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United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labo.

ESEA, framework for change : hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1513 ... March 2, 16, 18, 24, April 12, 14 (Washington, DC), 18 (Chicago, IL), 21, 2 online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on LaboESEA, framework for change : hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1513 ... March 2, 16, 18, 24, April 12, 14 (Washington, DC), 18 (Chicago, IL), 21, 2 → online text (page 1 of 96)
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\^\ / S. Hrg. 103-691

^^ ESEA: FKAMEWOR K FOR CHANGE

Y4.L 11/4:S, HRG. 103-691

ESEA: Franeuork for Change; S.Hrg —

HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTBE ON
LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

AND THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, ARTS AND

HUMANITIES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1513

ENTITLED "IMPROVING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS ACT OF 1993," AND

RELATED BILL



MARCH 2, 16, 18, 24, APRIL 12, 14, (WASHINGTON, DC) 18, (CHICAGO, IL)
21, 26, AND MAY 5, (WASHINGTON, DC) 1994



Printed for the use of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources




OCT 1 3 1994



S. Hkg. 103-691

ESEA: FMMEWORK FOR CHANGE



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

COMMITTEE ON
LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

AND THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION, ARTS AND

HUMANITIES

UNITED STATES SENATE

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION

ON

S. 1513

ENTITLED "IMPROVING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS ACT OF 1993," AND

RELATED BILL



MARCH 2, 16, 18, 24, APRIL 12, 14, (WASHINGTON, DC) 18, (CHICAGO, ID
21, 26, AND MAY 5, (WASHINGTON, DC) 1994



Printed for the use of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
77-669 CC WASHINGTON : 1994

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402
ISBN 0-16-0448A5-X



COMMITTEE ON LABOR AND HUMAN RESOURCES

EDWARD M. KENNEDY. MaasachuaettB. Chairman
CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island kANCY LANDON KASSEBAUM, Kansas

HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio JAMES M. JEFFORDS, Vermont

CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticat DAN COATS, Indiana

PAUL SIMON, niinois JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire

TOM HARKIN, Iowa STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maiyiand ORRIN G. HATCH, Utah

JEFF BENGAMAN, New Mexico DAVE DURENBERGER, Minnesota

PAUL D. WELLSTONE, Minnesota
HARRIS WOFFORD, Pennsylvania

Nick Ltitlefield, Sta/f Director and Chief Counsel
Susan K- Hattan, Minority Staff Director



SuBcoMMirrEE ON Education, Arts and Humanities

CLAIBORNE PELL, Rhode Island, Chairman
HOWARD M. METZENBAUM, Ohio JAMES M. JEFFORDS, Vermont

CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut NANCY LANDON KASSEBAUM, Kansas

PAUL SIMON, niinois DAN COATS, Indiana

BARBARA A- MIKULSKI, Maryland JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire

JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico STROM THURMOND, South Carolina

EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts ORRIN G. HATCH. Utah

PAUL D. WELLSTONE. Minnesota DAVE DURENBERGER, New Mexico

HARRIS WOFFORD, Pennsylvania
TOM HARKIN, Iowa

David V. Evans, Staff Director
Pam DEvnr, Minority Profeuional Staff

(ID



CONTENTS



REAUTHORIZATION OF THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION

ACT

STATEMENTS

March 2, 1994

Page

Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., a U.S. Senator from the State of Massachusetts ... 1

Jeffords, Hon. James M., a UJS. Senator from the State of Vermont 3

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Islamd 6

Dodd, Hon. Christopher J., a U.S. Senator from the State of Connecticut 8

RUey, Richard W., Secretary, UJS. Department of Education, Washington,
DC, accompanied by Tom Payzant, Assistant Secretary for Elementary

and Secondary Education 11

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 25

Haridn, Hon. Tom, a U.S. Senator from the State of Iowa 29

Thurmond, Hon. Strom, a U.S. Senator from the State of South Carolina 30

Hatch, Hon. Orrin G., a U.S. Senator from the State of Utah 31

Durenberger, Hon. Dave, a U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota 32

