United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Gove.

The Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 online

. (page 45 of 47)
Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 45 of 47)
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Research and Development Administration (Erda) for enriched nuclear
fuel to power South Africa's first 1000 megawatt nuclear power reactor.
Further, the Export- Import Bank is considering guaranteeing a loan to
General Electric for the purchase of the reactors, whose total value is
$227 million.

Given South Africa's probable inclination towards nuclear weapons
development, and given that these transactions would directly facilitate
such efforts, the essential rationale behind the U.S. arms embargo
against South Africa is equally applicable here. That is, in order
to contribute to a peaceful solution to the problems of Southern
Africa and to avoid any steps which might at this point directly
contribute to international friction in the area, the U.S. should
cease its nuclear assistance to South Africa.

Never more than at the present time of change in Southern Africa,
has South Africa been faced with such a challenge to its domestic
racial order, particularly in the aftermath of the Portuguese collapse
in Angola and Mozambique. The collapse of Portuguese colonialism has
stripped away South Africa's buffer-clients in these areas, exposing
it more directly to independent Black Africa, which opposes South
Africa's apartheid system and its continued dominance in the Southern African
region. These factors increase the pressure and international isolation
of South Africa. Observers have long speculated that if South Africa's
military position became serious enough, the government would switch to
nuclear defense.


- 6

South Africa's growing nuclear potential is further confirmed
by London's highly regarded Institute for Strategic Studies,
which recently rated South Africa as a "Nuclear Threshold Power"
with capability of nuclear weapons production in three years.

In the event of a deteriorating situation in these areas, thus
raising tensions throughout Southern Africa, and involving the
independent African states, it is not inconceivable that Pretoria might
employ Nuclear Blackmail aimed at intimidating hostile Black-ruled
neighbors. The use of Nuclear Blackmail by South Africa against Black
African states would almost certainly raise international tensions of
such a nature that might invite external intervention by Superpowers
and possibly risk revival of Cold War confrontation.

The overriding instability in Southern Africa, notwithstanding
efforts at "detente" by South Africa, means that the United States should
not in any way contribute to the development of Pretoria's military
technology, and thus create a factor for further instability in this
troubled region. In the absence of signing the NPT, the United States
should not supply South Africa or any other non-signatory state with
enriched uranium which could only accelerate its development from a
"Nuclear Threshold Power" into a genuine nuclear power which might use
its capability to bring into being a full-scale international crisis.


War Control Planndrs, Inc.,
Washington, B.C., April 24, 1915.
Hon. Abraham A. Ribicoff,
Chairman, Government Operations Committee,
U.S. Senate,
Washington, B.C.

Dear Mr. Chairman : At today's Hearing several Committee Members agreed
with one witness who observed that when American official representatives
work with the representatives of other nations in international institutions like
the International Atomic Agency and other international instrumentalities, it
always became apparent that the representatives of other nations came into
the session with a clearcut long range national objective and strategy. * * *
while in contrast the American representative had had no orientation to a
coherent and constant U.S. global objective and strategy.

"Sound national security interests and objectives are the keys to effective
strategies. For most of the past decade, this posed some awkward problems in
the United States and since no interests or objectives were formally recorded by
the Executive Branch during either the Kennedy or Johnson Administrations.
As a result, strategists in the Departments of State and Defense, and in the
Joint Chiefs of Staff, were compelled to identify, interpret, and contrive their
own lists from National Security Action Memorandums, private and public
pronouncements of the President, and from speeches, presentations to Congress,
and individual statements by other influential officials in the U.S. government.
That 'do-it-yourself system was seldom satisfactory, since it depended on too
many conflicting or ambiguous utterances which were subject to irreconcilable
interpretations, and thus were rendered almost meaningless by compromise."
From Chapter 10 of the book GRAND STRATEGY: Principles and Practices
by Col. John M. Collins of the Congressional Research Service, published by
the Naval Institute Press. (It should be added that the same vacuum of Con-
gressional and public ignorance of the true world objectives of U.S. strategic
power has continued and intensified under Presidents Nixon and Ford.)

The present series of Hearings will be quite inconclusive because each wit-
ness testifies from his or her own basic assumptions of what the U.S. strategic
objectives are, and for what purpose a generation of American citizens have
been required to suffer, sacrifice and die.

For a generation White House global objectives and strategy have been con-
trolled by special interests dealing directly with the White House top-secret
command sanctuary through private contacts * * * ignoring the elected Con-
gress, the press and the American people. There are special interests which
have found escalating personal wealth or position or power from the escalating
national danger of the ever-escalating Kremlin/White House race to produce
the global technologies of strategic power.

These special interests, more familiar with their own private goals than with
the needs of the American people, have mismanaged their control over the
sovereign power of the American people in world affairs.until the American
people today have been led toward approaching American tragedy and chaos.

