia
began issuing a new currency with 1 new dinar equal to 10,000 YD

_#_Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1 - 13.605 (January
1991), 11.318 (1990), 2.876 (1989), 0.252 (1988), 0.074 (1987), 0.038
(1986), 0.027 (1985); note - as of January 1991 the new dinar is linked to
the German deutsche mark at the rate of 9 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 9,349 km total; (all 1.435-meter standard gauge)
including 931 km double track, 3,760 km electrified (1988)

_#_Highways: 122,062 km total; 73,527 km asphalt, concrete, stone
block; 33,663 km macadam, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone;
14,872 km earth (1988)

_#_Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

_#_Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined

_#_Ports: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, Ploce; inland port is Belgrade

_#_Merchant marine: 277 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,780,095
GRT/6,031,359 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 133
cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 19 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3
multifunction large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 75 bulk, 11 combination
bulk; note - Yugoslavia owns 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 253,400
GRT/429,613 DWT under the registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

_#_Civil air: 57 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 179 total, 179 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 1.6 million telephones (97% automatic); 7,500
public telephone booths; stations - 85 AM, 69 FM, 103 TV; 4.65 million
radios; 4.1 million TVs (1990); 92% of country receives No. 1 television
program (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Yugoslav People's Army - Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air
and Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,176,693; 5,001,024 fit for
military service; 189,886 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 70.85 billion dinars, 4-6% of GDP (1991
est.); note - conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
[email protected]_Zaire
_#_Total area: 2,345,410 km2; land area: 2,267,600 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km,
Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan
628 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

_#_Coastline: 37 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no
longer be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of
the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along
the Congo River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands
has been made)

_#_Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler
and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands;
north of Equator - wet season April to October, dry season December to
February; south of Equator - wet season November to March, dry season
April to October

_#_Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in

_#_Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial
and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium,
radium, bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 78%; other 15%; includes irrigated

_#_Environment: dense tropical rainforest in central river basin and
eastern highlands; periodic droughts in south

_#_Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet
to South Atlantic Ocean

_#_Population: 37,832,407 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 99 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun - Zairian(s); adjective - Zairian

_#_Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are
Bantu; four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the
Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%,
Muslim 10%, other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs 10%

_#_Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo,

_#_Literacy: 72% (male 84%, female 61%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 15,000,000; agriculture 75%, industry 13%, services
12%; wage earners 13% (1981); population of working age 51% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: National Union of Zairian Workers (UNTZA) was
the only officially recognized trade union until April 1990; other unions
are now in process of seeking official recognition

_#_Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

_#_Type: republic with a strong presidential system

_#_Capital: Kinshasa

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions,
singular - region) and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire,
Equateur, Haut-Zaire, Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*,
Maniema, Nord-Kivu, Shaba, Sud-Kivu

_#_Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo,
then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

_#_Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15
February 1978; amended 1990; new constitution to be promulgated in

_#_Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic),
24 November (1965)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (Conseil

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State - President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa
Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government - Prime Minister Bernadin MUNGUL DIAKA
(since 23 October 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: sole legal party until January
1991 - Popular Movement of the Revolution (MPR); other parties include
Union for Democracy and Social Progress (UDPS), Etienne TSHISEKEDI
wa Mulumba;
Democratic Social Christian Party (PDSC),
Union of Federalists and Independent Republicans (UFERI);
and Congolese National Movement-Lumumba (MNC-L)

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18


President - last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held before
December 1991);
results - President MOBUTU was reelected without opposition;

Legislative Council - last held 6 September 1987

Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 80 of 89)