Produced by Al Haines
The World Factbook 1999
In general, information available as of 1 January 1999 was used in the
preparation of this edition.
The World Factbook is prepared by the Central Intelligence Agency for
the use of US Government officials, and the style, format, coverage,
and content are designed to meet their specific requirements.
Information is provided by the Bureau of the Census (Department of
Commerce), Bureau of Labor Statistics (Department of Labor), Central
Intelligence Agency, Council of Managers of National Antarctic
Programs, Defense Intelligence Agency (Department of Defense), Defense
Threat Reduction Agency (Department of Defense), Department of State,
Fish and Wildlife Service (Department of the Interior), Maritime
Administration (Department of Transportation), National Imagery and
Mapping Agency (Department of Defense), Antarctic Information Program
(National Science Foundation), Naval Facilities Engineering Command
(Department of Defense), Office of Insular Affairs (Department of the
Interior), Office of Naval Intelligence (Department of Defense), US
Board on Geographic Names (Department of the Interior), and other
public and private sources.
The Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied
freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The
official seal of the CIA, however, may NOT be copied without permission
as required by the CIA Act of 1949 (50 U.S.C. section 403m). Misuse of
the official seal of the CIA could result in civil and criminal
Comments and queries are welcome and may be addressed to:
Central Intelligence Agency
Attn.: Office of Public Affairs
Washington, DC 20505
Telephone:  (703) 482-0623
FAX:  (703) 482-1739
Antigua and Barbuda
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Bassas da India
Bosnia and Herzegovina
British Indian Ocean Territory
British Virgin Islands
Central African Republic
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Congo, Republic of the
Coral Sea Islands
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Holy See (Vatican City)
Juan de Nova Island
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of
Man, Isle of
Micronesia, Federated States of
Northern Mariana Islands
Papua New Guinea
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Sao Tome and Principe
Serbia and Montenegro
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
Taiwan entry follows Zimbabwe
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands
United Arab Emirates
Wallis and Futuna
Zaire (see Democratic Republic of the Congo)
B. United Nations System
C. International Organizations and Groups
D. Selected International Environmental Agreements
E. Weights and Measures
F. Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes
G. Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
H. Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
Notes and Definitions
In addition to the updating of information, the following
changes have been made in this edition of The World
Factbook. The name Wake Island has been officially changed
to Wake Atoll. The Historical perspective and Current issues
entries in the Introduction category have been combined into
a new Background entry. It appears in only a few country
profiles at this time. There are new entries on Population
below poverty line, Household income or consumption by
percentage share, Electricity - production by source (fossil
fuel, hydro, nuclear, other), Electricity - exports, and
Electricity - imports. A new reference map of Kosovo has been
included and terrain has been added to most of the reference
Abbreviations: This information is included in Appendix A:
Abbreviations, which includes all abbreviations and acronyms
used in the Factbook, with their expansions.
Administrative divisions: This entry generally gives the
numbers, designatory terms, and first-order administrative
divisions as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names
(BGN). Changes that have been reported but not yet acted on
by BGN are noted.
Age structure: This entry provides the distribution of the
population according to age. Information is included by sex
and age group (0-14 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over).
The age structure of a population affects a nation's key
socioeconomic issues. Countries with young populations (high
percentage under age 15) need to invest more in schools,
while countries with older populations (high percentage ages
65 and over) need to invest more in the health sector. The
age structure can also be used to help predict potential
political issues. For example, the rapid growth of a young
adult population unable to find employment can lead to
Agriculture - products: This entry is a rank ordering of major
crops and products starting with the most important.
Airports: This entry gives the total number of airports. The
runway(s) may be paved (concrete or asphalt surfaces) or
unpaved (grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces), but must be
usable. Not all airports have facilities for refueling,
maintenance, or air traffic control.
Airports - with paved runways: This entry gives the total
number of airports with paved runways (concrete or asphalt
surfaces). For airports with more than one runway, only the
longest runway is included according to the following five
groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047 m, (3) 1,524 to
2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under 914 m. Only
airports with usable runways are included in this listing.
Not all airports have facilities for refueling, maintenance,
or air traffic control.
Airports - with unpaved runways: This entry gives the total
number of airports with unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand,
or gravel surfaces). For airports with more than one runway,
only the longest runway is included according to the
following five groups - (1) over 3,047 m, (2) 2,438 to 3,047
m, (3) 1,524 to 2,437 m, (4) 914 to 1,523 m, and (5) under
914 m. Only airports with usable runways are included in
this listing. Not all airports have facilities for
refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control.
