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United States. Congress. House. Committee on the J.

Heroin trafficking : hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 29, 1994 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JHeroin trafficking : hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 29, 1994 → online text (page 7 of 8)
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1993, heroin arrests bcreaaed, accounting for 25% of Narcotics Divinon arrea^



industry people.
I teroin is in Stct

arrests made by
te emergence of

However, by



73



NYPD NARCOTICt DIViaiON HfROIN AlMUITI
r AOi BY YIAR




1MB 1U1 1M in) tIM 1MI «•«



(CHART A) "1994 1^ six roootb



Recent Norootios Division statistics for heroin arrcits and leizures (Sec Chart 3). treatmem
admiasioni (See Chart C). and emergency room cases, iodkate that heroin uai is apparently oo
the rise ia the New York City area. Heroin'i availiUliiy; high quality, aflbrdit Uity, and apparent
perception that when snorted or imoked, is leu addictive than intraveoauB u*« , h»s the narcotic
enfbrcement community concerned.



74



NYPD NARCOTICS DIVISION HEROIN S€iZUR65| IN
POUNDS



10M




(CHART B)



DAWN MPORT
NYC HOSPtTAU ADMISSIONS
H6ROIN AS PRIMARY DRUC



14000

12000

10OO0

BOCO

6000

4000

tooo





mse




ISM i«i 1M7 im i«n laf ini mi | i



(CHART C)



75



^f^ ^nrAUAnuRlL fTY f^r,n PVRITY. AFFORDABILITX

It is undispufd that heroin is retdUy available in N«w York and at a high Icvclj of purity
Historically, in the New York ^ her. rn rct.il purity level, ranged from 3 . 1 0^». Smce 1985,
New York's drug enforcement community has reported . surge m purity IcvelslcSce Chart D)



lty.C HEROIN AVCRAOE PWUTY IXVELi Pk)




•■■" " wr «« »•• »•" ~^ '•" "" "'"•
(Chart D) ••1994 JANUARY THRU MARC3i

There are sevenJ viable theories for the subatantial inaeasc m purity Icvds. lo>|.cr pnccs. and
inaeascdavailabiUty of heroin. Theyinchide factors such as:

rrfiiffirftrmfnmffrrlr— -^-^"'^*^ - ^ ^° p^"""' ""^'4 "" '""^^''°'"

the mid IQSffs srv a stockpU. of Southw«t A«an (SWA) and South« rt As.an (SEA)
heroin put on the market. SEA trafficker, capitalized on these conditions and garnered.

l„ger shar. of the market Historically, SEA has tended to produce a hjgher purity of
heroin, although recent data has shown SWA has increwed in purity.

^fgrafcrntoM-ThcDEADomesticMonho^ pt^gram indicatd, that high punty
Colombian herein is prcs«tly on the streets on New York Current intelligence has



4-



76



discovered that Colombu has increued its poppy cultivation twofold
relatively new source of herolo is coniributtng not only to higher purit;
overall supply aa well.



Therefore, this
es, but to the



Fear of Aids - drug usen fear of contracting this disease may, in part, )t responsible for
the dechne in intravenous use of heroin. Intravenous iivection of heroir reqmres lower
purity levels to attain the desired effects of the drug On the other hand , to anair. similar
effects, intranasal "snorting" requires heroin of much higher purity levtj Also, ncv^ users
may be drawn to available high purity heroin



WHERE IS HEROIN COMING FROM?



SOURCE COUNT RIES AND TRAFFICKERS

Currently, sources indicate the majority of heroin reaching the streets ofacv, \ ork is coming &om
Southeast Asia. However, recent intelligence indicates the presence of heroin rom Southwest
Asia, the former Soviet Union, and Colon^ia. A conaidoiable number of rccen seizures of
Colombian heroin had purity levels in the mid to high 90 percent range Here In enters New
York via commercial airlines and flraightar ships. Tba drug is smuggled In com nercial cargo,
personal higgage, and in body cavitiN.



