United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Gove.

The Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 36 of 47)
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program by being provided with nuclear power reactors and associated
facilities. It should be noted, however, that all the basic nuclear
power technology has been published, so there are no special secrets.


Senator Abraham Ribicoff

- 2

May 12, 1975

Furthermore, modern nuclear power reactors involve investments
ranging into the hundreds of millions of dollars. Any recipient
country which chose to use the plutonium generated in such reactors
for a nuclear weapons program would put at peril its supply of en-
riched uranium to fuel the reactor, if it is of the type used and
sold by U.S. companies. Under those circumstances it is very un-
likely that any of the nations which can enrich uranium (US, UK,
France, USSR and PRC) would supply or continue to supply enriched
uranium for fuel. That would mean that the reactor would be useless,
negating a heavy investment and a major source of electric power.

Any such nation, desirous of achieving a nuclear weapons capability,
has a much more logical route to follow. For a few tens of millions
of dollars it could build a research-sized reactor, fueled with nat-
ural uranium. This sum would also cover a pilot plant for processing
plutonium from the fuel. All this could be done with indigenous tech-
nical capability by essentially any of the countries which are likely
to want a nuclear weapons capability. The technology has all been
published and it is a much less demanding technology than that asso-
ciated with nuclear power reactors.

Of course, everyone is concerned about nuclear proliferation. That,
however, does not automatically justify every idea advanced for a
solution. The simple fact is that the United States cannot dictate
a solution as S.1439 would strive to do. The resources and technology
of nuclear energy are available to many nations, independently of the
U.S., hence we can only progress through persuasion, leadership, and
setting a good example, domestically. The history of the negotiations
leading to the Non-Prolif eration Treaty bring this out clearly. In-
dustry wholeheartedly supports such initiatives by the government.

"2. Why wasn't the nuclear terrorist threat recognized years ago?
Dr. Ted Taylor was writing confidential memos on the problem to
Federal agencies and the IAEA as far back as 1965. It was only when
he went public on the problem that the government and the industry
began to acknowledge it.

"(a) Why weren't his earliest warnings, as well as the

activities of the PLO, the IRA, the Minuteman, heeded
at the time?

"(b) Why were warnings about the dangers of nuclear theft
and of crude nuclear weapons attacked by the nuclear
industry and the AEC as "exaggerations" and "scare tac-
tics" as recently as a year ago?"

Your questions imply that the government should have moved earlier
in recognition of terrorist type threats. I agree. You also state


Senator Abraham Ribicoff - 3 - May 12, 1975

that industry and governmental personalities have labeled the
dangers of nuclear theft and crude nuclear weapons as "exaggera-
tions" and "scare tactics". I generally disagree with that view
though I do believe that there has been some overdramatizing of
the problems. Even so, I take the threat as being sufficiently
serious so that it must be dealt with effectively. Most respon-
sible leaders in government and industry seem to take the same

Your questions imply that industry was slow to respond. I think
that is an unfair charge. Industry had no knowledge of Dr. Ted
Taylor's confidential memos, nor did industry have knowledge of
the ease with which crude weapons could be fashioned from reactor
grade plutonium. Taylor put that in the public record only about
two years ago.

It is not correct to imply that Taylor's publicity caused the
federal government to initiate action. The regulations on safe-
guards set forth by the AEC in the fall of 1973 had their genesis
at least a year earlier. The main effect of Taylor's efforts was
to speed up the issuance by about six months. Since then his ef-
forts have also undoubtedly served as a spur to the AEC and NRC to
study and to make further improvements, but it is incorrect to
assume that we would not have moved forward without the publicity.

On the other hand, the publicity attendant to Taylor's efforts have
in my opinion increased the actual threat level at least tenfold.
I argued privately and unsuccessfully over the years that a little
more patience and a lot less publicity would better protect the pub-
lic interest. One has only to look at the contagious nature of new
criminal techniques - skyjacking, for example - to drive home the
point .

"3. When the U.S. was in the dominent position you describe with
respect to supplying nuclear technology and materials, why didn't
we dictate strict safeguards specifications on all of our nuclear
exports, in keeping with our vital common defense and security

"(a) For example, why didn't we require uniform physical
security measures?

"(b) Why didn't we require tougher materials-accounting
safeguards than those now applied by the IAEA?

" (c) Perhaps of most significance from an industry stand-
point, why didn't we refuse to export our nuclear
designs and other technology to future nuclear rivals
like France and West Germany unless they agreed to
apply safeguards comparable to ours on their nuclear


Senator Abraham Ribicoff - 4 - May 12, 1975

In retrospect we probably should have done more. At the time we
dealt with the threats as they were then understood and we nego-
tiated bilaterally and through IAEA the safeguards arrangements
we thought necessary for dealing with the perceived threats.