In today's Hearing Senator Percy mentioned that for twenty years the Senate
Foreign Relations Committee had never held a single Hearing on this subject.
The problem is even more threatening than this, because there is no Committee
in the Senate or the House which has the authority or the jurisdiction to stand
eyeball-to-eyeball with the President * * * on a level above that of the National
Security Advisor in the White House and the Secretary of State * * * to open
up a historic pro and con and creative professional and public and political
agonizing reappraisal of U.S. world objectives and the imperative for new
organizational structures within the Executive Branch and within the Congress
that the control of U.S. world objectives can be brought back into the hands
of responsible elected government, and out of the hands of private interests.

It may be that your Committee can open the creative discussion of the inade-
quacy of the present organisation of the Executive Branch. It is dangerous to
oversimplify approaching megacrisis which by far is more complex and difficult
than any problem civilization ever has faced * * * but the following oversimpli-
fications are offered in case you wish to use them to spark pro and con and
expansive discussion from many sources.


The primary concern of today's testimony was in the area of the inadequacy
fo U.S. management controls for the export of so-called "peaceful" nuclear
capabilities and materials.


After a generation of forced research and development and production in the
field of catastrophic nuclear weapons and global delivery systems, today for the
first time in history the men in the Kremlin secret command center and the
men in the White House secret command center hold the power to destroy
humanity * * * a power the mythologies had always claimed that GOD alone
could command !

There are no precedents in scholarly military strategy, political science,
social science, international law, just war theology or pacifism for today's new
power realities as men in secret Kremlin offices and men in secret White House
offices stalk the Earth wielding GOD-seized power of death for humanity * * *
caught in a self-generating arms race now increasing at increasing rates.

In the mythology of most world religions GOD-seized power means simul-
taneously (1) the power to destroy humanity in vengence, in the twinkling of
an eye, in one hand and in the other hand (2) the compassionate power to pro-
tect and enrich Life for humankind on the planet below.

In the National Security Council and Staff the President has a superior com-
mand and staff assistance in wielding the power to destroy humanity in veng-
ence * * * in the twinkling of a nuclear war.

Tragically, it never again will be possible to regain the sinking national
security of the United States by endless escalation of, and use of or threatened
use of this power to annihilate world civilizations.

The top-of-the-line U.S. strategic weapons have become suicide weapons. The
International Institute for Strategic Studies (London) in its publication THE
MILITARY BALANCE 1912-1918 comes to the scholarly conclusion that the
arms race has passed the point where now, the superpower which may initiate
nuclear war for any reason, itself will be obliterated in the ensuing holocaust.

Our enemies obviously have been confident for some time that the U.S. Presi-
dent would not dare push the button for threatened nuclear war whether as
first strike, or second strike, or counter force, or the new-fangled retargeting
or retaliation or any other press conference cliche * * * because in doing so
he will destroy the Constitution of the United States which he and all members
of the U.S. Armed Forces swore an Oath to defend.

Even if the 94th Congress should suddenly DOUBLE to pending Defense
Budget, the Pentagon no longer can STOP the relentless expansion of world
powers hostile to America, by escalating threats to commit national suicide in
nuclear war.

This relentless expansion of world powers hostile to America can only be
TOPPED by a larger strategic vision, a more noble commitment of American
creativity and power, a New American Purpose in world crisis.

Nowhere in the executive branch of the Congress is there a supreme council
releasing the creativity and power of the American people to pioneer the
research and development and testing of global compassionate power systems

* * * Life support systems for planet earth * * * Civilized world institutions
to guard the security and progress of the people of all nations (as Air Traffic
Control guards the safety of ALL passengers of ALL airplanes in a cloud).


The Bill you are considering would establish a single export licensing agency
in the Government. Consider the following problem which would face this new
agency its first day of operation : —

Since Kremlin aerospace/nuclear power matches American aerospace nuclear
powers of destruction to the point where the U.S. dares not use its top-of-the-
line weapons * * * as the American Giant becomes paralyzed as he reaches for
the trigger of the ultimate power to exterminate humanity * * * the Kremlin
strategists have been liberated for relentless forward expansion along the lines
of their basic global strategy : —

As the Thirteen Original Colonies formed the United States and then moved
relentlessly Westward in defensive expansion * * * killing off Indians and
Frenchmen and Mexicans and other potential threats * * * until we found a
sense of security by strategic domination of the North American Continent.

* * * similarly for hundreds of years under Tzars and Commissars, Russia has
expanded from defensive expansion reaching outward to overpower threaten-
ing nations, in search for a sense of security from dominion over a far larger


In the Thirteenth Century the Mongols killed 18,000,000 Chinese in ten years
using only primitive weapons and primitive transportation.

