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_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21
September 1981);

Head of Government - Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4
September 1989)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's United Party (PUP), George PRICE, Florencio MARIN, Said MUSA;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Manuel ESQUIVEL, Dean LINDO, Dean BARROW;
Belize Popular Party (BPP), Louis SYLVESTRE


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

National Assembly - last held 4 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (28 total)
PUP 15 seats, UDP 13 seats; note - in January 1990 one
member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
16 PUP, UDP 12


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion
of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former PUP minister;
United Workers Front


_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, (observer), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WMO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador James V. HYDE; Chancery at
Suite 2J, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 363-4505;

US - Ambassador Eugene L. SCASSA; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and
Hutson Street, Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize
City); telephone [501] 77161 through 77163


_#_Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom
edges; centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat
of arms features a shield flanked by two workers in front of a mahogany
tree with the related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the
Shade) on a scroll at the bottom, all encircled by a green garland


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based primarily on agriculture and
merchandising. Agriculture accounts for more than 30% of GDP and provides
75% of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost
40% of hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is
assisting in efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural
diversification program.


_#_GDP: $290 million, per capita $1,320; real growth rate 9% (1990
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (1990 est.)


_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $87.4 million; expenditures $130.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $53.5 million (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $108 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and
wood products;

partners - US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)


_#_Imports: $204 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities - machinery and transportation equipment, food,
manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners - US 55%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1987)


_#_External debt: $169 million (December 1990)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate 9.7% (1989); accounts for
16% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 34,700 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced,
410 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: garment production, citrus concentrates, sugar
refining, rum, beverages, tourism


_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry);
commercial crops include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits;
expanding output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic
foods


_#_Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of cannabis for the
international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to 66 metric tons in 1989;
transshipment point for cocaine


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $104
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $199 million


_#_Currency: Belizean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Belizean dollar
(Bz$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1 - 2.00 (fixed rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 2,710 km total; 500 km paved, 1,600 km gravel, 300 km
improved earth, and 310 km unimproved earth


_#_Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable


_#_Ports: Belize City; additional ports for shallow draught craft
include Corozol, Punta Gorda, Big Creek


_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 42 total, 32 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
radio relay; stations - 6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force (including
Army, Navy, Air Force, and Volunteer Guard), Belize National Police


_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 53,184; 31,790 fit for military
service; 2,545 reach military age (18) annually


_#_Defense expenditures: $4.8 million, 1.8% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
[email protected]_Benin
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 112,620 km2; land area: 110,620 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania


_#_Land boundaries: 1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km,
Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km


_#_Coastline: 121 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm


_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north


_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low
mountains


_#_Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone,
marble, timber


_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 35%; other 45%, includes irrigated NEGL%


_#_Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in
winter; deforestation; desertification


_#_Note: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
agriculture in north; no natural harbors


_*_People
_#_Population: 4,831,823 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Beninese (sing., pl.); adjective - Beninese


_#_Ethnic divisions: African 99% (42 ethnic groups, most important
being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba); Europeans 5,500


_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 70%, Muslim 15%, Christian 15%


_#_Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common
vernaculars in south; at least six major tribal languages in north


_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)


_#_Labor force: 1,900,000 (1987); agriculture 60%, transport,
commerce, and public services 38%, industry less than 2%; 49% of
population of working age (1985)


_#_Organized labor: about 75% of wage earners


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Benin


_#_Type: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms
adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system completed 4
April 1991


_#_Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto)


_#_Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou,
Mono, Oueme, Zou


_#_Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)


_#_Constitution: 2 December 1990


_#_Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day, 1 August (1990)


_#_Executive branch: president, cabinet


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - President Nicephore
SOGLO (since 4 April 1991)


_#_Political parties and leaders: the People's Revolutionary Party
of Benin (PRPB) headed by President Mathieu KEREKOU, chairman of
the Central Committee, was dissolved 30 April 1990;
Alliance of the Democratic Union for the Forces of Progress (UDFP),
Timothee ADANLIN;
Movement for Democracy and Social Progress (MDPS), Jean-Roger AHOYO; and
the Union for Liberty and Development (ULD), Marcellin DEGBE;