In addition to traditional organiztd crima (TOC) groupa, various vthnic groupi
Pakistani, Wtot Africans , Colonnbians, and most recently, Russians, ara
mid-level heroin distribution. Historically, when heroin from Southwest Asia
the New York market, TOC groups, with close ties in Italy, were mainly i
smuggling and local distributioa Then, as heroin from Southeast Asia began
in the New York market, ethnic Chinese became the main uafBckers. In



auch as Chinesa,
raspoJMibla for local,

( SWA) dominated
invol^ in the

increase its share
idditjon, successful



til



77



prosecution of major TOC groups helped to reduce their role In heroin tr&fBdi ing. Recent cues,
however, hive showed TOC groups are still invoNed. In 1993, The New Yo k Police
Department's Narcotics Division concluded a three year investigation into here in trafiiclang
Dubbed "Operation Bigshot', the case revealed ties between TOC groups aAd|S£A heroin



New York City street level heroin distribution is predominately controlled by Hispanic groups
Th« uM of brand namat, usually itamptd on the glatsint cnvriopea, allows pol ential customers to
easily identify and purchase heroin that ia aiiumed to be high quality. Brand ni rees luch at "Death
Wish, " 1>0A," "Final Notice," "Suicide," and 'Kit* of Death," imply that the leroin is to
powerful it could kill the user. Other brand names, such as 'High Voltage," "IGgh Class.* and
'Big Shot," point to the alleged efiEects of a heroin high. In New Yoric, gloasii «B are usually, sold
for S 10



In Manhattan, heroin appears predoaunatdy in the Lower East Side and. in thi north, in East
Harlem. In the Lower East Side, the heroin trade is controlled by Dominican originating from
Brooklyn and Chinese gangs in Chinatown. Recent brand names inchide, *Gu( id," "Express," and
"Poison." In East Harlem, Hispanic groups control the street trade Brand nu nes include
•Poison," "Sil%xr Bullet,' "Hot City," aad "Hot Party"



Heroin is readily available in several precincts in the South Bronx. Heroin salei , for the most part,
are confined to retail and street levels and are operated by Puerto Ricana, A^ an Araericanfl, and
Dominicans. Brand names Indude "The End." " Attraction." "Renegade,* and /^acbc*.



In Queens, heroin is mainly available in the areas of Jackson Heights, where iflspanics dominate
the trade, and Jannaica. u4iere Aihcan Americans control sales Brand names a|e "Bazooka" and
'Black Ram ' Other locations inchide parts of Ridgewotxi and Hillside.



78



In Brooklyn'} Williamiburg section, Hispanics are involved in the heroin tredd when brand
names such as "The End" and "NYNEX" can be purchased In the East New ' fork section,
Hispanics dominate heroin operations. "Poison. "Gucci.** and "9 1/2 Plus* are brard names sold
here. The Bushwick area is a m^or heroin center in Brooklyn Hispanics sell Toison." 'Replay.'
and "9 1/2 Plus." Lastly, Sunset Park boasts 'The End,' with Hispanics th^ main sellers



In Staten Island, herob can be purchased in the area of New Brighton. H«rt, ^c«r Amricana
sell heroin called "Death Row" and "High Power".



.7



79



HEROIN DISTRIBUTION NEtWORK



HEROIN COST
$500 PER UNIT



HEROIN PRODUCING
COUNTRIES & TRAFFICKERS



1 UNIT = 700 GRAMS



MAJOR POINTS OF ENTRY
NEW YORK- NEW JERSEY



HEROIN COST
AT THIS LEVEL
$4,000
PER UNIT



UPPER LEVEL DISTRIBUTORS
CHINESE, TOC, COLOMBIANS,
NIGERIANS, RUSSIANS, PAKISTANI



COST AT
THIS LEVEL
$70,000
PER UNIT



MID - LEVEL
DRUG ORGANIZATIONS

DISTRIBUTORS TO STREET LEVEL MANAGERS



STREET LEVEL MANAGERS DISTfjlBUTE
HEROIN TO STREET LEVEL DEALERS



STEERERS



BTREET LEVEL DEALERS SELL
THEIR CUSTOMERS



TO



lUNIT CONVERTED TO $10 GLASSINES
TRANSLATES TO A $210,000 PROFIIt



LOOK
OUTS



• ••



80



WHA T IS HEROIN'S IMPACT?

