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Inland barge and tug industry safety : hearing before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on the safety of the inland tug and barge industry and investigate the circumst online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on MerchInland barge and tug industry safety : hearing before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on the safety of the inland tug and barge industry and investigate the circumst → online text (page 1 of 9)
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INLAND BARGE AND TUG INDUSTRY SAFETY



Y 4. N 53: 103-73

Inland Barge and Tug Industry Saf et. . .

5UBUUMM11 TJBilS ON

COAST GUARD AND NAVIGATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

MEECHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON

THE SAFETY OF THE INLAND TUG AND BARGE INDUS-
TRY AND INVESTIGATE THE CIRCUMSTANCES SUR-
ROUNDING TWO FATAL BRIDGE ACCIDENTS INVOLV-
ING THIS INDUSTRY



OCTOBER 12, 1993



Serial No. 103-73



Printed for the use of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
75-164 ±5 WASHINGTON : 1994



APR 1 3 /S94



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-043602-8



INLAND BARGE AND TUG INDUSTRY SAFETY



Y 4. n 53: 103-73



jr



Inland Barge and Tug Industry Safet. . .

OUJ5UUMMlTXJ!iJil ON

COAST GUAED AND NAVIGATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON

MEKCHANT MAKINE AND FISHERIES

HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION

ON

THE SAFETY OF THE INLAND TUG AND BARGE INDUS-
TRY AND INVESTIGATE THE CIRCUMSTANCES SUR-
ROUNDING TWO FATAL BRIDGE ACCIDENTS INVOLV-
ING THIS INDUSTRY



OCTOBER 12, 1993



Serial No. 103-73



Printed for the use of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries







APR 13



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
75-164 ±5 WASHINGTON : 1994



"* a assa ffi r



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-043602-8



COMMITTEE ON MERCHANT MARINE AND FISHERIES
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts, Chairman



WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey

EARL HUTTO, Florida

W.J. (BILLY) TAUZIN, Louisiana

WILLIAM O. LIPINSKI, Illinois

SOLOMON P. ORTIZ, Texas

THOMAS J. MANTON, New York

OWEN B. PICKETT, Virginia

GEORGE J. HOCHBRUECKNER, New York

FRANK PALLONE, Jr., New Jersey

GREG LAUGHLIN, Texas

JOLENE UNSOELD, Washington

GENE TAYLOR, Mississippi

JACK REED, Rhode Island

H. MARTIN LANCASTER, North Carolina

THOMAS H. ANDREWS, Maine

ELIZABETH FURSE, Oregon

LYNN SCHENK, California

GENE GREEN, Texas

ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida

DAN HAMBURG, California

BLANCHE M. LAMBERT, Arkansas

ANNA G. ESHOO, California

THOMAS J. BARLOW, III, Kentucky

BART STUPAK, Michigan

BENNIE G. THOMPSON, Mississippi

MARIA CANTWELL, Washington

PETER DEUTSCH, Florida

GARY L. ACKERMAN, New York



JACK FIELDS, Texas

DON YOUNG, Alaska

HERBERT H. BATEMAN, Virginia

JIM SAXTON, New Jersey

HOWARD COBLE, North Carolina

CURT WELDON, Pennsylvania

JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma

ARTHUR RAVENEL, Jr., South Carolina

WAYNE T. GILCHREST, Maryland

RANDY "DUKE" CUNNINGHAM, California

JACK KINGSTON, Georgia

TILLIE K. FOWLER, Florida

MICHAEL N. CASTLE, Delaware

PETER T. KING, New York

LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART, Florida

RICHARD W. POMBO, California

HELEN DELICH BENTLEY, Maryland

CHARLES H. TAYLOR, North Carolina

PETER G. TORKILDSEN, Massachusetts



Jeffrey R. Pike, Chief of Staff

Thomas R. Kitsos, Chief Counsel

Mary J. Fusco Kitsos, Chief Clerk

Harry F. Burroughs, Minority Staff Director



Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation



W.J. (BILLY) TAUZIN
WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey
EARL HUTTO, Florida
H. MARTIN LANCASTER, North Carolina
THOMAS J. BARLOW HI, Kentucky
BART STUPAK, Michigan
WILLIAM O. LIPINSKI, Illinois
OWEN B. PICKETT, Virginia
GEORGE J. HOCHBRUECKNER, New York
FRANK PALLONE, Jr., New Jersey
GREG LAUGHLIN, Texas
LYNN SCHENK, California
ALCEE L. HASTINGS, Florida
BLANCHE M. LAMBERT, Arkansas
GENE TAYLOR, Mississippi
GERRY E. STUDDS, Massachusetts
(Ex Officio)



Louisiana, Chairman
HOWARD COBLE, North Carolina
HERBERT H. BATEMAN, Virginia
WAYNE T. GILCHREST, Maryland
TILLIE K. FOWLER, Florida
MICHAEL N. CASTLE, Delaware
PETER T. KING, New York
LINCOLN DIAZ-BALART, Florida
JAMES M. INHOFE, Oklahoma
RICHARD W. POMBO, California
JACK FIELDS, Texas (Ex Officio)



Elizabeth Megginson, Staff Director/Counsel

James Adams, Professional Staff
Ed Lee, Minority Professional Staff



(II)



CONTENTS



Page

Hearing held October 12, 1993 1

Statement of:

Allegretti, Thomas A., Senior Vice President, Operations, American Wa-
terways Operators 30

Prepared statement 46

Card, Rear Admiral James C, Eighth District Commander, U.S. Coast

Guard 6

Prepared statement 53

Coble, Hon. Howard, a U.S. Representative from North Carolina, and
Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Naviga-
tion 3

Cothen, Grady, Assistant Administrator for Safety, Federal Railroad Ad-
ministration 6

Fields, Hon. Jack, a U.S. Representative from Texas, and Ranking Minor-
ity Member, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries 3

Reagle, George, Director, Office of Surface Transportation Safety, Nation-
al Transportation Safety Board 4

Prepared statement 50

Stupak, Hon. Bart, a U.S. Representative from Michigan 4

Sullivan, Dennis F., Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Offi-
cer, National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak) 10

Prepared statement 78

Tauzin, Hon. W.J. (Billy), a U.S. Representative from Louisiana, and

Chairman, Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation 1

Tinkey, Jerry, Vice President of Operations, Ingram Barge Company 30

Turner, Terry, National Director, Political Action and Governmental Re-
lations, Seafarers International Union 30, 32

Prepared statement 70

Additional material supplied:
Coast Guard:

Bridge lighting 17

Restricted visibility navigation 21

Turner, Terry (SIU): Part 118— Bridge Lighting and Other Signals 77

Communications submitted:

Cothen, Grady C, Jr. (DOT): Letter of October 25, 1993, to Hon. Billy
Tauzin 68

<m>



INLAND TUG AND BARGE INDUSTRY SAFETY



TUESDAY, OCTOBER 12, 1993

House of Representatives,
Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation,
Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries,

Washington, DC.
The Subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10:05 a.m., in room
1334, Longworth House Office Building, Hon. W. J. (Billy) Tauzin
(Chairman of the Subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Representatives Tauzin, Barlow, Stupak, Taylor, and
Coble.

Staff Present: Elizabeth Megginson, Matt Szigety, Catherine
Tucker, Bill Wright, Jim Adams, Douglas Cheramie, Sue Waldron,
Lee Crockett, Joan Bondareff, Harry Burroughs, Cyndi Wilkinson,
Ed Lee, and Margherita Woods.

STATEMENT OF HON. W. J. TAUZIN, A U.S. REPRESENTATIVE
FROM LOUISIANA, AND CHAIRMAN, SUBCOMMITTEE ON COAST
GUARD AND NAVIGATION

Mr. Tauzin. The subcommittee will please come to order.