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statement of Richard W. Riley 47

Letter to President Clinton, from Gov. Carroll A. Campbell, Jr., South Caro-
lina, dated March 1, 1994 50

Letter to Gov. Carroll A. Campbell, Jr., South Carolina, from President Clin-
ton, dated March 3, 1994 51

THE CURRENT STATUS OF CHAPTER 1
STATEMENTS

March 16, 1994

Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., a U.S. Senator from the State of Massachusetts ... 53

Pell, Hon. aaibome, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island 54

Cortines Ramon C., chancellor. New York City Schools 55

Smith, Marshall, Under Secretary, U.S. Department of Education 63

Puriefoy, Wendy, president. Public Education Fund Network, Washington,
DC; Landa G. Morra, Director, Education and Employment Issues, U.S.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC; accompanied by Beatrice Ber-
man and Charlie Jeszeck; and Kati Haycock, director. The Education Trust,

American Association for Higher Education, Washington, DC 74

Boysen, Thomas G., Commissioner of Education, Commonwealth of Kentucky;
Dan French, Chapter 1 Director, Massadiusetts Department of Education;
and Andrea Mattia, head teadier, Edmund W. Flynn School, Providence,
RI 86



(III)



IV

Page

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Mr. Cortines 96

Ms. Puriefoy 100

Mr. Boysen 107

Mr. French Ill

Mr. Smith 113

Ms. Morra 124

Ms. Haycock 136

Ms. Mattia 140

NEW DIRECTIONS FOR CHAPTER 1
STATEMENTS

Mabch 18, 1994

Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., a U.S. Senator from the State of Massachusetts ... 143

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island 144

Hombeck, David, chairman. Commission on Chapter 1 144

Hatch, Hon. Orrin G., a US. Senator from the State of Utah 148

Feuer, Michael J., Director, Board on Testing and Assessment, National Re-
search Council, National Academy of Sciences; Iris C. Rotberg, director,
Rand Study on Tederal Options for Improving the Education of Low-
Income Students"; and Phyllis McClure, diair, Independent Review Panel,

National Assessment of Chapter 1 152

Hoyer, Hon. Steny H., a Representative in Congress from the State of Mary-
land 156

Hocevar, Gary, principal. Van Buren Middle School, Albuouerque, NM; and
Edwin S. Jackson, principal, Williams Magnet School, Little Rock, AR 169

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Mr. Hombeck 175

Mr. Feuer 177

Ms. McClure 180

Mr. Hocevar 184

Mr. Jackson 189

Ms. Kober 191

Congressman Hoyer 193

Ms. Rotberg 195

Mr. Nero 210

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: ESEA REAUTHORIZATION

STATEMENTS

March 24, 1994

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the SUte of Rhode Island 223

Jeffords, Hon. James M., a VS. Senator from the State of Vermont 225

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 226

WeUstone, Hon. Paul D., a U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota 226

Dodd, Hon. Christopher J., a U.S. Senator from the State of Connecticut 227

Hunt, James B. Jr., Governor, State of North Carolina, and Chair, National

Board for Professional Teaching Standards 228

Hariun, Hon. Tom, a U.S. Senator from the State of Iowa 241



V

Page

Case, Charles W., dean. School of Education, University of Connecticut,
Storrs, CT; Argie K. Johnson, superintendent, Chicago Public Schools, Chi-
cago, IL; Pam Schmidt, teacher, Dunkerton Community Schools,
Dunkerton, lA; and Benjamin 0. Canada, superintendent, Jackson Public
Schools, Jackson, MS :. 241

Lindquist, Mary, president. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics;
ana Elaine Hairston, chancellor, Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus, OH 256

