United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Gove.

Corruption in professional boxing : hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, second session (Volume pt. 2) online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveCorruption in professional boxing : hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, second session (Volume pt. 2) → online text (page 1 of 28)
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S. Hrg. 103-184

CORRUPTION IN PROFESSIONAL BOXING— Part II



M.G 74/9: S. HRG. 103-184

Corruption in Professional Hoxing-P..



ARINGS



BEFORE THE

PERMANENT
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION



MARCH 10 AND APRIL 1, 1993



Printed for the use of the Committee on Governmental Affairs










U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
65 _ 875± _ WASHINGTON : 1993



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office. Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-041441-5



S. Hrg. 103-184

CORRUPTION IN PROFESSIONAL BOXING— Part II

4. G 74/9: S. HRG. 103-184

rruptiot in Professional Boxing-P

n^ARINGS

BEFORE THE

PERMANENT
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION



MARCH 10 AND APRIL 1, 1993



Printed for the use of the Committee on Governmental Affairs






WV 2g




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
65-875^ WASHINGTON : 1993



For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-041441-5



COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS

JOHN GLENN, Ohio, Chairman
SAM NUNN, Georgia WILLIAM V. ROTH, Jr., Delaware

CARL LEVIN, Michigan TED STEVENS, Alaska

JIM SASSER, Tennessee WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine

DAVID PRYOR, Arkansas THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi

JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut JOHN McCAIN, Arizona

DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii
BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota

Leonard Weiss, Staff Director

Franklin G. Polk, Minority Staff Director and Chief Counsel

Michal Sue Prosser, Chief Clerk



PERMANENT SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS

SAM NUNN, Georgia, Chairman
JOHN GLENN, Ohio, Vice Chairman
CARL LEVIN, Michigan WILLIAM V. ROTH, Jr., Delaware

JIM SASSER, Tennessee TED STEVENS, Alaska

DAVID PRYOR, Arkansas WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine

JOSEPH I. LIEBERMAN, Connecticut THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi

BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota JOHN McCAIN, Arizona

Eleanore Hill, Chief Counsel

Daniel F. Rinzel, Chief Counsel to the Minority

Mary D. Robertson, Chief Clerk

(II)



\f\ / [ERRATA]

\\A ' S. Hrg. 103-184

V CORRUPTION IN PROF ESSIONAL BOXING— Part II

V 4.G 74/9: S. HRG. 103-184/
5 T. 2/ERRATA

:orruptio§ in Professional Boxincj-P.

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

PERMANENT
SUBCOMMITTEE ON INVESTIGATIONS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON
GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS
UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION



MARCH 10 AND APRIL 1, 1993



Printed for the use of the Committee on Governmental Affairs




DEC 2 893



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
65-875 £5 WASHINGTON : 1993

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents. Congressional Sales Office. Washington. DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-041441-5



[ERRATA]

Corruption in Professional Boxing— Part II

The above referenced hearing before the Senate Committee on
abor, was inadvertently printed with the incorrect publication
amber of S. HRG. 103-184.
The correct designation is S. HRG. 103-184, Part II.









CONTENTS



Opening statements: Page

Senator Nunn 1, 69

Senator Roth 2, 70

Senator Cohen 4

Senator Dorgan 5

Senator McCain 6

Senator Cochran 60

Prepared Statements:

Senator McCain 72

Senator Dorgan 73

WITNESSES

Wednesday, March 10, 1993

Hon. Bill Richardson, a Representative in Congress from the State of New

Mexico 7

Stephen Levin, Minority Staff Counsel; accompanied by W. Leighton Lord III,
Minority Staff Counsel, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Com-
mittee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate 16

Dr. Barry Jordan, Assistant Professor of Neurology and Public Health, Cor-
nell University Medical College; Medical Director, New York State Athletic
Commission; and Team Physician, U.S.A. Amateur Boxing Federation 39