Heroin ibuM ctoism racial, social, and eoonomio lines Heroin impacts on qi ality of life, crime,
overaowding of medical facilities, and productivity in the woritplacc. There i: no segment of
American society immune from this drug's devasiaiing effects. Addiiionally. hjgher pumy levels
are also altering the user profile



Traditionally, the heroin u««r WM older, (over 30), leas vd'ell off" financially, n aiding in the inner
city and using injection as the method of ingestion. WWc the majority of cur xn: users fit this
pattern, a younger, more affluent, college oriented user is emerging. In additi on, according to
recent usa surveys, the methods of ingestion appear to be changing in New Yprk



In coniiast to some other parts of the country, inhalation li Increasing in New York Reasons for
this change may be two-fold; high purity herom affords the inrravenous user t le opportuniry to
snon or smoke the drug, thereby reducing the chances of contacting diseases • uch as AIDS The
high punty may attract the new user who previously was afraid of the hazards of injecting.
However, according to some medical expens and substance abuse counselors, many people are
finally driven to move up from amoldng and snorting heroin to injecting Thij process could be
exacerbated ifcurrent purity levels decline. The prospect of an increased intrivenous population
does not fare well for a city already &cing a mAJor AIDS problem



High purity heroin also allows intravenous users to stretch their dollar For ex unple. a person
who is injecting heroin at 20% purity, can now get three to four injections frot i the same amount
of heroin at 60 to 80% purity Thii preiumea the uaer knows what the purity fevel is and cuts or
dilutes accordingly, if not, the likelihood of ovtrdoiing incrtasct.



9'



81



In Auguit of 1994, th« mediod examiaer'i ofSce confinncd the death of in inc ividual torn



injwting high purity heroin. This death was tied to a brand name 'China Cat'



thirteen other deaths, all in Manhattan, were believed to be the result of this h< roin. Final
toxicology tests, however, showed these thinecn deaths were not attributed tc "China Cat^
heroin Two died of natural causes, four died from ingestion of cocaine alone, uu) the remaining
seven died from a mixture of heroin and cocaine. These seven deaths support! the position that
many cocaine users are usmg heroin In the event of apparent lethal overdose l, such as the



"China Cat" case, user^ will seek to purchase the brand name associated with
believing they can control the dosage, and reap the benefits of its high purity.



Within four days,



he overdose.



lAWFNFnRCFMPNT

The New York City Police Department's approach to narcotics enforcement ii m aD
mcompassing strategy. 'V^'hether a heroin , crack or other drug problem existi within a
community, the problems are similar: rising crime, the deterioration of Lves, th ! detoioration of
our homes and neighborhoods.



The Department betieves an effective drug stratqy need not be governed by a ingle
drug-specific problem. The Police Commissiona of the City of New York . W illiam Branon has
implemented five strategies to improve the quality of life in the City of New Yc rk. Police Strategy
No 3. entitled "Driving Drug Dealen Out Of New York, ii the comeritone of our drug policy.
Thi£ strategy consios of the fbllowingr



• GIVE PATROL RESPONSIBILITY FOR TARGETING LOCATIO>^



HAVE PATROL REFOCUS PATROL PERSONNEL AND PRACncfES



10



82



• REFOOJS NARCOTICS DIVISION PERSONNEL AND PRACTICES

" CrcAtion of Stmeglc Narcotics and Oun Teams (SNAO's) to conduct akgressivt buy and
bust operations igiinit gun and drug de»l«!rs Ji targetrd locations 24 hquis a day. 7 days a
week.



• DirBcting Narcotic* Divifion pmonnel to arrMt any dealers wanted on joutstandng
wanants within the targeted areas

** Assigning Narcotics Drvision memben to work with homicide detectives to make
connections between nnirders and drug activity

EXPAND, CONCENTRATl, AND COORDINATK SEIZlHi: ACTrirTY

" Use of the NYPD'i Civil Enforcement Unit to uit various legal means ijc dose locations
where crinunal activity a taking place.