We will meet today to receive testimony on the circumstances
surrounding two fatal bridge accidents involving towboats and
barges and to discuss the safety of the inland tug and barge indus-
try in .general.

Amtrak's Sunset Limited derailed on September 22 while cross-
ing the Big Bayou Canot Bridge north of Mobile, Alabama, killing
47 people. Earlier this year, on May 28, a woman was killed when
her car plunged off the Judge Seeber Bridge in New Orleans. Both
bridges were struck by barges.

Just yesterday, again another bridge was struck by a barge.

On September 30, Secretary Federico Pena directed the Comman-
dant of the Coast Guard to review the adequacy of towboat man-
ning requirements, the adequacy of marine casualty reporting re-
quirements, and the history of incidents involving operators of the
uninspected towing vessels. I commend the Secretary and the Com-
mandant for this effort, and I look forward to receiving the results.

The Secretary called us a minute ago to wish us well on the
hearings and to assure us of his untiring efforts to find solutions to
the tragic accidents.

While we wait for the Coast Guard's industry review, I am going
to initiate the process toward improving the safety of our inland
waterways. This afternoon I will introduce The Towing Vessel
Navigational Safety Act of 1993. The bill was drafted to fill the

(1)



gaping hole that currently exists in the regulation of uninspected
towing vessels.

I understand that when the Coast Guard boarded the towboat
that struck the Big Bayou Canot Bridge, they found its wheelhouse
lacked a nautical chart of the area that it was attempting to navi-
gate. What is even more surprising is that the vessel was not re-
quired to carry a chart. Small wonder that the captain wandered
off course. For that matter, the vessel was not required to carry a
compass, radar, a fathometer, or any navigational equipment. The
only equipment that was required in the wheelhouse was a radio.
My bill will simply mandate that all towing vessels must carry
basic navigational tools.

In addition, my bill will underscore the importance of The
Towing Vessel Manning Report that has been initiated by the
Coast Guard. Human error by licensed personnel caused both of
the accidents that we will hear about today in all probability. It is
time to review the Coast Guard's manning and training standards
for uninspected towing vessels.

Finally, I want to recognize the valiant efforts of those Amtrak
and Coast Guard personnel who courageously responded to the
chaos that must have followed the Sunset Limited derailment. I
look forward to hearing the views of our distinguished panel of wit-
nesses, and I ask that each you please summarize your testimony.
Your written statements will be made a part of the hearing record
as is our procedure.

Gentlemen and ladies, a single isolated barge bridge accident is
one thing. When they come in a series and when they begin to
produce the toll of injuries and deaths that we have seen in recent
days, I believe it is incumbent upon all of us to find out why and to
do expeditiously what can be done to assure that lives are not lost
in the future in similar accidents.

We have already found some areas that immediately need im-
provement. It is our hope, in these hearings, that we can find re-
maining errors and we can begin to plug those holes and have a
safer industry, both for the maritime industry and for rail and
bridge traffic.

In that regard, we will be looking at the availability of new tech-
nology, including the new satellite positioning technology, to see
whether or not, in fact, that technology can help us in this and
similar incidents.

On November 12, we will be conducting a field hearing in Louisi-
ana to look at the river situation. We are about to introduce a
whole bunch of gambling vessels to the river scene already clut-
tered with barges and vessels carrying all sorts of dangerous car-
goes.

The introduction of passenger vessels with many people revelling
and gambling and having a good time on the Mississippi river is
one that disturbs us as we begin to consider how safe our naviga-
tional systems are and how safe our river systems are.

Today is the beginning of that process. November 12 we will
focus on the Mississippi River itself and on the area that has been
identified by the Coast Guard as the greatest port need in America,
the area from the mouth of the river to Baton Rouge where there
is not even a single vessel traffic system installed. We are still



waiting for the appropriation and execution of funds to install such
a system.

Ladies and gentlemen, thanks for coming today and for sharing
your views with us. We will ask for your summaries in a second.