It is traditional Russian grand strategy to expand slowly (using most primi-
tive weapons or most modern weaponry * * * using most primitive transporta-
tion or most modern land, sea and air transport * * * using external diplo-
matic pressures and internal political pressures on each succeeding country)
to gain eventual dominion over the Supercontinent (Europe/Asia/Africa).

He who gains dominion over the Supercontinent will then command the
energies & resources, the transportation channels, the production facilities, the
manpower, the political structures to maintain strategic domination over
Planet Earth.

To accomplish this Kremlin long range grand strategy does not require in-
vading the United States, or overthrowing the Washington Government by
force, or igniting the global holocaust by dropping hydrogen-headed missiles
on the U.S.

The United States, not being self-sufficient, and depending upon the rest of
the world for energies and resources to maintain American strategic power,
will gradually shrink back from poverty to impotence to defeat, without a
shot having to be fired at an American.

(At this point someone always says "but what about the Chinese?". There
are two long range possibilities: — (1) The Chinese masses and the Russian
masses may fight each other down to the primitive levels of Mongol warfare
as they interface with each other in their own race toward dominion over the
Supercontinent, on the one hand or on the other hand (2) in the next few
months or years as leadership in the Soviet Union and China change, these
two giants may join arm in arm to move irresistably and promptly across the
Supercontinent and dominion over Planet Earth.)

White House strategists will try to hold on to the one option : — pushing the
button for the final obliterating world holocaust and the destruction of world
civilization in the name of national defense.

As the American people sink into this fatal strategic trap, the special inter-
ests who have private access to the White House command sanctuary, have
found vast sources of further private wealth from helping the Kremlin strate-
gists in their long, long range plans for strategic expansion across the Super-

Soviet strategists overinvested in strategic power and underinvested in pro-
duction of wheat several years ago. The Kremlin faced internal disorder. The
powerful American private interests made fortunes for themselves selling
wheat to the Kremlin, raising the price of living in America, and allowing the
Kremlin to get by with its overinvestment in strategic power. Would the pro-
posed Export Licensing Agency have approved?

Other powerful private American interests are finding great personal wealth
building a chain of nitrogen fertilizer factories (which can be transformed to
produce nitrogen for ammunition) for the Kremlin . . . other private interests
are helping the Kremlin build a chain of truck factories (which can be trans-
formed to produce tanks) . . . other private interests are finding great profits
from helping the Kremlin make up lost time in developing sophisticated com-
puter capabilities, and complex production capabilities (also essential for the
long, long range Kremlin plans) to expand strategic dominion across the Super-
continent ( Europe/Asia/Africa ) .

Other private power American interests are seeking personal fortunes help-
ing the Kremlin explore and exploit the fabulous underground gas and oil and
other natural resources of Siberia, as part of the Kremlin grand strategy for
dominion over the Supercontinent and therefore dominion over world civiliza-

Would the proposed export licensing agency encourage this export of Ameri-
can strategic capabilities to help Kremlin and other strategists hostile to

When the Kremlin expanded with ugly and raw force a generation ago, the
American people were aroused and determined to "contain" this crude expan-
sion, using the threat of American aerospace/nuclear power.

The Kremlin strategists matched U.S. aerospace/nuclear power to the extent
that the top-of-the-line U.S. strategic weapons have been paralyzed. If we use
them, we destroy ourselves.


Then Kremlin strategists projected the mystique of "detente" which did two
important things: — (1) it calmed the American determination to "contain"
Kremlin expansion, and (2) it won the support of the top financial interests in
America who found private profit backing the enemy of America, and who also
had the private access to the White House control of foreign policy.

Would the creation of a single export licensing agency in any way clarify
the hidden and deceptive real objectives of U.S. global power strategy?


Long, long range there are three alternative future for humanity . . .

First alternative future. — There will be world order in which all nations
have become political satellites under the shadow of Kremlin global strategic
power (as with Czechoslovakia today). The people of all nations will be in
continuous rebellion against the Soviet people. The Soviet people will be
pauperized to maintain the global strategic enforcement power.

Second alternative future. — There will be world order in which all nations
have become economic subsidiaries under the shadow of White House global
strategic power (as with Canada today). The people of all nations will be in
continuous rebellion against the American people. The American people will be
pauperized to maintain the global strategic enforcement power.

Third alternative future. — There will be world order in which all nations
find security and independence and fair access to the energies and resources
and know-how to provide the necessities of life for their people. There will be
war no more among the nation, and the scarce energies and resources of the
Earth can be directed toward production of food, clothing, housing clean air &
water, health, education and security for all people.