Dr. Jack E. Battalia, Chairman, Oregon Boxing Commission, and Chairman,
International Boxing Federation Medical Commission 40

Dr. Timothy W. Ward, Chairman, Medical Advisory Board, Pennsylvania
State Athletic Commission 42

Seth G. Abraham, President, Time-Warner Sports (HBO) 56

Michael L. Aresco, Program Manager, ESPN, Inc 63

Thursday, April 1, 1993

Salvatore "Sammy the Bull" Gravano, Former Underboss, Gambino Orga-
nized Crime Family, accompanied by John Gleeson, Assistant U.S. Attor-
ney, Brooklyn, New York 75

W. Leighton Lord, III, Minority Staff Counsel; accompanied by Stephen Levin,
Minority Staff Counsel, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Com-
mittee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate 90

Alfred Certissimo and James "Buddy" McGirt, Former WBC Welterweight
Champion, accompanied by Michael D'Chiara and Dino D'BliaBlias, Coun-
sel; and Stuart Weiner, accompanied by Edwin Schulman, Counsel 110

Edward Sciandra 131

Robert Goodman, Vice President, Madison Square Garden Boxing, accompa-
nied by Ken Munos, Madison Square Garden General Counsel 132

Mark Tuohey, Attorney for Iran Barkley, Reed, Smith, Shaw and McClay 141

Leonard Minuto, accompanied by Gerard Treanor and Preston Burton, Ca-
cheris and Treanor, Washington, D.C., Counsel 143

Andrew Licari, accompanied by Richard A. Rafanello, Shain, Schaffer &

Rafanello, Bernardsville, New Jersey, Counsel 144

(in)



IV

Page

Alphabetical List of Witnesses

Abraham, Seth G.:

Testimony 56

Prepared Statement 153

Aresco, Michael L.:

Testimony 63

Prepared Statement 155

Battalia, (Dr.) Jack E.:

Testimony 40

Prepared Statement 150

Certissimo, Alfred:

Testimony 110

Goodman, Robert:

Testimony 132

Prepared Statement 158

Gravano, Salvatore "Sammy the Bull":

Testimony 75

Prepared Statement 156

Jordan, (Dr.) Barry:

Testimony 39

Prepared Statement 149

Levin, Stephen:

Testimony 16, 90

Prepared Statement 22, 95

Licari, Andrew:

Testimony 144

Prepared Statement 160

Lord, W. Leighton, III:

Testimony 16, 90

Prepared Statement 22, 95

McGirt, James "Buddy":

Testimony 110

Minuto, Leonard:

Testimony .". 143

Richardson, (Hon.) Bill:

Testimony 7

Prepared Statement 9

Sciandra, Edward:

Testimony 131

Tuohey, Mark:

Testimony 141

Ward, (Dr.) Timothy W.:

Testimony 42

Prepared Statement 151

Weiner, Stuart:

Testimony 110

APPENDIX

Prepared statements of witnesses in order of appearance 149



EXHIBIT LIST

Corruption in Professional Boxing: Part II

March 10, and April 1, 1993

Page

1. Chart, Organized Crime Involvement in Professional Boxing, prepared by

the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (PSD 163

2. Memorandum in support of Chart, Organized Crime Involvement in Pro-

fessional Boxing (SEALED) ,

3. Criminal records and other information in support of Chart, Organized

Crime Involvement in Professional Boxing (SEALED)