Let me recognize the Ranking Minority Member, Howard Coble,
my dear friend for his opening statement.

STATEMENT OF HON. HOWARD COBLE, A U.S. REPRESENTATIVE
FROM NORTH CAROLINA, AND RANKING MINORITY MEMBER,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON COAST GUARD AND NAVIGATION

Mr. Coble. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to thank you for
calling this very important hearing. And this, as you point out, Mr.
Chairman, was, indeed, tragic the matter between the Amtrak
Sunset Limited and the North Claiborne Bridge. And I think this
strongly illustrates that our subcommittee should examine very
closely and perhaps even consider amending — and perhaps your
proposed bills will do this — the current manning and equipment re-
quirements for inland towing vessels.

I will also be interested in hearing the Federal investigative
agencies' and other witnesses' explanation of this of the inconsist-
encies that appear in the reports of the crew members of the Mau-
villa.

I am particularly concerned about the 15-minute time period
delay between the Sunset Limited's derailment and the report of
this tragedy to the Coast Guard.

Thinking aloud now, Mr. Chairman, I realize it is easy for us to
sit here and apply 20-20 hindsight; but I am thinking what could
have been done had a timely report been made immediately? Per-
haps the entire episode could have been avoided.

I recall the Valdez oil spill, one of the salient omissions that
plagued everybody was the matter of delay, not timely responding.
And I would hope that we would apply corrective measures to cor-
rect omissions of previous tragedies. They don't have to be identi-
cal. We don't have to wait to apply corrective measures to the next
oil spill. We can apply them to results of tornadoes, hurricanes,
and yes, even train wrecks.

And so I hope today, Mr. Chairman, this will be illustrative and
revealing; and I expect it will be.

And, Mr. Chairman, I would like with your permission to enter
into the record the statement of Congressman Fields, the Gentle-
man from Texas.

Mr. Tauzin. Without objection.

[The statement of Mr. Fields follows:]

Statement of Hon. Jack Fields, a U.S. Representative from Texas, and
Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries

I commend the Chairman of the Subcommittee for holding this hearing today, and
hope that our witnesses will be able to shed some light on the causes of these tragic
incidents. Later this year, the official investigations on these accidents will be com-
plete, giving us additional information to consider.

As these accidents show, safety on the waterways is important to protect not only
the lives of crew members who work on the water, but also the lives of individuals
travelling on bridges and other areas around the water. We must increase safety
standards to prevent fatal accidents of this type from occurring again, and I support
early action to make these changes to the law.



Mr. Tauzin. I want to commend the gentleman for highlighting
that big concern. I hope we get some answers today on why there
was such a long delay in reporting the Amtrak accident. We need
to know what could have been done or what should have been done
to expedite the reporting of the accident to the Coast Guard. Are
we equipped to transmit emergency information to the Coast
Guard and Amtrak to avoid similar accidents in the future? We
will be exploring the answer to that question, we hope, in these
hearings today.

I turn now to Mr. Stupak for an opening statement.

STATEMENT OF HON. BART STUPAK, A U.S. REPRESENTATIVE
FROM MICHIGAN

Mr. Stupak. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I will be very brief.

Having been a law enforcement officer for 13 years and having
done a lot of accident investigations, I look forward to this testimo-
ny today. Like other Members of this group, I have plenty of ques-
tions, and I look forward to answers and look forward to working
on this very important issue and look forward to your hearings in
November and viewing the scene a little better.

Mr. Tauzin. The gentleman from Mississippi, Mr. Taylor.

Mr. Taylor. I have no opening.

Mr. Tauzin. The Chair is pleased to welcome our first panel of
witnesses and to call your attention to the fact that the Washing-
ton Post yesterday contained a story entitled "The Recent Bridge
Accident, A Scene Of The Wakeup Call On Safety." As you know,
this has caught the Nation's attention. This tragic scene in Mobile
is one that is still fresh in the Nation's mind, and we want to know
why, what happened, and what we can do to avoid it.