" Customer car cooiiacation's to target out-of-town buyers who oomraut^ into New York

aiy.

' Coordination of effbrts between the city's five District Atioraeys and tht US
Attorney's Office to conitnence forfeiture proceedings against landlord^ who knowingly
have allowed their buildings to become havens for drug activity.



-11



83



• RE ENERGIZED ENFORCEMENT AGAINST HIGH-L£V£L DR1>G ACTIVITY
AND CONTINUE JOINT FEDERAL, STATE , AND LOCAL OPE^TIONS

• The DEA has directed its New York Office to focus on local as well as ii|ematjoral diug
traHicking organizations.

° Joint operstiOM between the NYPD and the FBI involving high-level dm^ investigations
within the Organued Crime Invastigauon Division

• Continued interdiction efforts by the Joint Kennedy Airport Narooticsj Smuggling Unit
(N.Y.P.D. and U.S. Customs.)

• REVISE AND EXPAND TRAINING

• REVISE DEPARTMENTAL POUCnS

• Clanfying the enforcement rasponiibilitiei of all members of th« service, vjhether in uniform
patrol or not, with regard to illegal dryg activity.

• BUILD WORKING PARTNERSHIPS

° Coordinated eflfon with Transit and Housing Poiice in and around transit fjicilitics and public
housing developments in targeted areas to attack IDegi] drag activities.

• Work with Department of Corrections to accoanodite tacreascd arrests ^d convictions.



12 ■



84



° Coordifuttion of •ffortx between the Dep&nment of Probation and Divisiok of Parole to
encourage arrests, within targeted areas of probation and parole violators! who have drug
related convictions.

" Most Imponantly, a cooperative and Joint working relationship between tie police and the
community to maintain ttrteti and neighborhoods where ili^al narcotics JKtivity have been
substantially reduced or aradicated

The NYPD is olwtys reviewing and anftiyzing our enforcement strategies and ^plementlng
change where necessary and evahiating our progress daily



CONCLUSION



States We do not
flKtonshowa



In the 1980*8 our society was caught short when crack exploded in the United

want this to happen again. While law enforcement indicators and other limited

possible increase in heroin abuse, it is still unclear whether this fbretells an inif ending heroin

crisis. What must be examined in a more detailed fhshion ire indderis of ciosi over use and new

user population. Medical practitioners and drug treatment specialists in the Ne v Yortc area have

indicated many aack abusers ire using heroin to oflkt the effects of crack. Tljji could be a

contributing Actor in the possible incrtue in haoin uk.

If in ftct the incidence of heroin use is on the rise, a devastating consequence jnay be an increase
in intravenous usera, thus impacting on the AIDS, and hepatitis crisis. This preinise is based oa
the tolerance theory.



IJ-



85



Our experience with the cnck tpidtmic hu t«ught ui that dtug probltmi mu^ bt tddreued in a
holistic approach. Furthar itudy ia needed to detenaine whether the oirrent diug using
population , or persons leaning toward drug abuK, would prefer the depressa it type drug, heroic,
over the stimulant type drug, cocaine. Wc now realize that caforcement is a \ aluable tool, and
police do play an important role in impnrving the quality of lift in our nation's cities. In the long
term, however, a key solution lies in 'demand reduciion through education pr iveotlon and
treatment." This educational awareness must begin in the home, be reinforceq in the schools and
our religious institutions and supported by our communities.



Mr. Chairman, it is forums like this that can act as a catalyst to generate futurd actioa

On behalf of the New York City Police Department, thank you for inviting |us to testify at this

bearing.



14



86

Mr. SCHUMER. And Mr. Jones.

Mr. Jones. I would like to thank the committee for-



Mr. ScHUMER. Inspector Ward, you don't have a statement? You
are accompanying Inspector Raber?
Mr. Ward. Correct.
Mr. ScHUMER. Mr. Jones.

