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Report of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, made to the two Houses of Congress February 19, 1872 (Volume 2) online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Joint select committee onReport of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, made to the two Houses of Congress February 19, 1872 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 99)
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M-if 19115 WASHINGTON:






Alieriu'tliy, Jolm, itiobLod 368

Aberncthy, John, afraid to prosecute 309, 393

Alamanci^ County, au orgauizatiou of the luvisible Empire in . . .■ 324

Alihis iu North Carolina, uianuer of setting; up 43


Barns burned 82,138,108,260,310

Barn-burnin(», crfjunlzaliou of nep^roes for the purpose of 83,85

Baxter, P. Z., arrest and confession of, with six a(Xomplices 373

Baxter, V. Z , character of 277

Beam, Adeline, wliippinpof 134

Beam, Uick, whiiipiiifr of 224

Berrier, (juits the Ku-Ivlux 391

Bi{j<Terstaff, Aaron V., cause of attack upon 307

BiggcrstaiV, Aaron V., forcible trespass by 22

Biggerstaff, Aaron V., manner of whipping 28

BiggerstaiV, Aaron V., whipping of.. Ui,2U,27, 111, 170, 171, 172,211, 227, 224, 2iil-253,3U5

BiggerstalV, Aaron V., whipping of daughter of 27, 1 II, 170-172

BiggerstaiV, Aaron V.. and family, outrage upon 2U, 112, 113, 114, 127

Biggerstaff, Aaron V., statement of Plato Durham as to facts iu case of 30G, 307, 308

BiggerstatV, Mrs. , abuse ot 28

Biggerstatf, Samuel, outrage upon. ...22, 151, 152, 165, 183-194, 198,213,247,248,251,267,


Biggerstaff, Samuel, statement of raid upon ► 307

Birge, Nelson, whiiiping of 105, 153

lioud, Judge, a good lawyer and excellent judge, (Schenck) 369

Bradley, assault of upon Waters and is fined fifteen dollars by Judge Logan 372

Bradley family, the whipping of 27

Bradley, T. P., breaking into house of 138

Bragg, Governor, writes to Schenck and Durham in 1870, in regard to Ku-Klux

outrages 39G, 410'

Bridge lenced up, Elias Bryan's 75

Brooks, Elizabeth, wdiijiiiiug of 28

BRYAN, ELIAS, testimony of 72-86

Is a native of the State, and a resident t)f Hay ward, Chatham County 72

Burning of a school-house in Moore County 72,73

Has had three .of his houses burned 73

Cases of Mr. Howie, Mr. Harris, and Mrs. Gilmore .*. 74

Whipping of Mr. Buchanan, Mrs. Gilniore's sister, and John Campbell,

a cripple, by disguised men ; toll-bridge fenced up 75

Has no party politics ; has built two churches or school-houses for the negroes 76

Whipping of two or three of Henderson Judd's negroes 77,78

Outrage upon Henderson Judd and Mr. Hanks 78

Arrest of the party that attacked Essie Harris 79

Politics of the parties arrested in the Buchanan, Gilmore, Harris and Judd

cases '. 81

Politics of the county officers ; thinks the Leagues have disbanded ; barns

burned ; outrage upon Mr. Mimms 82

Organization of negroes for the purpose of barn-burning 83, 65

Character of Mr. Howie 84,85

Thinks the colored people were apprehensive of danger from the Ku-Klux 86

Buchanan, Mr., whipping of 75

I Burgess, Mr. Barney, shooting by Essie Harris of 90

I— N C




Culvert, Watson, wbippiug of 27

Camp, , (colored woman, ) whipping of 106

Campbell, John, whipping of 75

Carpenter, Henry, (colored,) disarming of 22,219,223

CAKPKNTER, J. H., testimony of 19-31

Is a resident of Ruthcrlbrdton, Rutherford County I'J

And a native of the State ; is clerk of the superior court of the county, and is
an editor; gives Aaron Biggerstaffs account of the outrage committed on

himself and family ; names parties arrested therefor 20

All of them original secessionists ; republicanism assigned as the reason for

whippings ; IJiggerstalFs character 21

Outrage upon McGahey's wife; Biggerstafi" tried for forcible trespass ; disarm-
ing of Henry Carpenter ; whipping of Nodine for being a republican 22