4. Chart, Flow of Funds — James "Buddy" McGirt vs. Simon Brown, Las

Vegas, Nevada, November 29, 1991, prepared by PSI 164

5. Chart, Alfred Certissimo, Inc., Check Nos. 1289 and 1291, dated March 31,

1990 165

6. Chart, Alfred Certissimo, Inc., Check No. 1841, dated November 29, 1991... 166

7. Surveillance videotape of Salvatore Gravano, Edward Sciandra, and

Joseph Corozzo

8. Still photographs of Salvatore Gravano, Edward Sciandra and Joseph

Corozzo from videotape 167

9. Joint Deposition of Thaddeus E. Watley and Richard Robinson, November

24 1992 *

10. Deposition of How^

11. Deposition of Elias Ghanem, M.D., February 5, 1993

12. Deposition of Alfred Felix Certissimo, December 1, 1992

13. Deposition of James W. McGirt, II, December 1, 1992

14. Deposition of Joseph Corozzo, Sr., December 14, 1992

15. Deposition of Iran Barkley, April 30, 1993 168

16. Deposition of Stanley Leonard Hoffman, January 14, 1993

17. Deposition of Iran Barkley, December 16, 1992

18. Letter dated September 28, 1992 from Congressman Kildee to Senator

Nunn regarding Mr. Michael Suski and his career as a professional
boxer. Attached contract prepared by Jackie Kallen

19. Letter dated November 18, 1992, from New Jersey Deputy Attorney Gen-

eral George Rover to Leighton Lord regarding Ricky Stackhouse fight
on September 11, 1992, held at Trump Plaza, New Jersey

20. Letter dated March 26, 1993, to Stephen H. Levin from Louis J. DiBella,

Vice President, General Counsel and Chief Administrative Officer,
Time Warner Sports 252

21. Correspondence from Colleen Patchin to Stephen H. Levin dated Novem-

ber 19, 1992 enclosing requested documents:

a. Nevada Athletic Commission Articles of Agreement for Cesford
"Simon" Brown and James "Buddy" McGirt 252

b. Signed sheet indicating fighters received a check for fighting 253

c. Request from James "Buddy" McGirt to have his check made payable

to Alfred Certissimo, Inc 254

d. Nevada license application for Stuart Weiner, dated November 22, 1991

22. Official Nevada Athletic Commission Boxing Contract between James

Toney and Iran Barkley, dated February 3, 1993

23. Letter to Stephen Levin from George N. Rover, dated March 3, 1993, with

attachments:

a. Application for a license to manage/second of Leonard Minuto, Jr. to
State of New Jersey Athletic Control Board, dated June 1, 1989

b. Application for a license to manage/second of Leonard Minuto, Jr. to
State of New Jersey Athletic Control Board, dated July 28, 1989

24. Letter from Robert M. Gutkowski, President and Chief Executive Officer

of Madison Square Garden, to Senator William V. Roth, Jr., dated
March 17, 1993

(v)



VI

Page

25. Letter from Richard A. Rafanello to W. Leighton Lord III re: Andrew

Licari, dated March 29, 1993

26. Letter from Murray Richman to Stephen Levin re: Salvatore Pascale and

Renaldo Snipes, dated March 29, 1993

27. State Boxing Regulations of Alaska, California, Delaware, Georgia, Illi-

nois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey,
New York and Texas

28. Report — Compilation of State Boxing Laws and Regulations, prepared by

the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress

29. State of New Jersey Commission on Investigation, Executive Session

Testimony of Andrew Liccari, March 26, 1985. (SEALED) .....

30. State of New Jersey Commission on Investigation, Executive Session

Testimony of Andrew Dembrowski, March 26, 1985. (SEALED)

31. Affirmation of Alfonse D'Arco, In Re The Matter of: Corruption in Profes-

sional Boxing, March 12, 1993 255

32. FBI memorandum regarding John Joseph Conti and LCN infiltration into

the boxing industry, dated November 4, 1992. (SEALED) *

33. Letter from Carl Moretti to Mr. Steve Levin, dated December 2, 1992,

with attachments:

a. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,
Inc., dated July 2, 1991, for $50,000

b. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,
Inc., dated October 16, 1991, for $25,000

c. Check from Madison Square Garden to World Boxing Council, dated
November 26, 1991, for $18,750

d. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,
Inc., dated November 27, 1991, for $566,250

e. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,

Inc., dated November 27, 1991, for $40,000 256

f. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,
Inc., dated February 20, 1992, for $25,000

g. Check from Madison Square Garden Corporation to Alfred Certissimo,
Inc., dated March 13, 1992, for $25,000

h. Check #505344, marked "void," from Madison Square Garden to

Alfred Certissimo, Inc., dated November 27, 1991, for $40,000 257

i. Memorandum (undated) from Robert Goodman to Al Certo regarding a
$40,000 payment to Stu Weiner 258

