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United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Gove.

The Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 online

. (page 20 of 47)
Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 20 of 47)
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Customer country:
Buyer/user



Amount (mtSWU)



End use/reactor Delivery
to be fueled Date



Comments



B. POTENTIAL COMMITMENTS
Japan:NA 1000/yr.



.NA.



.1976-
2000



U.S. :General Electric 100 Foreign reactors 1974

not specified
3500 1974-94

Switzerland:NA NA NA NA

West Germany : KWU NA Proposed

Kaliningrad reactors



.USSR has offered
at least' 1000 nit
SWU annually
beginning in 1976
■and reportedly woul

•'prefer to supply
^. to 4 times that
much.

, .Authorized to con-
clude contract with
USSR but no action
taken.

, .Reports of talks in
1973 concerning
Soviet provision of
enrichment services
No firm date.

..Reportedly, KWU to
purchase natural
uranium on free
world market with
toll enrichment in
USSR.



2. EUR0DIF (FRANCE)



1



A. REPORTED AGREEMENTS /CONTRACTS
JapaniFederatien of eleetrieal.1000 yr.. Te be shared



.1910=11



pewer eempanies representing
9 utilities.
SpaimNA 400.

300.

600.

700.

800.

900.



by 9 utilities



.NA.



.1979
.1980
.1981
.1982
.1983
.1984



SwitierlandsNA 200 or 1000 Kaiaeraugst 1977-89



^urodif's production has been reported as already sold for a 12-yr period.

n'n..Te..»n»» nflf all rnnf.-if.pe X. amnnnfo nf e flnl *• a f 4 .pa .



.Agreement signed
1/26/74, eentraet
signed 6/27/74.
.Spain repertedly
.has given iuredif
.a letter ef intent
.for these amounts
.whieh total 3900
.mtSWU.

. Contract figures ef
200 and 10j6 mtSWU
reported. One sourc
indicates France's
CEA will supply
enrichment for the
first core and firs
2 reloads for
delivery 1977 thru
1979 with Eurodif
supplying subsequen
9 reloads thru 1989



fli-a /rirt'.ti



200



STATUS OF FOREIGN URANIUM ENRICHING SERVICES ACTIVITIES-APR. 1, 1975-CONTINUED
2. EURODIF (FRANCE) -continued



Customer country: End use/reactor Delivery

Buyer/user Amount (mtSWU) to be fueled Date Comments



A. REPORTED AGREEMENTS/CONTRACTS-continued

West Gennany:RWE, EVS 300 2 reactors ..1981 These 2 utilities

currently under have placed orders

construction with Eurodif.

120 1982 '.

120 1983. . . ;'.

120 1984 ,-

B. POTENTIAL COMMITMENTS

Belglum:NA 800/yr NA Post 1980. Annual order

expected to be
around 800 mtSWU.
No firm contracts.

France :EdF 3000/yr NA NA Unconfirmed report

that EdF has placed
an order for this
amount annually for
10 years. No firm
data on contract.
Estimates of EdF' :
requirements fror.
Eurodif amount to
4500/yr.

Iran:NA NA French- NA Under terras of

supplied recent Franco-

reactors Iranian agreement,

Iran will have an
option to receive
10% of Eurodif 's
production.

Italy :CNEN,AGIP 800/yr NA 1981-82. .Italy's estimated

1600/yr NA 1983 requirements from

2000/yr NA 1984-88. .Eurodif . It has beei

2400/yr NA 1989-90. .reported Eurodif ha:

requested Italy to
accept first
delivery in 1979—2
years in advance of
that given in the
estimate.

3. URENCO (UNITED KINGDOM-NETHERLANDS-FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY) 1



A. REPORTED AGREEMENTS .. -

Jest Germany, United Kingdom. .270 NA.... 1977 5 utilities in '..'est

5 utilities 340 1978 Germany have signed

Data pertaining to URENCO sales are conflicting and generally not verified. Most reports
indicate commitments of about 2000 mtSWU for delivery in 1980; figures for total orders
covering 10-yr contracts range from 9000 to 20,000 mtSWU.



201



} STATUS OF FOREIGN URANIUM ENRICHING SERVICES ACTIVITIES-APR. 1, 1975-CONTINUED
3. URENCO (UNITED KINGDOM-NETHERLANDS-FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY) -continued



Customer country:
Buyer/user



Amount (mtSWU)



End use/reactor Delivery
to be fueled Date



Comments



West Germany, UK

5 utilities (cont'd) 750

1250

West Germany, Netherlands 750 NA

6 utilities



Switzerland :NA.



.NA.



B. POTENTIAL COMMITMENTS
France:Electricite de France.. NA.



Japan:NA.