"4. If the world's national leaders are as concerned about the
threat of nuclear theft as you say, why aren't uniform physical
security measures being adopted at the NPT Review Conference in
Geneva next week?

"(a) Why can't the U.S. get other nations to sign an in-
ternational convention on physical security?

"(b) If the threat and the need are so great, why can't we

apply tough physical security conditions on our exports,
at least over the next 3 to 5 years the expected dura-
tion of our virtual monopoly over supplying enriched
uranium fuel to the Free World?

Your questions make assumptions about the future. I remain confi-
dent that cooperation on physical security measures will prove com-
pletely achievable. As I indicated at your committee's hearing,
however, bilateral negotiations on physical security are probably
much more practical than multi-lateral negotiations. Each country
has special law enforcement considerations. Most countries want to
keep their security measures confidential in order that they not be
compromised. Bilateral negotiations help in this.

"5. If we made the State Department the lead nuclear export agency
as you suggest, how could we guarantee that technical safeguards
judgments would be made independent of foreign-policy and trade con-

"(a) Don't we need these technical judgments to be made by
an independent regulatory agency like the NRC?"

I believe that foreign policy and trade considerations should play
a part in decision-making, but also we must be satisfied that our
national security interests are satisfied. The State Department is
in a much better position than NRC to pull the whole picture together,

"6. The Committee heard testimony from ERDA representatives that
U.S. sales of uranium and uranium-enrichment services abroad last
year totaled $421 million, and that expected sales over the next
decade would come to about $5 billion at today's prices. This is an
addition to about $2 billion in annual sales abroad by the U.S. nu-
clear industry.


Senator Abraham Ribicoff - 5 - May 12, 1975

"(a) Do these figures correspond to your own?
"(b) Can you give us a comparative breakdown of such
sales by other nations?"

I have no figures of this kind. I believe Representative Price
of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy was the source of the
figures you quote.





February 1. 1975


Abbott Laboratories

Abraham & Co.

Aeroiet Nuclear Company

Aetna Life & Casualty Insurance Companies

Agncola Metals Corporation

AiResearch Manufacturing Company
A Division of The Garrett Corporation

* Alabama Power Company
Alexander & Alexander, Inc.

* Allegheny Power Service Corporation

Allegheny Power System, Inc.

Allendale Mutual Insurance Company

Allied Chemical Corporation

Allied-General Nuclear Services

AMAX Specialty Metals Corporation

A Subsidiary of American Metal Climax, Inc

American Air Filter Company, Inc.

* American Electric Power Co Inc.
American Electric Power Service Corporation
American International Group

American Nuclear Corp.
The Anaconda Company
Arthur Andersen & Co.
' Appalachian Power Company
Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne Universities Association
Arizona Atomic Energy Commission
Arizona Public Service Company

* Arkansas-Missouri Power Corrtpany

• Arkansas Power & Light Company

Arkwright Boston Manufacturers Mutual
Insurance Company


Atlantic City Electric Company

Atlantic Richfield Company

Atlas Minerals

Division of Atlas Corporation

Atomics International Division
Rockwell International

City of Austin Electric Utility

Austral Oil Company Incorporated

■ Denotes organizations which are considered members
through parent, subsidiarv or holding companies

Automation Industries, Inc
Nuclear Services Division

Avco Everett Research Laboratory

The Babcock & Wilcox Company

David L. Babson & Co., Inc.

Baker & Botts

Baker & McKenzie

Baltimore Gas and Electric Company

Bangor Hydro-Electric Company

Bank of America N.T. & S.A.

Bankers Trust Company

Battelle Memorial Institute
Columbus Laboratories

Battelle Memorial Institute

Pacific Northwest Laboratories

BEAK Consultants Inc.

Bechhoefer, Snapp, Sharlitt, Lyman & Whitney

Bechtel Corporation

Black & Veatch, Consulting Engineers

Blyth Eastman Dillon & Co., Inc.

The Boeing Company

Bonneville Power Administration

Boston Edison Company

Bovay Engineers, Inc.

C F Braun & Co

Brookhaven National Laboratory
(Associated Universities, Inc.)

Brown & Root, Inc.