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Governor Hunt 263

Mr. Johnson 266

Ms. Hairston 268

American Chemical Society 269

Senator Hatfield 271

Ms. Kopp 273

Mr. Case 275

Ms. Schmidt - 284

Mr. Canada 289

Ms. Lindquist 295

ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT: SCHOOL LIBRARIES

AND FAMILY UTERACY

STATEMENTS

April 12, 1994

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 303

Sarbanes, Hon. Paul S., a U.S. Senator from the State of Maryland, and
Hon. Jack Reed, a Representative in Congress from the State of Rhode

Island 306

Hartman, Andrew, director. National Institute for Literacy, Washington, DC . 310
Macaulay, David, author, Warren, RI; Jeanie McNamara, researcher, Univer-
sity of South Carolina, Columbia, SC; Jim Wulfson, student, Edward R.
Devotion School, Brookline, MA; and Carolyn Marinison, librarian, Sud-
bury, MA 317

Ritchie, Yulanda and DeAnthony, Louisville, KY; Bonnie Lash Freeman, di-
rector of training, planning and development. National Center for Literacy;
and Heather Redmond, teturher, Louisville, KY 325

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepar^ statements:

Senator Sarbanes 333

Congressman Reed 334

MrTHartman 335

Ms. McNamara 337

Ms. Markuson 340

Ms. Ritchie 347

Ms. Freeman 348

Ms. Richmond 349

ESEA REAUTHORIZATION SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS: FOCUSING

ON WHAT WORKS

STATEMENTS

April 14, 1994

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island 351

Jefibrds, Hon. James M., a U.S. Senator from the State of Vermont 362



VI

Page

Hatch, Hon. Orrin G., a UJS. Senator from the State of Utah 352

Boeh^e, Bo^d W., president. National School Boards Association, Alexandria,
VA; Win&ed Cottman, project manager, Dropout Demonstration Assistance
Program, Baltimore City Public Schools, Baltimore, MD; Shirl E. Gilbert
n, superintendent, Indianapolis Public Schools, Indianapolis, IN; on behalf
of the Council of the Great City Schools; and Judy m. Thome, senior
research analyst. Center for Research in Education, Kesearch Triangle In-
stitute, Durham, NC 354

Coats, Hon. Dan, a U.S. Senator from the State of Indiana 375

Hakuta, Kenji, School of Education, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Jane
Hunt, deputy associate superintendent, Arizona Department of Education,
Phoenix, AZ; and Linda G. Morra, Director, Education and Employment
Issues, Health, Education, and Human Services Division, U.S. General
Accounting OfSce, Washington, DC 376

APPENDK

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Mr. Boehlje 385

Mr. Cottman 391

Mr. GUbert 392

Mr. Hakuta 394

Ms. Thome 395

Ms. Acosta 402

Ms. Hunt 407

Ms. Morra 409

Ms. Billings 418

Excerpts from a report prepared by the U3. Senate Republican Conference,

Sept. 1992 423

Letter to Senator Pell, from John D. P^rry, Apr. 22, 1994, prepared statement 431

Prepared statement of Mr. Smith 435

ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT REAUTHORIZATION

STATEMENTS

April 18, 1994

Simon, Hon. Paul, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois 437

Dominguez, Leonard, deputy mayor for education, city of Chicago 438

Caldwell, Kimberly, student, llefferan Elementary School; accompanied by

Kenneth Jenkins, student, Hefiferan Elementary School 439

Broncato, Mary Jayne, interim State superintendent, Illinois State Board
of Education; Sharon Grant, president, Board of Education, Chicago Public
Schools; and Richard D. Laine, executive director. Coalition for Education

Rights 441

Harvey, Patricia, executive assistant to the superintendent, former principal
of HefTeran School; Karen Berman, Chicago Lawyers Committee; Bobbi
Green, board member. National Coalition of Title I — Chapter 1 Parents;

and Carlos Azcoitia, principal, Spry Elementary School 451

Bearden, Allen, assistant dunector, Chicago Teachers Union Quest Center;
Harvey A. Daniels, professor of education, Nationsd Louis University; ac-
companied by Barbara Morris, teacher, and Valerie Lyle, teacher, Lmooln
Elementary School, Marion IL 462