34. Copy of Contract between Madison Square Garden Boxing, Inc., and

James "Buddy" McGirt, dated December 12, 1990

35. Contract between Madison Square Garden Boxing, Inc., and James

"Buddy" McGirt, dated March 5, 1991

36. Contract between Madison Square Garden Boxing, Inc., and Don King

Productions, Inc., dated June 1991

37. Copy of promotional fee agreement between James "Buddy" McGirt and

Madison Square Garden Boxing, dated November 26, 1991

38. WBC Welterweight Championship Bout Agreement with Options, dated

November 26, 1991, signed by Bob Goodman, James "Buddy" McGirt,

and Al Certo 259

39. Application for Manager's License by Marco Minuto to New York State

Athletic Commission, dated October 5, 1977

40. Application for License to Manage/ Second by Stuart Weiner to New

Jersey State Athletic Control Board, dated July 2, 1988

41. Copy of Application for Second License by Alfred Certissimo to State

Athletic Commission of Nevada, dated November 20, 1991

42. Copy of License Application by Iran Barkley to the Nevada State Athletic

Commission, dated March 13, 1992

43. Article, "No Escaping Blame," Wallace Matthews, Newsdav, March 11,

1993

44. General Accounting Office analysis of Alfred Certissimo, Inc

45. Report, "Administration of Boxing: History and Regulatory Issues," Gary

L. Galemore, Library of Congress, Congressional Research Service, Gov-
ernment Division, September 18, 1985

46. Article, "Fists Full of Dollars," Richard Hoffer, Sports Illustrated, Janu-

ary 15, 1990, p. 94

47. Deposition of Andrew L. Licari, March 25, 1993

48. Still photograph of Edward Sciandra with Nicodemo Scarfo and Joseph

Todaro 265



Page



4Q rnrresoondence from Bruce Anderson, Oregon Boxing and Wrestling
49 " ^Commrssfonto Steve Levin dated May 4, ^f^Z^uSTl^

PSI Hearings, on Corruption in Professional Boxing, August 11 ana it, ^

SO.D^ti^

* Can be found in the files of the Subcommittee



CORRUPTION IN PROFESSIONAL BOXING

Part II



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 10, 1993

U.S. Senate,
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations,
of the Committee on Governmental Affairs,

Washington, DC.

The Subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:37 a.m., in room
SD-342 Dirksen Senate Office Building, Hon. Sam Nunn, Chair-
man of the Subcommittee, presiding.

Present: Senators Nunn, Roth, Dorgan, Cohen, Cochran, and
McCain.

Staff Present: Eleanore J. Hill, Chief Counsel; Mary D. Robert-
son, Chief Clerk; Harold B. Lippman, Investigator; Cynthia Corn-
stock, Executive Assistant to Chief Counsel; Daniel F. Rinzel, Mi-
nority Chief Counsel; Stephen H. Levin, Minority Counsel; Mary E.
Michels, Minority Counsel; W. Leighton Lord III, Minority Counsel;
Scott Orchard, Minority Investigator; Sallie B. Cribbs, Minority Ex-
ecutive Assistant to the Chief Counsel; Carla J. Martin, Minority
Assistant Chief Clerk; Dale Cabaniss, Senator Stevens; Jennifer
Urff; Senator Dorgan; Gene Harrington, Senator Dorgan; Paul Bru-
baker, Senator Cohen; Matt Frost, Senator Cohen; Grant Fox, Sen-
ator Cochran; and Paul Feeney, Senator McCain.

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR NUNN

Senator Nunn. The Subcommittee will come to order.