We are pleased to welcome Mr. George Reagle, Director of the
Office of Surface Transportation Safety National Transportation
Safety Board; Rear Admiral James Card, Eighth District Com-
mander, United States Coast Guard, accompanied by Mr. Grady
Cothen, Assistant Administrator for Safety Federal Railroad Ad-
ministration; and Mr. Dennis Sullivan, Executive Vice President
and Chief Operating Officer of the National Railroad Passenger
Corporation.

We will begin with you, Mr. Reagle.

STATEMENT OF GEORGE REAGLE, DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF SUR-
FACE TRANSPORTATION SAFETY, NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION
SAFETY BOARD

Mr. Reagle. Thank you. Good morning, Mr. Chairman and mem-
bers of the subcommittee.

Before I begin, I might mention in addition to the accident you
mentioned on Lake Ponchartrain, I believe on Sunday, there was
also an accident in Alabama involving a tow and a barge that hit a
bridge on the Mobile River. So we have another additional acci-
dent.

Mr. Tauzin. Mr. Reagle, also just for purposes of introducing this
subject, this morning we all saw a news story that the very bridge
in which this Amtrak accident occurred was struck in 1931, a simi-
lar accident.



Are you aware of that accident?

Mr. Reagle. I am not certain of that.

Mr. Tauzin. There was a story in New Orleans just this weekend
on it. It seems to be a tragic reoccurrence of something that hap-
pened years ago.

Mr. Reagle. As you mentioned, the Safety Board is currently in-
vestigating two accidents in which a bridge was struck by a marine
vessel. The most recent accident occurred on September 22nd, 1993.
The Amtrak Sunset Limited, derailed on a CSX Transportation, In-
corporated, railroad bridge over the Big Bayou Canot near Mobile,
Alabama. The entire train derailed, and one span and the timber
trestle were destroyed. Forty-seven people were killed.

On the morning of September 22, 1993, the towboat Mauvilla
proceeding up the Mobile River from Mobile, Alabama, to Birming-
ham, Alabama, pushing six barges, became lost due to dense fog.
Prior to the derailment, the crew thought they had run aground;
however, the preliminary information indicates that the tow may
have struck the railroad bridge.

NTSB investigators are currently examining all aspects of the ac-
cident, including the track, the signal system, the condition of the
bridge and the bridge permit and inspection records, vessel traffic
in the bayou, aids to navigation, Coast Guard and company over-
sight of towboat operations and practices, the U.S. Corps of Engi-
neers oversight of the waterway, towboat operating requirements
and practices, towboat employee qualifications and training, the
condition of the towboat Mauvilla and on-board equipment, and the
towboat's maintenance records.

Another accident currently under investigation occurred May 28,
1993, in New Orleans, Louisiana, when the U.S. towboat Chris,
pushing an empty hopper barge, hit the Judge Seeber Bridge. The
impact resulted in the collapse of a bridge pier and 145 feet of the
bridge's deck. The bridge deck fell onto the barge and into the New
Orleans Inner Harbor Navigational Canal. Two automobiles con-
taining three persons also fell killing one of the motorists and criti-
cally injuring two others.

As a result of this accident, the canal was closed to all navigation
traffic for approximately 30 hours and the bridge was closed to
highway traffic for two months. The damage to the bridge was ap-
proximately 1.5 million and to the barge 7,000. Towboat Chris was
undamaged.

Federal bridge permitting procedures including pier protection
were discussed in a recent Safety Board hearing by U.S. Coast
Guard representatives, and testimony was also presented on rail-
road bridge pier protection practices over navigable waterways.

The Safety Board issued its first safety recommendation regard-
ing the collapse of a bridge struck by a vessel following an accident
that occurred on November 7, 1972, in Brunswick Georgia. Since
that time, many safety recommendations have been issued to pre-
vent collisions with bridges by marine vessels.