.NA.



Spain :ENUSA.



.NA.



.NA.



1979 letters of intent

1980 for these amounts.

1980. .. .'.Negotiations with
•'6 other utilities
/or orders expecte-
to bring the total
to over 2000 mtSVU
for delivery in 198

NA Reported to have

placed an order wit
URENCO.



.NA NA Unconfirmed reports

in April 1974 that
EdF planned to
discuss a contract
with URENCO. No
further data.

• NA NA Reported discussi.

negotiations for
post-1980 supply.

• NA NA Discussions with

Urenco as part of
Spain's plans to
diversify source of
supply.



202



ACTUAL 5 PROJECTED NUCLEAR POWER EXPORT REVENUES
SELECTED FISCAL YEARS - BILLIONS OF DOLLARS



Enrichment Services-
Production Facilities
§ Other Nuclear Power
Related Equipment^/

Total Nuclear Power
Exports



Cumulative
thru FY 1974


1975


1980


1985


1990


199!


.7


.2


.4


.7


1.1


1.9


3.2


1.0


1.1


1.9


3.5


4.3



3.9



1.2 1.5 2.6



4.6



6.2



^Enrichment revenues through FY 1974 are actual. Projected export revenues
effective FY 75 are based on the price in effect January 1975 of S42.10 per
separative work unit and assumes U.S. will capture in FY 85 and beyond some
45% of projected foreign enrichment demand including Soviet bloc and Peoples
Republic of China

— Projected nuclear power equipment export revenues assumes that the U.S.
will furnish 10-151 of supplier country requirements and up to 100% of
non-supplier country requirements.



203



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207



FOREIGN- LIGHT WATER REACTOR FUEL FABRICATION FACILITIES



Country

Belgium
France



Plant:

Dessel
FBFC



Owner



MMN



U.S. Equity
Partic ipa t ion



Franco-Beige de West. 16%
Fabrication de
Combustibles



Capacit"
(Tons l-d.
Year) l

200

200



France


■ SICN


SICN






50


France


SICREL


SICREL






N.A.


France


Eurofuel


Eurofuel


West. 407.




N.A.


France


Romans


CERCA


Sylvania 22%




80


FRG


RBU


Reaktor

Brennelemente

Union


General Elec.


20%


550



FRG



Alkem



45



FRG



FRG



BBR



Nuklear
Brennstoff



FRG




KRT


Italy


Bosco


Fabricazoni




Marengo


Nuc leari


Italy


Saluggia


Coren


Italy


LFCEC


W-enese


Japan


Yokosuka


JNF


Japan


Tokai Mura


Nuclear Fuel
Industries



Babcock &
Wilcox 74%



N.A.



Westinghouse 407„ N.A.

220

General Elec. 45% 200



Westinghouse 51%
Westinghouse



60

20

560

40



Excludes Communist Bloc Countries.



208

- 2 -



U.S. Equity
Country Plant Owner Participation Capacity

(Tons L'U,
Year) i

Japan Tokai Mitsubishi 420

Netherlands Interfuel Interfuel 30

Sweden Stockholm ASEA Atom 50-100

Sweden Vasteras ASEA Atom 50-100

Sweden ASEA Atom 350

U.K. Springfields BNFL 400

Spain ENUSA N-A .



209



AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION' IN THE
CIVIL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY



A. BILATERALS KITH INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES



Country:



Scope



Effective Date Termination Date



Argentina


Research and


power


July 25, 1969 .


i July 24, 1999


Australia


do




May 28, 19S7


.May 27, 1997


Austria


do




Jan. 24, 1970


" Jan. 23, 2014


Brazil


do




Sept. 20,. 1972


Sept. 19, 2002


Canada


do




July 21, 1955


Julv 13, 1980


China,. Republic of


do




June 22, 1972


June 21, 2014


Colombia


Research




Mar. 29, 1963


Mar. 28, 1977


Finland
Greece-"-


Research and


power


July 7, 1970


July 6, 2000


Research




Aug. 4, 1955


Aug. 3, 1974


India


Power (Tarapur)