This morning, the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
continues our examination of regulatory problems and health and
safety in professional boxing. The hearings today and those sched-
uled for later this month build on the hearings held last August,
which resulted from an investigation initiated by the Subcommit-
tee's ranking minority member, Senator Roth, and his staff.

In August, professional boxers, State boxing commissioners,
boxing experts, and other boxing industry representatives offered
testimony that raised questions about the role of State regulatory
agencies and sanctioning bodies in protecting the interests of pro-
fessional boxers. Since the August hearing, Senator Roth and his
staff have been following up on the testimony presented at that
time.

In today's hearings, we will be receiving additional testimony on
health, safety, and other related issues. I believe that today's testi-
mony will focus on alleged weaknesses and loopholes within profes-

(l)



sional boxing's regulatory structures and national governing
bodies.

We will hear first from Representative Bill Richardson of New
Mexico. Bill, we are delighted to have you here this morning. For
many years, Congressman Richardson has strongly favored the es-
tablishment of a Federal entity to regulate and oversee profession-
al boxing in our country.

Following his testimony, the minority staff will present a sum-
mary of the findings arising from their most recent work.

Following them will be a panel of medical experts who will dis-
cuss various health and safety issues such as injuries experienced
by boxers and reforms that may help prevent these injuries.

Finally, we will hear from two cable television network execu-
tives who will discuss the nature of their industry's involvement in
professional boxing.

As I have so many times in the past, I again thank and commend
Senator Roth and his staff for their hard, diligent work.

Professional boxing has long been a means for easily exploiting
disadvantaged youth to try to escape their otherwise limited cir-
cumstances. As such, it is important that the industry and its regu-
lators recognize the need to maintain appropriate health and safety
standards to protect those young men who are drawn to the sport
as a means to achieve fame and fortune.

With that in mind, I look forward to today's testimony and I am
turning the gavel over to Senator Roth, who will conduct the hear-
ing.

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR ROTH

Senator Roth. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I want to express my
appreciation for your cooperation and that of your staff.

Our previous hearings revealed, as you mentioned, gaps in box-
ing's regulatory structure that threaten the very foundation of the
sport. Boxing regulators from several States testified that if boxing
is not cleaned up, it is in danger of driving itself out of existence.

We have learned that boxers are frequently exploited financially,
that they have little power to protect their own interests. The fi-
nancial power in boxing is overwhelmingly tilted towards promot-
ers, managers, and those who pay the freight for the big fights,
usually television.

The State regulatory agencies, the athletic commissions, or the
boxing commissioners are supposed to stand between the boxer and
the people with the financial power in order to protect the boxers.
We heard testimony last August, and we will hear more today,
about how even the most well-intentioned State regulators find
their rules easily evaded.

For example, Nevada has a rule against option contracts which
tie boxers to a particular promoter for multiple fights. Promoters
routinely evade that regulation even for fights held in Nevada by
having multiple contracts for the same fight, a Nevada contract
with no options and another real contract which includes options.
Whatever one's opinion about the fairness of option contracts, the
fact is that the Nevada regulation has little effect.



State regulators are supposed to protect the health and safety of
boxers. How well is that function being performed? We heard testi-
mony last August from the New York Boxing Commissioner about
a boxer named Ricky Stackhouse. Stackhouse was banned from
boxing in New York because he was considered as no longer having
the ability to adequately defend himself. Stackhouse was also
banned in Florida for the same reason, but nevertheless was subse-
quently allowed to fight in Detroit, Michigan, not just against any
fighter, but against IBF middleweight champion James Toney, and,
predictably, Stackhouse was knocked out in the third round of the
fight.

The New York Commissioner testified as to the travesty of a reg-
ulatory system that would allow this boxer to continue to box any-
where. Seated next to the New York Commissioner when he testi-
fied here in August was the New Jersey Boxing Commissioner. And
where did Ricky Stackhouse next appear in the ring? In Atlantic
City, New Jersey, 4 months after our August hearing, where he
was knocked out again in the third round. Well, so much for health
and safety.