Number of whippings within the last two years; Ku-Klux organization still

maintained in North Carolina 23

Thinks there was but one ease of arrest in Rutherford County prior to the pas-
sage of the Ku-Klux bill ; intimidation of a juror; thinks lives of republi-
cans in the county are unsafe; a uumber of them leaving their farms 24

Division of the Ku-Klux into camps , 25

Number of outrages in the county ; all upon republicans 26

Wliipping of Bob Toms, Martin Daggett, ilartin Pearson and wife, twice ;
Granville Miller, twice ; Watson Calvert, John Nodine, the Bradley family,
Aaron Biggerstafl', William Holland, and Biggerstaff's daughter, Mrs. Ram-
sey; abuse of J. P. Gillespie ; colored school-house burned 27

Abuse of Mrs. Biggerstatf; manner of whipping Biggerstafl'; whipping of Al-
nion Owens, Nancy Owens, Mrs. Jenkins, Ibby Jenkins, Joseph Lessanier,
Ann Warren, M. E. Taylor, Lightner Hall, Mrs. Simmons, and Elizabeth

Brooks; colored school-house burned 28

Says that in everj' instance the statement was made to the parties whipped that
it was because they were republicans ; intimidation of voters in Cleveland

County 2D

Houses broken into 30

Gives names ot alleged Ku-Klux 30, 31

Carpenter, J. B., threatened by Ku-Klux 122, 127

Carson, William, burning of barn of 138

Chief of the State 174

Chiefs of Ku-Klux camps 146, 147, 148, 173, 174, 175,204,220,231,322

Churches burned 13,14,98,133,134

Clark, Joseph, shooting by Essie Harris of 90

Clemnicr, w idow, Gaston County, barn of, burned 365

Cobb, B. C, identified by D. Schenck 339

Constitutional Union Guard 181

Constitutional Union Guard and Invisible Empire the same as Ku-Klux 00

Craig, Mr., violence upon 381

Daggett, Martin, (colored,) whipping of 27, 106

Davis, Anderson, arrest and confession of, with accomplices 373

Davis used as a witness ; indictments found against ; member of the Union League

and of the Ku-Klux 374

Davis, character of 394,397

Davis, Anthony, (colored, ) whipping of 95, 99

Davis, Anthony, (colored,) shooting of two children of 95

Democrats, whipping of 330

De Priest, Decatur, killing by McGahey of 107, 108,151,165

DePrie.st, J. R., chief of camp 174,202,220

Detter, J. K., identified by D. Schenck 389

Dickens, Anderson, and wife, outrage upon 14

Douglas.s, Bella, (colored,) whipping of 13

Downey, filr., wliipping of 1 30-132, 182, 207

Downey, Mr., whi])ping of sister of 130, 131

DURHAM, PLA'IO testimony of 304-353

Is a native of Rutherford County, and a resident of Shelby, Cleveland County ;
lias been a member of the legislature and of the constitutional convention ;
is a lawyer, practicing in the ninth judicial circuit; laws of North Carolina
not enforced as they should have been, since 1868; incompetency of Judge
G.W.Logan 304



Meeting of the bar at Charlotte for tlio removal of Judge Logan ; thinks he is
iv bitter partisan, and carries lii.s jmrtisan prejudices upon the bench ; cites
JJiggerstuifs case; etatenieut of the attorney who defended the parties
therein '-^('^i

Family feud between Aaron and Hanuiel Biggerstaff ; lI;irty-one persons arrested
under process from the State courts for the attack on Aaron liiggerstatV, bound
over to appear -in June, and cases postponed till July; same parties arrested
twice by the United States authorities ; gives the facts as lie understands them,
in the BiggerstalV case ?>0G

Thinks the murder of Do Priest and the attack upon Samuel BiggerstalF led to
the attack upon Aaron Biggerstaff ; political reasons assigned by the repub-
licans therefor; believes the troubles in Ilutherford County spring from
corrupt and incompetent State and Federal oflicials o07

Thinks the parlies engaged in the raid upon Aaron Biggerstaff were taken to
Kiileigh instead of Marinn, for the purpose of prosecution ; true bills of indict-
ment found by the grand jury on oath of Biggerstaff and daughter; is counsel
for all the parties charged 308

PtaidonMr Justice 308,309

Thinks the troubles in Kutherford County are caused by bad government,
corrupt and incompetent officials, and bud advice to negroes ; knows of no
disposition on the part of the white people to coerce the black ; states what
the colored people have been taught to believe oO'J