Oct. 25, 1963


Oct. 24, 1993


Indonesia


Research




Sept. 21, 1960


Sept. 20, 1980


Iran


do




Apr. 27, 1957


.Apr. 26, 1979


Ireland


do




July 9, 1958


July 8, 1978


Israel


do




July 12, 1955


Apr. 11, 1977


Italy


Research and


power


Apr. 15, 1958


.Apr. 14, 1978


Japan


do




July 10, 1968


Julv 9, 2003


Korea


do




Mar. 19, 1973


Mar. 18, 2014


Norway


do




June 8, 1967


June 7, 1997


Philippines


do




July 19, 1968


Julv 18, 1998


Portugal


do




June 26, 1974


June 25, 2014


South Africa


do




Aug. 22, 1957


Aug. 27, 2007


Spain


do




June 28, 1974


June 27, 2014


Sweden


do




Sept. 15, 1966


Sept. 14, 1996


Switzerland


do




Aug. 8, 1966


Aug. 7, 1996


Thailand


do




June 27, 1974


June 26, 2014


Turkey


Research




June 10, 1955


June 9, 1981


United Kingdom


Research and


power


July 21, 1955


July 20, 1976


Do


Power




July 15, 1966


July 14, 1976


Venezuela


Research and


power


Feb. 9, 1960


Feb. 8, 1980


Vietnam, Republic of


Research




July 1, 1959


June 30, 1979



1/



Superseding research and power agreement in abeyance; U.S. material coverej.
by IAEA (NPT) safeguards.



210



AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE
CIVIL USES OF ATOMIC ENERGY



B. BILATERALS WITH INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

Organization: !

European atomic energy Joint nuclear power program Feb. 18, 1959 Dec. 31, 1985
community (EURATOM) - ;

EURATOM Additional agreement to July 25, 1960 Dec. 31, 1995

joint nuclear power
program

International Atomic Supply of materials, etc. Aug. 7, 1959 Aug. 6, 2014
Energy Agency (IAEA)

INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

Special arrangements:

United States-U.S.S.R. Agreement on scientific and June 21, 1973 June 20, 1983

technical cooperation for
the peaceful uses of atomic
energy .



United States - Memorandum on cooperation in Jan 1 , 1973
Romania peaceful uses of atomic

energy .



2/



y

Remains in effect until representatives of the USERDA and Government of
Romania have the opportunity to discuss a renewal of the memoranda.



211



UNITED STATES- IAEA TRILATERAL SAFEGUARDS AGREEMENTS FOR
APPLICATION OF IAEA SAFEGUARDS TO U.S. -SUPPLIED MATERIALS





Effective


Termination
Date 1


3d Party


Date


Argentina .
Australia (suspended July 10, 1974)


July 25, 1969


AC •'


Sept. 26, 1966


.: AC


Austria (suspended July 23, 1972) 1
Brazil (amended Sept. 20, 1972)


Jan. 24, 1970


. AC


Oct. 31, 1968


" AC


China, Republic of


Dec. 6, 1971


AC


Colombia


Dec. 9, 1970


AC


Denmark (suspended Mar. 1, 1972)1


Feb. 29, 1968


AC


India


Jan. 27, 1971


AC


Indonesia


Dec. 6, 1967


AC


Iran (suspended May 15, 1974) 1


Aug. 20, 1969


AC


Israel


June 15, 1966


April 4, 1975


Japan


July 10, 1968


AC


Korea (amended Mar. 19, 1973)


Jan. 5, 1968


AC


Philippines (suspended Oct. 16, 1974) 2


July 19, 1968


AC


Portugal


July 19, 1969


AC


South Africa (amended June 28, 1974)


July 26, 1967


AC


Spain (amended June 28, 1974)


Dec. 9, 1966


AC


Sweden


Mar. 1, 1972


AC


Switzerland


Feb. 28, 1972


AC


Turkey


June 5, 1969


AC


Venezuela


Mar. 27, 1968


AC



AC indicates termination on same date as agreement for cooperation
^ Suspended in view of NPT safeguards agreement with IAEA



212



NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY AND SAFEGUARDS STATUS OF COUNTRIES
WITH WHICH THE UNITED STATES HAS AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION



Country


NPT Status




Safeguards


Argentina








IAEA Trilateral


Australia


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


Austria


do






Do .


Brazil








IAEA Trilateral


Canada ^
China, Republic of


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


do






IAEA Trilateral


Colombia


Signed, but


not


ratified


Do


Denmark


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


Finland


do






Do


Greece


do






Do


India








IAEA Trilateral


Indonesia


Signed, but


not


ratified


Do


Ireland


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


Iran


do






Do


Israel








IAEA Trilateral


Japan


Signed, but


not


ratified


Do


Korea


Ratified






Do


Norway


do






IAEA-NPT


Philippines


do






Do


Portugal








IAEA Trilateral


South Africa








Do


Spain








Do


Sweden^


Ratified






Do


Switzerland


Signed, but


not


ratified


Do


Thailand


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


Turkey


Signed, but


not


ratified


IAEA Trilateral


Venezuela


do






Do


Viet Nam


Ratified






IAEA-NPT


United Kingdom- 3











1 An NPT safeguards agreement has not been concluded between the
IAEA and ROC as a result of the ROC's explusion from the IAEA in December
1971. The IAEA Trilateral Safeguards Agreement, however, is still in
effect and being implemented.