Under boxing's current regulatory structure, young boxers like
Dave Tiberi from Delaware are denied victories they win in the
ring, organized crime figures are allowed to assert influence in the
boxing business, and the health and the safety of boxers is not pro-
tected as it should be.

Boxing has, for decades, provided opportunity to young men,
many of whom are underprivileged, to advance themselves. These
young men deserve much better assurance that their health and
safety, as well as their financial earnings, will be better protected
than under the current inadequate regulatory system.

Today we will hear important testimony about health and safety
issues from several respected and knowledgeable physicians. In ad-
dition, we will hear testimony from HBO Sports and ESPN, the
cable sports channel. HBO arguably plays one of the most impor-
tant roles in the business of boxing today. ESPN broadcasts more
boxing shows than any other entity.

We hope to hear at a later date about the current influence of
organized crime in professional boxing.

Again, I thank you, Mr. Chairman, for your leadership and sup-
port.

Prepared Statement of Senator Roth

In August of last year, this Subcommittee held 2 days of hearings on the profes-
sional boxing industry. As we continue our investigation today and in the future, I
want to commend Senator Nunn for his leadership in pursuing this important inves-
tigation, and I want to thank his staff for their support.

Our previous hearings revealed gaps in boxing's regulatory structure that threat-
en the very foundation of the sport. Boxing regulators from several States testified
that if boxing is not cleaned up, it is in danger of driving itself out of existence.

We learned that boxers are frequently exploited financially, and that they have
little power to protect their own interests. The financial power in boxing is over-
whelmingly tilted towards promoters, managers and those who pay the freight for
the big fights, usually television.

The State regulatory agencies, the athletic commissions, or the boxing commis-
sioners, are supposed to stand between the boxer and the people with the financial
power in order to protect the boxers. But we heard testimony last August, and we
will hear more today, about how even the most well intentioned State regulators
find their rules easily evaded. For example, Nevada has a rule against option con-



tracts which tie boxers to a particular promoter for multiple fights. Promoters rou-
tinely evade that regulation even for fights held in Nevada by having multiple con-
tracts for the same fight — a Nevada contract with no options and another "real"
contract which includes options. Whatever one's opinion about the fairness of option
contracts, the fact is that the Nevada regulation has little effect.

State regulators are supposed to protect the health and safety of boxers. How well
is that function being performed? We heard testimony last August from the New
York Boxing Commissioner about a boxer named Ricky Stackhouse. Stackhouse was
banned from boxing in New York because he was considered as no longer having
the ability to adequately defend himself. Stackhouse was also banned in Florida for
the same reason, but nevertheless was subsequently allowed to fight in Detroit,
Michigan — not just against any fighter, but against IBF middleweight champion
James Toney. Predictably, Stackhouse was knocked out in the 3rd round of the
fight.

The New York Commissioner testified as to the travesty of a regulatory system
that would allow this boxer to continue to box anywhere. Seated next to the New
York Commissioner when he testified here in August was the New Jersey Boxing
Commissioner. And where did Ricky Stackhouse next appear in the ring? In Atlan-
tic City, New Jersey, 4 months after our August hearing, where he was knocked out
again in the 3rd round. So much for health and safety.

Under boxing's current regulatory structure, young boxers like Dave Tiberi from
Delaware are denied victories they win in the ring, organized crime figures are al-
lowed to assert influence in the boxing business, and the health and safety of boxers
is not protected.

Boxing has, for decades, provided opportunity to young men, many of whom are
underprivileged, to advance themselves. These young men, however, deserve much
better assurance that their health and safety as well as their financial earnings will
be better protected than under the current inadequate regulatory system.

Today we will hear important testimony about health and safety issues from sev-
eral respected and knowledgeable physicians. In addition, we will hear testimony
from representatives of HBO Sports and ESPN, the cable sports channel. HBO argu-



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveCorruption in professional boxing : hearings before the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, second session (Volume pt. 2) → online text (page 1 of 28)