APPENDK

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Ms. Broncato 471

Ms. Grant 472

Mr. Laine 474

Ms. Berman 477

Ms. Green 479

Ms. Lyle 481



vn

Page

Prepared statements — Continued

Mr. Daniels 483

Cross City Campaign ^ 492

MAKING THE TRANSITION TO SCHOOL; EARLY CHILDHOOD PROGRAMS

AND PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT

STATEMENTS

April 21, 19d4

Dodd, Hon. Christopher J., a U.S. Senator from the State of Connecticut 499

Hat^ Orrin G., a U3. Senator from the State of Utah 502

Doores, Mimi, principal, BeaU Elementary School, Rockville, MD; David Wil-
kins, parent, Rockville, MD, accompanied by daughter. Diamond; and Tom
Schultz, director of Early Childhood Services, National Association of State

Boards of Education, Alexandria, VA 503

Toman, Barbara, president, Parent-Teacher Association of Connecticut, Ham-
den, CT; Stuart A. Taylor, II, board of directors, Youth Guidance, Chicago,
IL; and Gaeton Zorzi, principal, William Cramp Elemantary School, Phila-
delphia, PA 520

APPENDDC

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Ms. Doores 541

Mr. Wilkins 542

Mr. Schultz 543

Ms. Toman 546

Mr. Taylor 549

FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS

STATEMENTS

April 26, 1994

Simon, Hon. Paul, a VS. Senator from the State of Illinois 553

Munks, Jeffrey J., founder AT&T Language Line, Monterey, CA; Myriam
Met, advisory council. National Standards in Foreign Language Education,
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Yonkers, NY;
Rashid Khalidi, professor of middle eastern studies. University of Chicago,
Chicago, IL; ana Noel Kreicker, president. International Orientation Re-
sources, Northbrook, IL 554

Student demonstration of Key School Spanish Two-Immersion Program, Ar-
lington, Virginia Public Sdiools, accompanied by Kathy Panfil, principal 567

Christian, Donna, National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and
Second Language Learning, Center for Applied Linguistics 568

Student demonstration of the Japanese Immersion P^gram, Fairfax County,
Virginia Public Schools, accompanied by Martha Abbott, coordinator 571

Brown, Christine, chair. Foreign Language Standards Project K-12 Task
Force, and foreign language coordinator, Glastonbury, Connecticut PHiblic
Schools 573

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Prepared statements:

Mr. Munks 576

Ms. Met 579

Ms. Kreicker 585

Ms. Abbott 587

Ms. Brown 595



vm

Page

SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGBAMS FOCUSING ON WHAT WORKS

STATEMENTS

May 5, 1994

Pell, Hon. Claiborne, a U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island 601

DeFazio, Jackie, president, American Association of University Women, and
assistant principal for instruction, Glenbard East High Sdiool, Lombard,
IL; Tom Selinnan, director, Stanford Unversity Museum of Art, Stanford,
CA; Joseph S. Renzulli, director. National Research Center on the Gifted
and Talented, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT; and Charles N.
Quigley, executive director. Center for Civic Education, Calabasas, CA,

on behalf of We The People 602

Moseley-Braun, Hon. Carol, a U.S. Senator from the State of Illinois; and
Hon. Eliot L. Engel, a Representative in Congress from the State of New

York 605

Hatch, Hon. Orrin G., a VS. Senator from the State of Utah 610

Graves, Ruth, president, Reading is Fundfmiental, Washington, DC; John
J. Erickson, Osseo Senior High School, Osseo, MN; and Stephen A. Janger,

president. Close Up Foundation, Alexandria, VA 624

Harkin, Hon. Tom, a U3. Senator from the State of Iowa 631

Mikulski, Hon, Barbara A., a U.S. Senator from the State of Maryland 632

APPENDIX

Articles, publications, letters, etc.:

Statements:

National Collegiate Athletic Association 633

Mr. MaUlard 634

Mr. Torres 640

National Association of State Directors of Migrant Education 644

Giris Incorporated 650

National Coalition For Sex Equity in Education 655

National Education Association 655

American Association of Museums 662

Ms. Burke 664

Ms. DeFazio 666

Confiressman Engel 674

Mr. Seligman 677

Mr. RenzulU 680

Mr. Quigley 688

Ms. Graves 692

Mr. Erickson 697

Mr. Janger 699

Mr. Smith 705



REAUTHORIZATION OF THE ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 2, 1994

U.S. Senate,
Committee on Labor and Human Resources,

Washington, DC.

The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 10:05 a.m., in room
SD-430, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Senator Edward M. Ken-
nedy (chairman of the committee) presiding.

Present: Senators Kennedy, Pell, Dodd, Simon, Bingaman,
Wellstone, Kassebaum, Jeffords, Coats, and Durenberger.

Opening Statement of Senator Kennedy

The Chairman. We will come to order.

This morning we begin our hearings on the reauthorization of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

Nearly 30 years ago, the Congress launched a landmark effort to
reduce the serious disadvantages that poor children face in public
education. Today, the largest progpram in that legislation. Chapter
1, has become a major education program, funded at a level of $6.3
billion for the current fiscal year.

As a sign of the high priority the Clinton administration gives it,
it is budgeted for an increase of $700 million — 10 percent — ^for the
coming fiscal year.

ESEA now represents a central part of Federal education policy,
and this year's reauthorization, the first since 1988, is a major op-
portuni^ to revitalize our education priorities to build a stronger
Nation wr the future.

It is a privilege to welcome Secretary Riley, who will discuss the
administration's goals and proposals for improving the program
and making it more effective. Secretary Riley has impressed all of
us in Congress with his great experience and ability in education,
and it is an honor to have him here today to discuss these impor-
tant issues.

A great deal has already been accomplished under ESEA. The
dropout rate has been substantially reduced. The gap in achieve-
ment by minority children has narrowed. School districts have
begun to equalize resources among their schools. Thousands of par-
ents have been drawn into their children's education. Much has
also been discovered about how children learn and what factors
make the most difference, especially for disadvantaged children.

I will put the remainder of my statement in the record and recog-
nize Senator Jeffords for any remarks he may have.

(1)



[The prepared statement of Senator Kennedy follows:]
Prepared Statement of Senator Kennedy

This morning we begin our hearings on the reauthorization of
the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Nearly 30 years ago,
Congress launched a landmark effort to reduce the serious dis-
advantages that poor children face in public education. Today, the
largest program in that legislation, Chapter I has become the larg-
est single Federal education program for elementary and secondary
schools. It is funded at a level of $7 billion for the current fiscal
year. As a sign of the high priority the Clinton Administration
gives it, it is budgeted for an increase of $700 million — 10% — ^for
the coming fiscal year.

ESEA now represents a central part of Federal education policy,
and this years reauthorization, the first since 1988, is a major op-
portuniW to revitalize our education priorities to build a stronger
Nation ror the future.

It is a privilege to welcome Secretary Riley, who will discuss the
Administration's goals and proposals for improving the program
and making it more effective. Secretary Riley has impressed all of
us in Congress with his great experience and ability in education,
and it is a honor to have him here today to discuss these important
issues. Secretary Riley is accompanied by Undersecretary Mike
Smith and Assistant Secretary Tom Payzant, two of the most
knowledgeable leaders in the country on these issues.

A great deal has already been accomplished under ESEA — the
drop-out rate has been substantially reduced. The gap in achieve-
ment by minority children has narrowed. School districts have
begun to equalize resources among their schools. Thousands of par-
ents have been drawn into their children's education. Much has
also been discovered about how children learn and what factors
make the most difference, especially for disadvantaged children.