* Negotiation of an NPT safeguards agreement is underway with the IAEA

3 The United States/United Kingdom agreement for Cooperation in the power
reactor field envisages the application of IAEA safeguards on any enriched fuel
provided by the United States. No such material has been provided to date.



213



NON-PROLIFERATION' TREATY AND SAFEGUARDS STATUS OF COUNTRIES
WITH WHICH THE UNITED STATES HAS AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION



NOTE: In addition to the above, the Euratom states (Belgium, Federal

Republic of Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) are
in the process of ratifying the NPT, following which the IAEA/
Euratom safeguards agreement will come into force. In the-'
meantime, Euratom safeguards apply. France, which is not an
NPT party, will continue to be subject to Euratom safeguards insofar
as United States-supplied materials and equipment are concerned.



214

Responses to Senator RLbicoff's Questions

Question 1. Last week, Dr. David Rosenbaum provided details of an

alleged incident in which nuclear officials in India confiscated
the tape of a plutcnium-neasuring device used by an IAEA
inspector. This allegedly took place before India detonated
its peaceful nuclear explosion last year.

(a) What information do you have on this alleged incident?
When was this information first received, and was it
relayed by the IAEA?

(b) If India refused to allow IAEA to take independent
measurements of plutcnium generated by its imported
reactors, what action did the IAEA take against India?

(c) Ihder the circumstances, how can EEDA justify continued nuclear
exports to India, a non-NPT nation?

(d) What advance knowledge did we have of India's plans to
detonate a "peaceful nuclear explosive?"'

Answer

1. a t b We were aware of Dr. Rosenbaum' s report of the alleged incident

la»t June or July. However, the facts of the situation do

not support the contention (a) that the tape was confiscated,

(b) that the device in question was a plutcnium measuring



215

device, or (c) that the data on the tape was safeguards
inspection data. The facts, which were obtained frcm the
IAEA, are as follows:

Seme of the individual rods in the Tarapur reactor fuel
assenblies in the core were leaking. The Indian authorities
wished to take low burn-up rods from already discharged
assemblies to put in place of the leaking rods in the fuel
assemblies in the core. However, they did not have a way
of verifying which rods had least bum-up. The IAEA became
aware of this problem and advised the Indian authorities that
they were developing an instrument for possible safeguards
application which could measure burn-up in rods, but that they
did not have access to actual irradiated fuel rods. The IAEA
worked out a mutually beneficial arrangement with India whereby
an IAEA instrument specialist, designated as an ad-hoc inspector,
went along on a routine IAEA inspection in January 1974 to do
developmental work with the instrument and, at the same time,
to identify the low burn-up rods the Indian authorities were
looking for. The instrument readout is a real-time display on
a cathode ray tube. In order to have the ability to replay this
data for further evaluation and review on-site, the information
was recorded on a magnetic tape cassette. Successful evaluation
of the data was performed on-site by the IAEA and Indian
authorities. According to arrangements between the IAEA and
India which were made prior to the experiment, the tape is kept
on file at the reactor site and is available for additional review



216



by Agency inspectors or facility personnel at any time.

Thus, India did not violate any of its safeguards commitments
and the episode in question was an experimental exercise which
benefitted both the IAEA in testing its developmental techniques
and India in locating its low bum -up rods . Both the IAEA and
India agreed in advance that the magnetic tape cassette
would remain at the reactor.

l.c The Agreement for Cooperation between India and the US

is limited. to cooperative activities associated with the
Tarapur Atomic Power Station. Nuclear exports under this
Agreement are therefore limited to this civil application of
nuclear energy and are subject to IAEA safeguards. The
Agreement for Cooperation provides that the Tarapur reactors
will only be fueled with US supplied nuclear material. The
uranium fuel supplied for the Tarapur is low enriched uranium
which cannot itself be used for a nuclear explosive. The
Agreement furtfvaT r>-rrt"±^p*f f^afc the irradiated Tarapur
reactor fuel (which contains plutonium) may be reprocessed
in Indian facilities upon a joint determination that safeguards
may be effectively applied, or in other mutually acceptable
facilities. Following our request, the Government of India



217



-4-



has recently assured the Government of the United
States that it shares our understanding that, under the
agreement, the nuclear material that has been or will
be made available or used, or produced in the Tarapur Atomic
Power Station will be devoted exclusively to the needs of
that station unless the two governments specifically agree
that such material be used for other purposes. This under-



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 20 of 47)