Appendixes: This section includes Factbook-related material
Area: This entry includes three subfields. Total area is the
sum of all land and water areas delimited by international
boundaries and/or coastlines. Land area is the aggregate of
all surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, excluding inland water bodies (lakes,
reservoirs, rivers). Water area is the sum of all water
surfaces delimited by international boundaries and/or
coastlines, including inland water bodies (lakes,
Area - comparative: This entry provides an area comparison
based on total area equivalents. Most entities are compared
with the entire US or one of the 50 states based on area
measurements (1990 revised) provided by the US Bureau of the
Census. The smaller entities are compared with Washington,
DC (178 sq km, 69 sq mi) or The Mall in Washington, DC (0.59
sq km, 0.23 sq mi, 146 acres).
Background: This entry usually highlights major historic
events, current issues, and may include a statement about
one or two key future trends. This entry appears for only a
few countries at the present time, but will be added to all
countries in the future.
Birth rate: This entry gives the average annual number of
births during a year per 1,000 persons in the population at
midyear; also known as crude birth rate. The birth rate is
usually the dominant factor in determining the rate of
population growth. It depends on both the level of fertility
and the age structure of the population.
Budget: This entry includes revenues, total expenditures,
and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an
exchange rate basis, i.e., not in purchasing power parity
Capital: This entry gives the location of the seat of
Climate: This entry includes a brief description of typical
weather regimes throughout the year.
Coastline: This entry gives the total length of the boundary
between the land area (including islands) and the sea.
Communications: This category deals with the means of
exchanging information and includes the telephone, radio,
and television entries.
Communications - note: This entry includes miscellaneous
communications information of significance not included
Constitution: This entry includes the dates of adoption,
revisions, and major amendments.
Country map: Most versions of the Factbook provide a country
map in color. The maps were produced from the best
information available at the time of preparation. Names
and/or boundaries may have changed subsequently.
Country name: This entry includes all forms of the country's
name approved by the US Board on Geographic Names (Italy is
used as an example): conventional long form (Italian
Republic), conventional short form (Italy), local long form
(Repubblica Italiana), local short form (Italia), former
(Kingdom of Italy), as well as the abbreviation. Also see
the Terminology note.
Currency: This entry identifies the national medium of
exchange and its basic subunit.
Data code: This entry gives the official US Government
digraph that precisely identifies every land entity without
overlap, duplication, or omission. AF, for example, is the
data code for Afghanistan. This two-letter country code is a
standardized geopolitical data element promulgated in the
Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (FIPS)
10-4 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology
at the US Department of Commerce and maintained by the
Office of the Geographer and Global Issues at the US
Department of State. The data code is used to eliminate
confusion and incompatibility in the collection, processing,
and dissemination of area-specific data and is particularly
useful for interchanging data between databases. Appendix F
cross-references various country data codes and Appendix G
does the same thing for hydrographic data codes.
Data codes - country: This information is presented in
Appendix F: Cross-Reference List of Country Data Codes which
includes the US Government approved Federal Information
Processing Standards (FIPS) codes, the International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) codes, and Internet
codes for land entities.
Data codes - hydrographic: This information is presented in
Appendix G: Cross-Reference List of Hydrographic Data Codes
which includes the International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) codes, Aeronautical Chart and Information Center
(ACIC; now National Imagery and Mapping Agency or NIMA)
codes, and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) codes for
hydrographic entities. The US Government has not yet
approved a standard for hydrographic data codes similar to
the FIPS 10-4 standard for country data codes.
Date of information: In general, information available as of
1 January 1999, was used in the preparation of this edition.
Death rate: This entry gives the average annual number of
deaths during a year per 1,000 population at midyear; also
known as crude death rate. The death rate, while only a
rough indicator of the mortality situation in a country,
accurately indicates the current mortality impact on
population growth. This indicator is significantly affected
by age distribution, and most countries will eventually show
a rise in the overall death rate, in spite of continued
decline in mortality at all ages, as declining fertility
results in an aging population.
Debt - external: This entry gives the total amount of public
foreign financial obligations.
Dependency status: This entry describes the formal
relationship between a particular nonindependent entity and
an independent state.
Dependent areas: This entry contains an alphabetical listing
of all nonindependent entities associated in some way with a
particular independent state.
Diplomatic representation: The US Government has diplomatic
relations with 184 independent states, including 178 of the
185 UN members (excluded UN members are Bhutan, Cuba, Iran,
Iraq, North Korea, former Yugoslavia, and the US itself). In
addition, the US has diplomatic relations with 6 independent
states that are not in the UN - Holy See, Kiribati, Nauru,
Switzerland, Tonga, and Tuvalu.
Diplomatic representation from the US: This entry includes
the chief of mission, embassy address, mailing address,
telephone number, FAX number, branch office locations,
consulate general locations, and consulate locations.
Diplomatic representation in the US: This entry includes the
chief of the foreign mission, chancery address, telephone
number, FAX number, consulate general locations, consulate
locations, honorary consulate general locations, and
honorary consulate locations.