The recommendations have been related to the following issues:
improved bridge protection devices, vehicle barriers and warning
devices, bridge marking systems; improving the information avail-
able to towboat operators who are required to navigate under
bridges; requiring that towboat operators be tested on their local



knowledge of waterway on which they navigate; and, finally, bridge
vulnerability risk assessments.

The Safety Board believes that much positive work has been ac-
complished in these areas but, as evidenced by these two recent
tragic accidents mentioned, more is needed.

Again, the Safety Board welcomes the opportunity to appear
before you, Mr. Chairman. And I would be pleased to answer any
questions you may have.

Mr. Tauzin. Thank you very much.

The young lady that was killed in New Orleans at the Judge
Seeber Bridge was also carrying a child, and, in fact, two lives were
lost in that tragic accident.

[The statement of Mr. Reagle may be found at end of hearing.]

Mr. Tauzin. We will now hear and welcome Rear Admiral James
Card.

STATEMENT OF REAR ADMIRAL JAMES C. CARD, EIGHTH DIS-
TRICT COMMANDER, UNITED STATES COAST GUARD; ACCOMPA-
NIED BY: GRADY COTHEN, ASSISTANT ADMINISTRATOR FOR
SAFETY, FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION

Admiral Card. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

I am Admiral Jim Card, and I am the Coast Guard Commander
of the Eighth Coast Guard District, which is headquartered in New
Orleans. Our district includes the areas where these accidents
under investigation took place.

Coming before you to discuss these tragic events surrounding the
Judge Seeber Bridge accident on the 28th of May and the Amtrak
derailment on the 22nd of September is deeply disturbing to me,
but accidents such as these demand that we review our oversight
and regulatory policies concerning the Nation's inland marine
transportation industry.

We in the Coast Guard have a paramount interest in the safety
of the people who travel over the water as well as those on the
water. All of us in the Coast Guard work hard to minimize the
number and the magnitude of marine accidents through regulation
and education. Yet, here I sit today to discuss the nature of and the
facts surrounding two accidents where vessels engaged in marine
commerce appear to have resulted in the premature deaths of
many of our fellow citizens.

We in the Coast Guard are striving to do all that we can to make
the waterways of this Nation safer. We will review our regulatory
oversight policies, and we want to work with the Congress, and
your subcommittee particularly, to prevent similar accidents in the
future.

On the 27th of September, as a result of these accidents, the
Commandant of the Coast Guard, as directed by the Secretary of
Transportation, ordered a complete review of the Coast Guard reg-
ulation and oversight of inland marine transportation system. This
review should be completed in December and will be available to
you when it is.

The areas of review include: one, the adequacy and the effective-
ness of the requirements for licensing of uninspected towing vessel
operators; two, the history of incidents involving operators of unin-



spected towing vessels; three, the adequacy of the requirements for
reporting marine accidents and hazardous conditions involving ves-
sels and the adequacy of penalties for failure to report such acci-
dents; and, four, the adequacy of the aids to navigation system for
marking bridges and for marking the approaches to bridges over
navigable waterways and the adequacy of navigation equipment re-
quirements for uninspected vessels.

And although I cannot tell you today what the result of that is
going to be, I can tell you some of the details surrounding the cir-
cumstances and what we are doing in the operational command
about this.

You have heard a summary of both of the accidents. Let me indi-
cate a few other things having to do with the Judge Seeber Bridge
accident. The towing vessel Chris was pushed into the bank just
above the bridge waiting to go through the industrial lock. That is
not uncommon for that area.

According to our records, some 40,000 vessels transit through
that lock every year. And also our records show there have been
almost no accidents in this area before this time.

As they were waiting in that area, they had a problem with one
of their engines and the captain of the vessel went down below to
help with that. When he went down below, the towboat moved off
the bank and slid down toward an unprotected part of the bridge;
and you heard the results.

Following that accident, the towing vessel operator was charged


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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on MerchInland barge and tug industry safety : hearing before the Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Navigation of the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on the safety of the inland tug and barge industry and investigate the circumst → online text (page 1 of 9)