Thinks the address issued by the radical members of the legislature in August,

18G8, produced barn-burnings, rapes, «fcc 309,310

Burning of barns, &c., iu Gaston County frequent — 3l(t

Outrages in Kobeson County and their elfect 310, 31 1

Thinks putting some counties under martial law and neglecting Robeson County

a political move 31 J

Thinks the general tenor of the teaching of the carpet-baggers has had a very

bad influence upon the negroes 311,312

Their advice has led to riot and bloodshed ; cites the address of Mr. Justice in
18(38; general result of this teaching is that the whole country is in a state

/ of perfect terror 312

'^ Eecoustniction measures a cause of dissatisfaction, and a violation of the pledges

of the Government 312,313

Universal suffrage for the negro the cause of the whole difficulty ; present state

government more expensive than the old one; public debt largely increased ;

thinks public sentiment regards the legislation of Congress in reference to the

southern country dictated by a spirit of liostility ; many incompetent men

y^ occupying otKcial positions 313

Cites Judge G. W. Logan, and ^^es instances of his official corruption 313,314

Pardoning power exercised very partiailj' by Governor Holden; cites in-
stances ; gives particulars of the disbarring of Mr. Schenck 315

Knows of no organization, the object of which is to control the politics of the
country 316

Denies being chief of the Ku-Klux organization or of any organization 316, 317

Knows of an organization for mutual protection and defense which did exist ;
states the nature of the obligation taken 317

The enactment of militia laws by the legislature led to the formation of the
organization 317, 325

\Thinks the laboring white nien are jealous of the privileges granted the negroes ;
no jealousy on the part of intelligent wealthy men ; an election pending for
a constitutional convention ; object of the democrats in urging it to Isimplify
the constitution ; present constitution inconsistent in itself 313

Compares the State expenditures under Governors Worth and Holden ; has
heard of frequent whippings in Eutherfoid by parties of disguised men, and
in Cleveland 319

Thinks these outrages were not committed iu pursuance of an organization ;
that the colored people have not behaved as well as the white ; has heard of
a few outrages iu Lincoln, Gaston, Catawba, and Spartanburgh Counties .. 320

Knows nothing about the existence of the Ku-Klux, White Brotherhood, or
Constitutional Union Guard organizations ; was a member of the Invisible
Empire; Mr. Lee, his law-partner, a member ; states nature of obligation
taken ; verbal explanation given outside of terms of obligation ; no by-laws ;
no obligation of secrecy as to the existence and operations of the organiza-
tion, but was as to membership 321

Gives signs and pass-words 321,322



Organization divided into Councils or Klans ; did not occupy any office in (be
order ; thinks it true that McAfee was an officer ; that be is chief of the
county ; has heard nothing of the organization in Cleveland County since

February 322

Each council has a chief; has heard of two persons in Cleveland County as
chiefs ; knows of none in Rutherford Couuty ; .Saw a crowd of disguised
men riding through Shelby one night, in the fall of 1869; does not know

that they were members of the Invisible Empire 323

Hamilton C. Jones is a member of the order ; does not know whether he is
chief of State ; thinks there was a local organization in Orange and in Ala-
mance Counties 324

The effect cif the enactment of the Shoffner bill and its subsequent repeal 325

Thinks the organization of the Invisible Empire has existed in Rutherford
County within the last six or eight months ; knew of men being initiated at
the time of the spring term of court ; denies taking any part in these initia-
tions ; advises the reorganization of the order 326

Thinks Mr. Cabaness conducted the initiations ; witnessed some by him ; heard

the obligation and saw the signs given 327

Thinks Mr. Shotwell was not present at the raid upon Mr. Justice and the
Star office ; has lieard of no initiations in Cleveland County within two

years 328

Thinks there was nothing in the obligation exacting obedience to the decisions
of the council ; has no information as to the number of members in Ruther-
ford County ; no formal disbanding of the order 329

Names democrats who have been whipped 330, 331

Incompetency of Judge Logan ; he is advised by the supreme court to resign. 332
Gives general statements as to the incompetency and corruption of the judi-
ciary ; decision of the supreme court relative to State taxation 333-336