Disputes - international: This entry includes a wide variety
of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary
disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another.
Information regarding disputes over international
terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the
US Department of State. References to other situations
involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as
resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist
issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute
official acceptance or recognition by the US Government.
Economic aid - donor: This entry refers to net official
development assistance (ODA) from OECD nations to developing
countries and multilateral organizations. ODA is defined as
financial assistance that is concessional in character, has
the main objective to promote economic development and
welfare of LDCs, and contains a grant element of at least
25%. The entry does not cover other official flows (OOF) or
Economic aid - recipient: This entry, which is subject to
major problems of definition and statistical coverage,
refers to the net inflow of Official Development Finance
(ODF) to recipient countries. The figure includes assistance
from the World Bank, the IMF, and other international
organizations and from individual nation donors. Formal
commitments of aid are included in the data. Omitted from
the data are grants by private organizations. Aid comes in
various forms including outright grants and loans. The entry
thus is the difference between new inflows and repayments.
Economy: This category includes the entries dealing with the
size, development, and management of productive resources,
i.e., land, labor, and capital.
Economy - overview: This entry briefly describes the type of
economy, including the degree of market orientation, the
level of economic development, the most important natural
resources, and the unique areas of specialization. It also
characterizes major economic events and policy changes in
the most recent 12 months and may include a statement about
one or two key future macroeconomic trends.
Electricity - consumption: This entry consists of total
electricity generated annually plus imports and minus
exports, expressed in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - exports: This entry is the total exported
electricity in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - imports: This entry is the total imported
electricity in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - production: This entry is the annual electricity
generated expressed in kilowatt hours.
Electricity - production by source: This entry indicates the
percentage share of annual electricity production of each
energy source. These are fossil fuel, hydro, nuclear, and
other (solar, geothermal, and wind).
Elevation extremes: This entry includes both the highest
point and the lowest point.
Entities: Some of the independent states, dependencies,
areas of special sovereignty, and governments included in
this publication are not independent, and others are not
officially recognized by the US Government. "Independent
state" refers to a people politically organized into a
sovereign state with a definite territory. "Dependencies"
and "areas of special sovereignty" refer to a broad category
of political entities that are associated in some way with
an independent state. "Country" names used in the table of
contents or for page headings are usually the short-form
names as approved by the US Board on Geographic Names and
may include independent states, dependencies, and areas of
special sovereignty, or other geographic entities. There are
a total of 266 separate geographic entities in The World
Factbook that may be categorized as follows:
191 Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Antigua
and Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria,
Azerbaijan, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados,
Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Brunei, Bulgaria,
Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada,
Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China,
Colombia, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo,
Republic of the Congo, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire,
Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,
Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El
Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia,
Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, The Gambia, Georgia,
Germany, Ghana, Greece, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea,
Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Holy See, Honduras,
Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya,
Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan,
Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, The Former Yugoslav
Republic of Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia,
Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania,
Mauritius, Mexico, Federated States of Micronesia,
Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia,
Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands, NZ, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria,
Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea,
Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qatar,
Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint
Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San
Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal,
Serbia and Montenegro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone,
Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia,
South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname,
Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Tajikistan,
Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago,
Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, Ukraine,
UAE, UK, US, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela,
Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
DEPENDENCIES AND AREAS OF SPECIAL SOVEREIGNTY
6 Australia - Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island
and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
1 China - Hong Kong
2 Denmark - Faroe Islands, Greenland
16 France - Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern and
Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Guadeloupe, Juan de
Nova Island, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia, Reunion,
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Tromelin Island, Wallis and
2 Netherlands - Aruba, Netherlands Antilles
3 New Zealand - Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
3 Norway - Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
1 Portugal - Macau
15 UK - Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands,
Gibraltar, Guernsey, Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat,
Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
14 US - American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway
Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra
Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Atoll
6 Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands, Spratly Islands,
West Bank, Western Sahara
4 oceans - Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean,
Environment - current issues: This entry lists the most
pressing and important environmental problems.
Environment - international agreements: This entry separates
country participation in international environmental
agreements into two levels - party to and signed but not
ratified. Agreements are listed in alphabetical order by the
abbreviated form of the full name.
Environmental agreements: This information is presented in
Appendix D: Selected International Environmental Agreements,
which includes the name, abbreviation, date opened for
signature, date entered into force, objective, and parties
Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic
groups starting with the largest and normally includes the
percent of total population.
Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of a
country's monetary unit at a given date or over a given
period of time, as expressed in units of local currency per
US dollar and as determined by international market forces
or official fiat.
Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields.
Chief of state includes the name and title of the titular
leader of the country who represents the state at official
and ceremonial functions but may not be involved with the