G. Edwin Brown, Jr., Consultant to Management on
Nuclear Energy Applications

Byron Jackson Pump Division
Borg-Warner Corporation

California Institute of Technology
'Cambridge Electric Light Co.
Capital Concepts, Inc.
Carnegie-Mellon University
Carolina Power & Light Company
The Catholic University of America
CBI Company

Central and South West Corporation
Central Hudson Gas & Electric Corporation
Central Maine Power Company


" Central Power and Light Company

Central Vermont Public Service Corporation

CER Geonuclear Corporation

Ceramic Cooling Tower Company

The Chase Manhattan Bank

Chem Nuclear Systems Inc.

Chemtree Corporation

Chevron Research Company

A Standard Oil Company of California Subsidiary

Chickering & Gregory

The Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company

Cities Service Company

Clark, Klein, Winter, Parsons & Prewitt

The Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Company

The Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company

Clifton & Company

Roger J. Coe, Consultant

Coleman and Company

Collier Cobb & Associates, Inc.

Collins Securities Corporation

Colorado Interstate Gas Company

Columbia University

Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric Company

Combustion Engineering, Inc.

Commerce Clearinghouse, Inc.

Commonwealth Associates, Inc.

Commonwealth Edison Company

Computer Sciences Corporation

* The Connecticut Light & Power Company

State of Connecticut

Planning and Budgeting Division

Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company

Michael Connelly & Associates

Conner, Hadlock & Knotts

Conover & Associates, Inc.

Consolidated Energy Services, Inc.

Consumers Power Company

The Continental Insurance Company

Continental Oil Company

Control Components, Inc., a Subsidiary of
Babcock & Wilcox Company

Cornell University

Cosmodyne, A Cordon International Company

Cotter Corporation

Crawford Fitting Company

Cresap, McCormick and Paget Inc.

' CSR Services, Inc.

CTi-Nuclear, inc. (A Subsidiary of
Gryogenic Technology, inc.)

Curtiss-Wnght Corporation

1 CVI Corporation

A Pennwalt Subsidiary

Dairyland Power Cooperative
" Dallas Power & Light Co.
Dames & Moore
Daniel Construction Company
Dawn Mining Company
The Dayton Power and Light Company
Debevoise, Plimpton, Lyons & Gates
Delmarva Power & Light Company
Dernbach-Richardson, Inc.
The Detroit Edison Company
The Dow Chemical Company
Dravo Corporation
Duke Power Company
Joseph M. Dukert, Consultant
E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company Incorporated
Duquesne Light Company

Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc.
Miami Research Laboratories

Earthquake Engineering Systems

Eastman Kodak Company

Ebasco Services Incorporated

Eberline Instrument Corporation

F. Eberstadt & Co., Inc.

Eckert, Seamans, Cherin & Mellot

Ecodyne Corporation, Ecodyne Cooling Products Co.

EDAW, Inc.

Edlow International Company

EDS Nuclear Inc.

EG&G, Inc.

El Paso Natural Gas Company

Electro-Mechanics, Inc.

Electro-Nucleonics, Inc.

Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp.

Energy Incorporated

Engelhard Minerals & Chemicals Corporation

Envirex Inc. a Rexnord Company

Environmental Analysts Incorporated

Environmental Research & Technology, Inc. (ERT)


Environmental Science and Engineering, Inc.

Environmental Systems Corporation

Envirotek Systems

ESCO Corporation

Eugene Water & Electric Board

Everest Exploration

Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc.

' Factory Mutual Engineering Corporation
Rafford L. Faulkner, Consultant
Federal Resources Corporation
Felmont Oil Corporation
The First National City Bank of New York
Florida Power Corporation
Florida Power & Light Company
Fluor Pioneer Inc.
Ford, Bacon & Davis Incorporated
Dr. Frederick Forscher, Consultant
The Foxboro Company
The Franklin Institute Research Laboratories
French American Metals Corporation
Fried, Frank, Harris, Shnver & Jacobson

General Atomic Company

General Electric Company

General Energy Resources, Inc.

General Public Utilities Corporation

Georgia Institute of Technology
' Georgia Power Company

Geotechnical Engineers. Inc.
" Getty Oil Company

Gibbs& Hill, Inc.

Gilbert Associates, Inc.

Goldman, Sachs & Co.

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company
* GPU Service Corporation

Green Mountain Power Corporation

Grove Manufacturing Company

Gulf Energy & Minerals Company

Gulf Oil Corporation
" Gulf Power Company

Gulf States Utilities Company

William E. Haddican, Consultant

Hales & Co.

Frank B. Hall & Co., Inc.
' The Hartford Electric Light Company

The Hartford Insurance Group

Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company

Harvard University

Haskins & Sells

Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc.

Hayward Tyler, Inc.