Character of Mr. Justice as to veracity 336

Attack on Biggerstaff 337,338

Thinks the barn-burnings preceded the whippings by the Ku-Klux ; that Lowry's

band numbers from twenty to thirty 339

Railroad appropriations by the legislature 340, 341

Relative vote in Cleveland and Rutherford Counties ; assessed valuation of all

property in the State 341

Rate of taxation 34 1 , 350, 351

Salaries of State officers and judges increased 342

Has heard of about foity confessions by certain parties 343

Is authorized to give bail for parties arrested as alleged Ku-Klux 344

Thinks the whippings, &c., have been done by irresponsible parties, and not

to influence the vote of tlie colored man or to deter him from voting 345

Kuows of no organization of the Invisible Empire in Chatham, Harnett, or

Moore Counties 346

His opinion as to the effect on tlie negro of the teachings of northern men.. .. 34b

Thinks the reconstruction measures unwarranted, oppressive, and hostile 348,349

Railroad-bond frauds 350

Thinks no encouragement has been given by the democratic press to the out-
rages 351

His opinion as to extracts read him from the Raleigli Sentinel 352

Thinks the vote of the colored people was controlled by the Leagues 353

Durham, Plato, chief of camp 144, 175, 203

Durham, Plato, arrest of 375

Durham, Plato, trial of 378

Durham, Plato, claims to have addressed the Klan that inaugurated the raid upon
Biggerstaff to prevent violence, and complains of subsequent injustice, his
witnesses being put in the bill of indictment with him 396


EAVES, J. B., testimony of 1G4-201

Is a resident of Rutherfordton ; has been a member of the State senate, and is
United States assistant assessor ; intimidation of witnesses ; character of the
outrages committed ; McGahey's (McGaha) case ; killing of Decatur De

Priest 165

De Priest chief of first Klan in Rutherford Couuty ; number of outrages in

Rutherford County 166

Character of the whippings IGG, 107

Outrages all upon republicans with one exception ; Rourke whipped by pre-
tended preachers ; course of public press 167




EAVKS, J. B. : ....107,169,181

IiitimiJation of voters ,'" Vlo^noa in tli<>

Relative vote of white urid coloie.l iii Rutberfoid '^'Y ' »« Leagues m tuc ^^^

county since IHtJrt; l)aius buiued '.'..'.'.'. 169

Nepiors disarmed v" " 'I'l 170 171 , 172

Outrage upon IJifTKerstatT and hi.s dan<rliter, ■• ^oryilie > j.^^

Character of nisper^t"^ ""J '"« •!»"}:•'''■'•. '• !^^'^^"„ ■"■v'.Vv";f"th«"huVhe'r'
Intimidation of con.plainunts ; Captain U. Shotwell editor of the Kuther

ford Vindicif.r nnd (i.i/en. democr- journals, ch.et f ^^."P-:" Vu.-f^-of
J. K. Do Priest. M. r.rayer, Wm. W.cr, and Ladsou A. Mills, jr., chiet» ot ^^^