STATEMENT OF CHESTER JONES, CERTIFIED ADDICTIONS
COUNSELOR, MARSHAL HEIGHTS COMMUNITY DEVELOP-
MENT ASSOCIATION, WASHINGTON, DC

Mr. Jones. I would like to thank the committee for inviting me
here to testify today. If you had asked me 5 years ago if I would
be sitting here it would have been too far beyond my wildest imagi-
nation to even respond. Five years ago I was homeless, sleeping in
abandoned buildings and shooting heroin, drinking wine and hang-
ing out on a fire barrel down in China Town. On my journey to the
fire barrel I had lost family, jobs, material possessions and, most
of all, I had lost myself

It wasn't until I got involved with the criminal justice system —
or the criminal justice system intervened in my life — that I was
able to make that journey back to the human race.

I violated the Controlled Substance Act and was placed on proba-
tion for 1 year. While on probation, I couldn't stay clean on the
streets, so I was violated and found myself back in the court in
front of Superior Court Judge Henry Kennedy. He gave me an op-
tion. He said, "you go to treatment or you go to jail." I chose treat-
ment.

It was that I didn't want to take methadone so I went into the
treatment. It was at the fire barrel that I heard about this treat-
ment program called Clean and Sober Streets which was housed in
the CCNV shelter.

In that program the devastation of my addiction was presented
to me, and that is when the psychological, sociological and the
physiological healing occurred. I slowly developed a program of re-
covery, and I had to become employable again. It was programs
such as the rehabilitation services and the University of the Dis-
trict of Columbia aftercare program that kind of bridged those
gaps.

With the help of those programs, I was able to move out of the
shelter and become self-sufficient. Today I am working; I am at-
tending school, and I am about three semesters shy of having a
bachelors degree in the administration of justice.

Also, I have amassed over 6,000 hours of working with the var-
ious treatment programs in the ciW as an addiction counselor. I
have accumulated over 450 hours of drug education and 300 hours
of supervised practical training, and that resulted in my being cer-
tified by the District of Columbia Certification Board of Alcohol and
Other Drugs of Abuse.

Today, I am working as an addictions counselor with the Mar-
shall Heights Community Development Organization, the Fighting
Back Initiative, which is funded by the Robert Woods Johnson
Foundation. This program is a community-based organization that
works in ward 7, and ward 7 is one of the communities most dev-
astated by illegal drugs and violence.



87

Ward 7 is a community limited in the scope of services needed
to effectively address the needs of our clients. The Fighting Back
Initiative is a community initiative whose goal is to impact on the
problem, but, in all honesty, our efforts are hampered by the clos-
ing of essential treatment programs and other funding shortages.

As an addictions counselor, it is my opinion — and the opinion of
other substance abuse professionals — that heroin is on the rise.
The price is cheaper on the streets, and the purity is greater. As
this situation increases, it is imperative that treatment programs
embrace a holistic approach — and more long-term treatment.

The treatment programs that exist today are about 28 days, and
28 days, for a heroin addict, just doesn't work. This is a disease
that affects all areas of a person's life, and if treatment doesn't em-
brace a holistic approach, including enough time to be effective, the
outcome is going to be nil. If I could leave anything with the com-
mittee today it would be that treatment programs for heroin users
must be long term, and must embrace a holistic approach. These
can only be realized through more funding targeted specifically for
that purpose.

Thanks for letting me be here.

Mr. SCHUMER. Thank you, Mr. Jones, and we very much appre-
ciate not only your being here but your own efforts to improve
yourself and to help others as well, which is just great.

[The prepared statement of Mr. Jones follows:]



88
PREPARED STATEMENT OF CHESTER JONES



I >rould like ro thank the committee for
inviting me to testify at thie hearing. If
you had aaked me five years ago if I would bo
sitting here today, it would have been beyond
my wildest imagination. Five years ago I was
Shooting heroin and drinking wine at a fire
barrel down in China Town. On my journey to
Che fire Barrel l lost ray family, my job,
material possessions, I was homeless and most
of all I lost myself.