Hittman Corporation
' Holyoke Water Power Company

Homestake Mining Company

Craig Hosmer, Energy Consultant

Houston Lighting & Power Company

Idaho Nuclear Energy Commission

Illinois Power Company

' Indiana & Michigan Electric Co.

Indianapolis Power & Light Company

Industrial BIO TEST Laboratories, Inc.
A Subsidiary of Nalco Chemical Company

Inexco Oil Company

The Ingersoll Milling Machine Company

Intelcom Rad Tech

Intermagnetics General Corporation

International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers

International Business Machines Corporation

Interstate Power Company

Iowa Electric Light and Power Company

Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric Company

Iowa Power and Light Company

Iowa State University of Science and Technology

Irving Trust Company

Isham, Lincoln & Beale

ITEL Leasing Corporation

C. Itoh & Co (America) Inc

Jacksonville Electric Authority
Fred S. James & Co.
" Jersey Central Power & Light Company
Johnson & Higgins
E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc.
J. A. Jones Construction Company
Joy Manufacturing Company


Kaiser Engineers, Division of
Kaiser Industries Corporation

Kansas City Power & Light Company

Kansas Gas and Electric Company

Kansas State University

The M.W. Kellogg Company

M.F. Kent, Consultant

Kentucky Department of Health

Kentucky Power Co.

Kerr-McGee Corporation

Kibbe & Associates

Kidder, Peabody & Co., Inc.

Kinemetncs Inc.

" Kingsport Power Co.

KMS Fusion, Inc.

Korn/Ferry & Associates

Lawler, Matusky & Skelly Engineers

LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae

Lehman Brothers Incorporated

Arthur S. "Jack" Lewis

Liberty Mutual Insurance Companies

Limnetics, Inc.

Arthur D. Little, Inc.

Lockwood Greene Engineers, Inc.

Long Island Lighting Company

Lord, Abbett & Co.

Department of Water and Power
The City of Los Angeles

* Louisiana Power & Light Company

Lowenstem, Newman, Reis & Axelrad

Lower Colorado River Authority

McCormack's Highway Transportation, Inc

McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co.

The McElroy-Minister Company

Chas. T. Mam, Inc.

Mallinckrodt Inc.

Marathon Oil Company

Margolis Industrial Services


The Marley Company

Marsh & McLennan Incorporated

Marubeni America Corporation

Maryland Department of Natural Resources
Power Plant Siting Program

" Massachusetts Electric Company

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Maynard & Kalkman, Inc.

Earle V. Maynard & Company

Medi Physics, Inc.

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Inc.
" Metropolitan Edison Company

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California

Michigan Memorial-Phoenix Project
The University of Michigan

" Michigan Power Company

* Middle South Services, Inc.

Middle South Utilities. Inc.

Minnesota Environmental Quality Council
Power Plant Siting Staff

Minnesota Power & Light Company

* Mississippi Power Company

" Mississippi Power & Light Company

Mississippi State University
" Missouri Edison Company

* Missouri Power & Light Co.
The MITRE Corporation
Mitsubishi International Corporation
Mitsui & Co. (U.S.A.), Inc.

Mobil Oil Corporation

* Monongahela Power Company
Monsanto Research Corporation

Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York

Morgan, Lewis & Bockius

Morgan Stanley & Co

MPR Associates, Inc.

MSA Research Corporation

Multiple Line Agency, Inc.

Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters

' Narragansett Electric Co.

National Economic Research Associates, Inc.

National Nuclear Corporation

Naval Facilities Engineering Command
Navy Department

Nebraska Public Power District

NEGEA Service Corporation

Neutron Products, Inc.
" New Bedford Gas and Edison Company

New England Electric System
* New England Gas and Electric Association


New England Nuclear Corporation

New England Petroleum Corporation
' New England Power Company
' New England Power Service Company

New Jersey State Department of Environmental Protection
' New Orleans Public Service, Inc.

New York State Atomic and Space Development Authority

New York State Department of Commerce

New York State Electric & Gas Corporation

Newport News Industrial Corporation

Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

Nixon, Hargrave, Devans & Doyle

NL Industries, Inc.

North Carolina State University

Northeast Nuclear Energy Company

Northeast Utilities
' Northeast Utilities Service Company

Northern Indiana Public Service Company

Northern States Power Company

Nuclear & Systems Sciences Group
Holmes & Narver, Inc.

Nuclear Associates International Corporation

Nuclear Assurance Corporation

Nuclear Energy Liability-Property Insurance Association

Nuclear Engineering Company, Inc.