camps; llaiiiilton C. .Jones chij\''tho State j -

McAfee and Dunlmin chiefs (if.nps in Cleveland County j^-.^ ^^^ ^^,

Ku-Klux surrend<rinp amJufossinor _ _ ' j7(;[ J77

Raid upon Kuthorfon.'i' und Star otlicc ...'..". 177, 178

Names of jiarties ^'^^cr^■^\ m the raid ]7y

Rutherfordton.SrJed uipfhtly - - - 178, \TJ

sti'y'nal I'nion Guard, and Invisible Empire _ _ jg.,

Whirntr of Downey - - - '/. 182,183,184

ne Adairs and Beunard, not political " ^g^joj, lyrf, 199

Whev's (McGah:i) case 190

.ir Schcnck's letter in reference to Juge Logan ][."[[...} 9:5-1 96, 1 iK*

^ ku-Klux outrages political . - - l^s

ave.s' Fayette, chief of camp ■ 204,220,2:51

idgin'gtou. William, chict ot camp


27, 115, 138, ir,6

Gille'sDie J. P-i abuse of 36, 37, 53

G We, Fmnces, (colored,) outrage upon - - _ 37^74

Gilmore Frances, (white,) outrage upon.. - - ^_ 75

Gllmore, Frances, (white,) whipping of sister of -_■ 23o_236

^^^I';^^Sf ilSSS ^oiuUy nr^enty-yean:;.d-, a .ember of the ^^^

^TcSSrii^u'are^lrrt^^^^^^^^^^^^^ .31

eaUves in favor^on f Ku-Klux hostile to colored people -. - - - - ^3 33.,


servatives in lavor 01 u . ivu-av^.v — -

Obiect of the organization to pre^vent stealing 33I

Green Lieutenant, cl^nduct of in making arrest* - 269

Sj^jii'^ 'rGSnTor,rb73l.e L...-S ; Loyal Leagues are seceUsso-


Lovaf Leagues the cause ot Ku-Klnx 251

Leagues pSliticalin their character - ■-;; 251-253

Case of Biggerstaff



GUION, II. W.: 252

Disban-in^ofMr.Scbenck ../ - •■ - 253,272,273

The Lowiy gane } "^-"""ty 254

Conditiou of affairs in Robeson '^.',][ 254,255

Election of the State judiciary ■.", - 255, 256

Financial aflairs of the State .\ ~'i'>5, 256, 273, 274

Corruption of the legislature '/": •■ 257,275-277

Impeachment of Governor Holden .... .■ V ^'^ governor to raise militia 258

Release of Kirk by Judge Bond ; power o.'^^^^^^^ «* 'QC democrats that they

Barn-burning in Gaston County; current J' -■ 260

are attribute to the Loyal Leagues 1 ' i 'j'ts"!^ . ^^'^

Has heard of no Ku-Klux Operations in Gaston Co>. -'' 2G2-264

Character of the j udges of the supreme court ^^''r ■ 265

Petition for the removal of Judge Logan ?."''■. 265,266

Statute relative to disbarring attorneys IV '" 268, 269

Cases of rape '.'■ - , - '■^^^^

Mr. Grier threatened with hanging by the League I's.** 'd for

General belief that Biggerstatf's story of his whipping was niannfactuiv, - - 271

political purposes !'®- 275

Railroad-bond frauds; pardons by the governor .<_ 278

Governor llolden's militia force for the intimidation of voters .\279, 280

Governor llolden's method of selecting the militia j. . . '. 280

Troubles in Alamance County '. 281

Officers of Governor Holden's militia ' 282

Is a conservative in politics \;68

Guion, Levi, intimidated from voting *


Haines, A. S., threatened by Scoggins 377

Hall, Lightner, whipping of 28

Hambrich, Eiias, chief of camp 204

Hamilton, , a colored man, whipping of 106

Hampton, B. F., sheriff of Polk County, assault of, upon Waters 372

Hanks, Mr., outrage upon 53, 78

Harris, Essie, (colored,) outrage upon 15, 32, 33, 34, 74

HARRIS. ESSIC, testimony of 86-102

Is a resident of Chatham County, North Carolina 86

Details first visit of the Ku Klux to his house 87

Gives particulars of second outrage upon him b8-94, 101

Shooting of Joe Clark and Mr. Burgess 90

Names parties engaged in the outrage 91

Outrage upon Sampson Perkins 91 , 92

Whipping of Anthony Davis, and shooting of two of his children 95, 97

Intimidation of voters 95, 96

Church-burnings in Chatham County 98

States number of persons whipped; has heard of no one being whipped who

was not a republican ; arms taken from negroes 99

HARRILL, JOHN B., testimony of 201-215

Is a native and resident of Rutherford County ; a member of the Invisible

Empire of America, and a democrat; character of outrages in Rutherford.. 201

Is initiated into the camp of which Jesse De Priest was chief 202

Nature of the oath administered 203, 205, 212, 213

Names chiefs of camps or dens _. 203,204

Dens meet in disguise ; raid proposed ; negro whipped 204

Second whipping of same man ; colored girl whipped ; outrage upon an old man 205

Names parties concerned in the raid upon Rutherfordton ; the raid political... 206
Downey and another man whipped for betraying Ku-Klux secrets ; numbers
sworn in at the superior court by Durham and Gatons ; has heard of a great

many outrages in Cleveland County ; gives signs of recognition and pass-words 208
Number of membirs in Cleveland and Rutherford Counties ; release of prisoners
from Marion jail; number of persons whipped in Rutherford County; White
Brotherhood, Invisible Emi)ire, and Ku-Klux, the same : from litty to one

hundred arrests and seventy-live confessions 309

Names members who have absconded 1 210

Object of the organization political ; raid on Biggerstalf 211

Character and standing of members 212

The McGahey (McGaha) case 213

Confessions induced by the protection given by the United States Government 215



Harnett County, ontraf^cs in '.54,35,36

Harvey, Mr., and his sons, wbiiipliipf of 139

Hawkins, Martin, and will', (white, ) whippinj^ of 107, lOH

Hawkins, Slartin, manner of whippinir 108

HESTER, JOSEPH G., testimony of 13-19

Is a native of tlie State and a resident of Kaleigh ; is dt^pnty marshal of the
United States; arrests parties cliarn:ed with goinjf in disguise upon the
premises of Jlrs. .Jndd .nnd others, and with burning church on hind of Ander-
son Dickiais ; whipping of Mr. Judd and Bella Douglass ; arrests John Y.