It wasn't until the criminal justice
system intervened in my life chat the journey
back to Che human race began, i violated che
control substaince act and was place on
probation for one year. While on probation i
could not stay clean while living on the
streets. I violated ray probation and I found
myself back in court. Superior Court Judge
Henry Kennedy, gave me two options, I had to



89

enter a program or go to jail, I did not
want to take methadone again co I went into a
program, called €!•«& & flober Street Inc.
which I heard about at the fire barrel,
located at the CCNV shelter. Thie was a
long-term twelve (12) month program designed
for homeless people. An IV drug-user, ouch
as TTiyself, needed that type of progranr. to
piece my life back together. The devastation
caused Cy my drug use at this time waa
presented co me in rhie program. Then the
physical, peychologlcal, ar.d sociclogical
healing had to occur. After slowly
developing a program of recovery, i had to
become en^loyed again, vocational
rehabilitation helped to bridge that gap,
along with the TJPC/aft«rcare program.

With the help of these programs, l was
able to move out of the shelter and to become
self sufficient. Today I am working and
attending school. I'm three semesters away



90



rrom a B.A. degree in The Adminiotration of
Juscice. Also, I have masaed over 6,000
hours WOr)clng in various treatrr.ent prograrr.a
in the city as an addiction counselor. I've
also accumulated over 450 hours ot drug
education, 300 nours of supervised practical
training, which has resulted in my being
certified by the Dlftrlct of Columbia
Certification Board/Alco&oi and otner Drug

Abus«.

Today, I wor!< as an addition counselor
for the XarshAll B«lght« Cosnumity
Development Oxrganization "Fighting Back
Initiative*. This cofWRunity based
organization services Ward i , a community
devastated by illegal drugs and violence
associated with drugs. Ward 7 is a community
limited in the scope of services needed to
effectively address the needs of our clients.
The Fighting Back Initiative, a community
initiative whose goal is to reduce the demand



91

an Itnpacc on che problem. Eut, in all
honescy our efTorts are hampered by the
closing or essenclal treatment programs and
the snortage or funding.

AS an addiction counselor it is my
opinion (and the opinion of other substance
abuse professionals) that heroin is on the
rise. The heroin being sold on the streets
of Washington, D.C. is estimated to be 60%
pure and the cost is cheaper that it was
twenty years ago (the early i970'B). As this
situation increase, it beccmes Inperacive
that treatment programs embrace the hcllstic
approach and the term of treatment longer
than 28 days. All areas pertaining to and
involved with the treatment process should be
addressed to effect complete recovery and to
insure that an individual becomes a
productive member of society.

In closing I would like to emphasize
that the disease of addiction is long-term

and it affects every area of an addict's
life. Again, than)c you for allowing me to
speak before this connittee.



92

Mr. SCHUMER. OK, my first questions are for Inspector Raber
and for Mr. Jones. Are either of you seeing signs that heroin use,
apart from crack cocaine use, is on the rise? That is really the key
question we have here.

In other words, everyone agrees that there is more of it that is
on the streets. Most of the experts are indicating without being
sure that people who use crack cocaine are using heroin in addi-
tion.

Mr. Raber. Well, our arrests indicate that there are some that
are strictly buying heroin. Further study is necessary to determine
if the drug user, or individual with a propensity to use drugs,
would prefer the stimulant type high, associated with crack or tne
depressant type high associated with heroin. This information
could help in projecting potential for heroin epidemic. We do see an
increase in strict heroin use.

Mr. ScHUMER. What about you, Mr. Jones?

Mr. Jones. I was speaking to another professional yesterday,
who works at a methadone clinic, and that clinic has a waiting list
of about 300 to 400 people on that list to get into treatment. So if
that is an indication I would say it is on the rise.

Mr. ScHUMER. And most of tne people who go to methadone clin-
ics are not on crack. Obviously there is no substitute for crack.
They are pretty much pure heroin users.

Mr. Jones, Mostly polydrug users. They use heroin, crack, alco-
hol.

Mr. ScHUMER. I want to tell you, Mr. Jones, that in the crime


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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. House. Committee on the JHeroin trafficking : hearing before the Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, One Hundred Third Congress, second session, September 29, 1994 → online text (page 7 of 8)