Alliance of the National Party for Democracy and Development (PNDD) and
the Democratic Renewal Party (PRD), Pascal Chabi KAO;

Alliance of the Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the National Union
for Solidarity and Progress (UNSP), Bruno AMOUSSOU;

Our Common Cause (NCC), Albert TEVEODJRE;
National Rally for Democracy (RND), Joseph KEKE;

Alliance of the National Movement for Democracy and Development (MNDD);
Movement for Solidarity, Union, and Progress (MSUP);
and Union for Democracy and National Reconstruction (UDRN), Bertin BORNA;

Union for Democracy and National Solidarity (UDS), Mama Amadou N'DIAYE;
Assembly of Liberal Democrats for National Reconstruction (RDL),
Severin ADJOVI;

Alliance of the Alliance for Social Democracy (ASD) and Bloc for
Social Democracy (BSD), Robert DOSSOU;

Alliance of the Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ADP) and
Democratic Union for Social Renewal (UDRS), Bio Gado Seko N'GOYE;
National Union for Democracy and Progress (UNDP), Robert TAGNON;
numerous other small parties


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


_#_Elections:

President - last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results - Nicephore SOGLO 68%, Mathieu KEREKOU 32%;

National Assembly - last held 10 and 24 March 1991 (next to be held
March 1996);
results - NA percent of the vote;
seats - (64 total) UDFP-MDPS-ULD 12, PNDD/PRD 9, PSD/UNSP 8, NCC 7,
RND 7, MNDD/MSUP/UDRN 6, UDS 5, RDL 4, ASD/BSD 3, ADP/UDRS 2, UNDP 1


_#_Communists: Communist Party of Dahomey (PCD) remains active


_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, FZ,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WADB, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Candide AHOUANSOU; Charge
d'Affaires Corneille MEHISSOU; Chancery at 2737 Cathedral Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656;

US - Ambassador Harriet ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard,
Cotonou (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone [229]
30-06-50


_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of yellow (top) and red with a
vertical green band on the hoist side


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Benin is one of the least developed countries in the
world because of limited natural resources and a poorly developed
infrastructure. Agriculture accounts for almost 40% of GDP, employs
about 60% of the labor force, and generates a major share of foreign
exchange earnings. The industrial sector contributes only about 15% to
GDP and employs 2% of the work force. Persistently low prices in recent
years have limited hard currency earnings from Benin's major exports of
agricultural products and crude oil.


_#_GDP: $2.0 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 2.6% (1990)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1990)


_#_Unemployment: NA%


_#_Budget: revenues $194 million; expenditures $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $104 million (1990 est.)


_#_Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities - crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa;

partners - FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 4%


_#_Imports: $442 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities - foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods;

partners - France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 4%


_#_External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1990 est.)


_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.7% (1988); accounts for
30% of GDP


_#_Electricity: 28,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
5 kWh per capita (1989)


_#_Industries: textiles,cigarettes, construction materials,
beverages, food production, petroleum


_#_Agriculture: small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
production is dominated by food crops - corn, sorghum, cassava, beans,
and rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry
and livestock output has not kept up with consumption


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $46
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $101 million


_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes


_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1 - 256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)


_#_Fiscal year: calendar year


_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track


_#_Highways: 5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km
improved earth


_#_Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important
only locally


_#_Ports: Cotonou


_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and
radio relay; 16,200 telephones; stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: People's Armed Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force),
National Gendarmerie, People's Militia, Presidential Guard


_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 2,089,646; of the 991,278
males 15-49, 507,482 are fit for military service; of the 1,098,368
females 15-49, 554,454 are fit for military service; about 57,106 males
and 55,297 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are
liable for military service


_#_Defense expenditures: $38 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
_%_
[email protected]_Bermuda
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 50 km2; land area: 50 km2


_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC


_#_Land boundaries: none


_#_Coastline: 103 km


_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm


_#_Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in
winter


_#_Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions


_#_Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism


_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 20%; other 80%


_#_Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes;
consists of about 360 small coral islands


_#_Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land
leased by US Government


_*_People
_#_Population: 58,433 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Bermudian(s); adjective - Bermudian