Thomas for the oH'cnso ; outrage upon Mr. Henderson Judd J3

Outrage upon Anderson Dickens and wite ; gives details of the burning of the
church; whipping of one of William Judd's sons and of Stokes Judd ; out-
rage upon liover Warnock 1.5

Details outrage uj)on Essie Harris ; arrests six persons engaged in it 15

Whipping of Aaron V. Biggerstalf ; arrests parties engaged in it 16

Thinks the organization known as Ku-Klux, White ISrotherhood. or Invisi-
ble Empire, is on the increase; tlio parties arrested claimed to belong to the

conservative democratic party ; tiie persons whipped were republicans 17

Manner of whipping ; unknown man whipped 19

Hoffmastcr assaulted by Scoggins 372

Ilolden, Governor W. W., correspondence accompanying third annual message... 5,67

Holden, (iovenior W. W. , impeachment of 257, 275-'277

Ilolden, (Governor W. W., militia force of 278-281

Holden, Governor W. W., oii'er of reward for arrest of Lowry, by 295

Holden, Governor W. W., pardoning power as exercised by 275, 315

Holland, William, whipping of .... 1 27,112,113

Hope, Thomas A., communicates with D. Schenck relative to the organization of

aKIau 397,398

Hope, Thomas A., atHdavit of 39S, 399

Houser, Ben... ...138,219,223

Houses broken into 30, 138

Houses burned :

Bryan, E!ias 73

Moore, Amos 134

Howie, William 1\., character of 84,85

Howie, William K„ outrage upon 37, 38, 51, 52, .59, 62, 65-67, 74

HOWLE, WILLIAM It., testimony of 51-65

Is engaged in railroad contracting in Chatham County ; has been threatened by
the Ku-Klux several times, on account of his jjolitical principles; canvassed

the county for Holden, in opposition to Manning 51

Details outrage, upon himself and men 51,52,59,62

Two negroes, one white man, and three women whipped; one negro shot 52

Thinks the object of men riding disguised at night is the intimidation of
voters ; effect of these outrages upon the sense of security ; outrage upon

Frances Gillmore, Henderson Judd, .Mr. Hanks, and a colored woman 53

Tone of politictvl sentiment in Chatham County 54

Defines loyalty 54, 63

Is injured in his business by political proscription 55,56,57

la threatened for taking part in politics 58

Entered conlederate army in 1801 ; was confined six weeks in the Old Capitol

and eight months in Fort Delaware 61

Terrorism among the people on account of Ku-Klux 63

Huffstetler, H. K., Gaston County, dwelling of, burned 365

HULL, EDWIN A., testimony of G5-72

Is foreman for ilr. Howie 65

Details outrage upon an old lady and her daughter, by whipping and shooting;
whipping of a widow and two colored men ; colored man mortally wounded ;

Mr. Howie's premises visited 65,66

Political opinion the cause of outrage 67, 68

Was apprehensive of violence 68

Apprehensions of the workmen 69

Terrorism among colored republicans ; whippings in Chatham County 70

Has not heard of any democratic contractor being disturbed 71


Intimidation of complainants 39, 173

Intimidation of jurors 24, 1 10

Intimidation of witnesses 39, 40, 165,245



Intimidation of voters 29, 53, 95, 9o, 136, lu7, 1G9, 181 , 225. 229

Intimidation to compel membership to the Ku-Klux 222, 2M

Invisible Empire 17,181,202,209,230

Invisible Empire, cause of formation of 234, 235, 247, 325

Invisible Empire, Constitutional Union Guard and Ku-Klux the same 44, 50

Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Joint select committee onReport of the Joint Select Committee to Inquire into the Condition of Affairs in the Late Insurrectionary States, made to the two Houses of Congress February 19, 1872 (Volume 2) → online text (page 1 of 99)