The communist international elite controlling Kremlin objectives tilt toward
the first alternative future. The financial international elite controlling White
House objectives tilt toward the second alternative future.
Humanity as a whole has not attached its support to either Kremlin or White
House side of the runaway arms race. But great tidalwaves of human relief
and renewed hope for Life may sweep world populations in support of U.S.
world statemanship if Congress speaking for the American people would en-
large U.S. strategic objectives to the great new vision of the third alternative
future. Once again it might be a matter of pride to be an American, helping
humanity find ways to live through approaching crises, rather than threatening
the extermination of human life as a matter of foreign policy.

(Rev.) Howard Kurtz,
Harriet Kurtz.

[From the Congressional Record — Senate, Thursday, April 17. 1975J
U.S. Export of Nuclear Technology

Mr. PASTORE. Mr. President, for the information of the Members of this
body and the public, I would like, at this time, to briefly review the background
and status of U.S. export of nuclear technology to other nations.

It is timely that this be done in view of the suggestions made by some that
the United States no longer export nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.
History and the hard facts show beyond any reasonable doubt how completely
mistaken this course would be.

It would only result in two things — neither of which is desired — less effec-
tive international safeguards for the control of the peaceful atom and greater
deficits in our balance of payments.

American export of nuclear technology had its origin in President Eisen-
hower's famous speech at the United Nations in 1953 advocating atoms for
peace. The atoms for peace program had two major purposes. First was the
humanitarian desire to share with other nations the benefits of the civilian
applications of nuclear energy and the second — and perhaps more important —
purpose was to reduce the likelihood of the spread of nuclear weapons to other

Since then, every step of the way in the development of the peaceful atom
has been marked by American initiative designed both to deal with the desire


of many nations to share the benefits of peaceful nuclear technology and to
control the diversion of that technology to other than peaceful purposes.

Starting as far back at 1955, it was my privilege to be selected as a delegate
to the U.S. mission to the 10th General Assembly of the United Nations. It was
also my privilege to advance, on behalf of the U.S. Government before the first
political committee, the draft resolution that led to the creation of the Inter-
national Atomic Energy Agency.

Today more than 100 nations of the world are members of this International
Agency. Among the tasks entrusted to this Agency is the administration of
international safeguards to assure that atoms for peace are not diverted to
atoms for war.

Over the years, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been working
assiduously to provide and promulgate safeguard regulations to assure that any
of the fuel for nuclear reactors would not be diverted from peaceful uses into
themanufacture of nuclear explosives or weapons.

It is my understanding that up to this day there has not been a single viola-
tion in the case of any nuclear fuel provided under any of the agreements for
cooperation for peaceful nuclear purposes entered into by the United States of
America with various foreign governments of the world.

While we can and should be proud of this record, we must strive to insure
that the international safeguards are continually reviewed and strengthened
to deal with expanding nuclear trade.

Last year, India exploded a nuclear device, purportedly intended for peaceful
applications. India gained the dubious distinction as the latest member of the
so-called "nuclear club" not through circumvention of international safeguards,
but because they possessed a reactor which was furnished by the Canadian
Government and not subject to international safeguards.

I have always been a firm supporter of measures to prevent the international
proliferation of nuclear weapons. In 1966, I introduced the first Senate resolu-
tion supporting the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. That resolution passed
the Senate by a vote of 80-0.

I remain — and always will remain — firmly convinced that every possible
measure must be taken to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials given for
peaceful purposes to weapons production. And it was for this precise reason
that strict safeguard procedures were promulgated by the International Atomic
Energy Agency.

An article appeared in the April 14 edition of the Washington Post which
suggests that the shipment of a certain amount of highly enriched uranium to
the Republic of South Africa for use in a research reactor located there could
lead to the development of nuclear weapons by that nation.

The thrust of the article seemed to be that the United States should discon-
tinue its export of nuclear materials in the interest of preventing further pro-
liferation of nuclear weapons. Realistically, in today's world, if we never
export another kilogram of uranium, this, in and of itself, would not prevent
the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

Indeed, the removal of the historical American initiatives for international
safeguards control might lead to a weakening of those controls. The United
States has been the prime mover in developing international controls in the
form of safeguards over transfers of nuclear equipment and materials from one
nation to another. We could no longer take a lead role in these critical and
sensitive diplomatic agreements involving the affairs of other soverign states if
we ruled ourselves out of further international nuclear trade.

The list of other nations with fully developed nuclear industries who are
actively exporting nuclear technology grows year by year. Already it includes
Russia, Great Britain, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, and Sweden.

The withdrawal of the United States from this market would only serve as
a bonanza for our competitors who would leap to fill the economic gap created
by our decision.

The growth of nuclear technology is here to stay and its growth cannot be
stopped. The physical basis is familiar to scientists worldwide. A dozen or more

Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on GoveThe Export reorganization act, 1975 : hearings before the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, Ninety-fourth Congress, first session, April 24, 30, and May 1, 1975 → online text (page 45 of 47)