_#_Ethnic divisions: black 61%, white and other 39%


_#_Religion: Anglican 37%, Roman Catholic 14%, African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion) 10%, Methodist 6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, other
28%


_#_Language: English


_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)


_#_Labor force: 32,000; clerical 25%, services 22%, laborers 21%,
professional and technical 13%, administrative and managerial 10%,
sales 7%, agriculture and fishing 2% (1984)


_#_Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda
Industrial Union


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none


_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK


_#_Capital: Hamilton


_#_Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*;
Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*,
Saint George's, Sandys, Smiths, Southampton, Warwick


_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)


_#_Constitution: 8 June 1968


_#_Legal system: English law


_#_National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May


_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor,
premier, deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)


_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly


_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State - Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government - Premier John William David SWAN (since NA
January 1982)


_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D. SWAN;
Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick WADE;
National Liberal Party (NLP), Gilbert DARRELL


_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


_#_Elections:

House of Assembly - last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994); results - percent of vote by party NA;
seats - (40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1


_#_Communists: negligible


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
headed by Ottiwell SIMMONS


_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), ICFTU, IOC


_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK;

US - Consul General L. Ebersole GAINES; Consulate General at
Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire, Hamilton (mailing address is
P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX, or FPO New York 09560-5300); telephone
(809) 295-1342


_#_Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion
holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off
Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag


_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in
the world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury
tourist facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts
more than 90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector
is small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land.
About 80% of food needs are imported.


_#_GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $22,400; real growth rate 2.0% (1989
est.)


_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (June 1989)


_#_Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)


_#_Budget: revenues $307 million; expenditures $275 million, including
capital expenditures of $31 million (FY90 est.)


_#_Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., FY88);

commodities - semitropical produce, light manufactures;

partners - US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%


_#_Imports: $420 million (c.i.f., FY88);

commodities - fuel, foodstuffs, machinery;

partners - US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan
5%, other 14%


_#_External debt: NA


_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%


_#_Electricity: 154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced,
8,640 kWh per capita (1990)


_#_Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products,
paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing


_#_Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods
must be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers,
dairy products


_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $267 million


_#_Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar
(Bd$) = 100 cents


_#_Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed
rate)


_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March


_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private
roads)


_#_Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George


_#_Merchant marine: 84 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,826,756
GRT/6,932,981 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 7
refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off, 26 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 17 bulk; note - a flag of
convenience registry


_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft


_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m


_#_Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system;
52,670 telephones; stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations


_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Reserve
Constabulary

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
[email protected]_Bhutan
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 47,000 km2; land area: 47,000 km2


_#_Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana


_#_Land boundaries: 1,075 km total; China 470 km, India 605 km


_#_Coastline: none - landlocked


_#_Maritime claims: none - landlocked


_#_Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas


_#_Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna


_#_Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide,
tourism potential


_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 70%; other 23%


_#_Environment: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the
source of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon


_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India;
controls several key Himalayan mountain passes


_*_People
_#_Population: 1,598,216 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)


_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)


_#_Infant mortality rate: 135 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)


_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 48 years female (1991)


_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)


_#_Nationality: noun - Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective - Bhutanese


_#_Ethnic divisions: Bhote 60%, ethnic Nepalese 25%, indigenous or
migrant tribes 15%


_#_Religion: Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism 25%


_#_Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects - most widely spoken
dialect is Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects


_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)


_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and
commerce 2%; massive lack of skilled labor


_#_Organized labor: not permitted


_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Bhutan


_#_Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India


_#_Capital: Thimphu


_#_Administrative divisions: 18 districts (dzongkhag, singular
and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang, Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi,
Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi, Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang,
Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang


_#_Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)


_#_Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights


_#_Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


_#_National holiday: National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first
hereditary king), 17 December (1907)


_#_Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council,
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)


_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)


_#_Judicial branch: High Court


_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government - King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK
(since 24 July 1972)


_#_Political parties: no legal parties


_#_Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections


_#_Elections: no national elections


_#_Communists: no overt Communist presence


_#_Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Indian



Online LibraryUnited States. Central Intelligence AgencyThe 1991 CIA World Factbook → online text (page 9 of 89)