Nuclear Exchange Corporation

Nuclear Fuel Services. Inc.

Nuclear Management Inc.

Nuclear Safety Associates

Nuclear Services Corporation

Nuclear Surveillance & Auditing Corporation (NuSAC)

NUS Corporation

Warren E. Nyer, Consultant

Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Obnon, Russell & Co.

Offshore Power Systems

O'Gorman & Young, Inc.

Ohio Edison Company

" Ohio Power Company

The Ohio State University

Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union,

Oil and Gas Futures, Inc. of Texas

Omaha Public Power District

Oregon State University

Pacific Gas and Electric Company

Pacific Power & Light Company

The Ralph M. Parsons Company

Pathway Bellows, Inc.
' Pennsylvania Electric Company
' Pennsylvania Power Company

Pennsylvania Power & Light Company

The Pennsylvania State University

Pennwalt Corporation

Arthur V. Peterson Associates

Phelps Dodge Corporation

Philadelphia Electric Company

Phillips Petroleum Company

Physics International Company

Pickard, Lowe and Associates

Pinnacle Exploration, Inc.

Subsidiary of Callahan Mining Corporation

Pioneer Nuclear, Inc.

Lucius Pitkin, Inc.

Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company

Placer Amex, Inc.

Polytechnic Institute of New York (PINY)

Portland General Electric Company
* The Potomac Edison Company

Potomac Electric Power Company

Power Authority of the State of New York

Power Technologies, Inc.

Price Waterhouse & Co.

Programmed & Remote Systems Corporation

PruLease, Inc.

Public Service Commission of New York

Public Service Company of Colorado

Public Service Company of New Hampshire

Public Service Company of New Mexico
" Public Service Company of Oklahoma

Public Service Electric and Gas Company

Public Service Indiana

Public Utility District No. 1 of Snohomish County (Wash.)

Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority

Puget Sound Power & Light Company

Purdue Research Foundation

Quantum Associates

Radiation Management Corporation

Ranchers Exploration and Development Corporation


Raychem Corporation

Reactor Controls, Inc.

W.H. Reaves* Co., Inc.

Reddy Kilowatt, Inc.

Reid & Priest

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Research-Cottrell, Inc.

Reynolds, Smith and Hills

Rice University

Roane-Anderson Economic Council

David S. Robertson & Associates, Inc.

Rochester Gas and Electric Corporation

Rockwell International

Rural Electrification Administration

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

SAI, Inc.

St. Joe Minerals Corporation

St. Joseph Light & Power Company

Salt River Project

City Public Service Board of San Antonio

San Diego Gas & Electric Company

Sanderson 8c Porter, Inc.

Sandvik Special Metals Corporation

Sargent & Lundy

Schiff Hardin & Waite

Science House

G.D. Searle & Co.

City of Seattle, Department of Lighting

Security Pacific National Bank

Separative Work Unit Corporation (SWUCO)

Shaw, Pittman, Potts & Trowbridge

Shell Oil Company

ShowSphere, Incorporated

Shulman Air Freight, Inc.

Sierra Pacific Power Company

Snell & Wilmer

South Carolina Electric & Gas Company

South Carolina State Development Board

Southern California Edison Company

' The Southern Company

Southern Interstate Nuclear Board

Southern Services, Inc.

Southwest Research Institute

Department of Special Engineering

'Southwestern Electric Power Company
E.R. Squibb & Sons
STAFCO Associates
Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
Stanford Research Institute
Stanford University
Stanley Consultants, Inc.
Stat-A-Matrix, Inc.
Stearns-Roger Corporation
Bill Stokes Associates
The S.M. Stoller Corporation
Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation
STV, Inc.

Sumitomo Shoji America, Inc.
SUNTAC Nuclear Corporation
Systems, Science and Software

Tampa Electric Company

Technical Operations, Incorporated

Teknekron, Inc.

Teledyne Isotopes

Tennessee Valley Authority

Terradex Corporation

Texas A&M University

Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation

* Texas Electric Service Company
Texas Instruments Incorporated

* Texas Power & Light Co.
Texas State Technical Institute
Texas Utilities Company

* Texas Utilities Services, Inc.
3M Company

Todd Shipyards Corporation
The Toledo Edison Company
Transnuclear, Inc.
The Travelers Indemnity Company
Tri-City Nuclear Industrial Council, Inc.
TriState Motor Transit Co.
Tucson Gas & Electric Company
Turco Products, Inc.

Underwood, Jordan Associates Inc.
Underwriters Service, Inc.
Union Bank


Union Carbide Corporation

Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 36 of 47)