Under the leadership of Secretary Riley, President Clinton has
proposed the boldest and most far-reaching proposal in the legisla-
tion's history. The proposal, called the "Improving America's
Schools Act in 1993," recognizes the need to reform and simplify
the current program, and its recommendations are significant and
well thought out.

First, it renews our commitment to the country's poorest schools.
According to a recent report, third graders in schools with high
concentrations of poverty are still losing ground, even after they
have received Chapter I services. In fact, test scores went down
more for the students who received the services than for those who
did not. Secretary Riley's proposal looks critically and honestly at
the needs of these children, and sets out an agenda to help them
more effectively.

Another important feature of the administration's plan is that for
the first time, the reauthorization proposal is placed within an
overall framework for education reform. The proposal reflects Goals
2000, which we are currently conferencing with the House. like
that bill, the current proposal is designed to raise standards for all
children. It also realigns ESEA with State and local reform efforts
in the Goals 2000 bill.



The proposal also changes accountability. Instead of uniform
Federal reporting requirements tied in red tape, the states them-
selves will decide how to tell the Federal government about their
progress in educating poor children — and all children. The proposal
drops entirely the ineffective standardized assessment currently re-
quired.

The Administration's proposal concentrates on teachers as well.
It takes Chapter II, which is now a block grant, and requires the
dollars to be used for teacher development.

The proposal also gives greater ilexibilitv to local districts and
local schools to use uieir best judgment about allocating Federal
funds, as long as they meet the purposes of the pro-ams.

Finally, the proposal rewards success by identifying schools that
are making progress and enabling them to compete for additional
funds. Ironically, under current law, schools that make progress
lose their Federal funds — a penalty for success that makes no sense
in education policy. The plan also provides steps for intervention in
schools that make no progress. Finally, this bill recognizes that
schools and health providers must work more closely together, and
calls for health screening in schools.

These changes will set a high standard for Federal education
programs. They offer real help to disadvantaged children. They will
reshape the manner in which the Federal government supports
public schools across the Nation in accord with the high priority
that education deserves, and in a way that will use scarce Federal
resources most effectively.

I look forward to working with members of the committee and
with the Clinton Administration as we consider these proposals in
the coming weeks. Few issues are more essential to the future of
our country.

It is a honor to introduce Secretary Riley, and we look forward
to his testimony.

Opening Statement of Senator Jeffords

Senator Jeffords. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Welcome, Mr. Secretary. I continue to enioy working with you
and look forward to getting our educational system straightened
out in the next few years.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act represents the sin-
gle largest Federal commitment to K through 12 education. Chap-
ter 1 services reach close to 5 million youngsters and touch 90 per-
cent of all school districts. The little over $6 billion committed to
the program dwarfs that of other education programs.

Yet as we know from witnessing first-hand in our own cities and
States, and from respectable research, we are addressing the needs
of only a tiny fraction of our eligible population.

Poverty among our young children is on the rise — ^21.9 percent
for children under 18— the highest since 1983. Our dropout rate
hovers at 40 percent for Hispanic youth, and our international test
scores continue to fall short of the mark.

I commend the administration for its reauthorization proposal.
Many of its recommended changes try to address those very issues
whicn I have just mentioned. The formula, for example, is altered
to target the highest concentrations of poverty, shifting a larger



percentage of funds into concentration grants and requiring that
the poorest schools be served first. As well, it increases the poverty
threshold fi-om 15 to 18 percent.

I will say, however, that as we look to the future, we must recog-
nize that we are asking our schools, through Goals 2000, to find
ways to fix the very serious problems we have with education, and
that they must do so at the same time as we are reducing re-
sources from the Federal level. And even though I commend the
administration for increasing the amount of money available for
Chapter 1, in certain areas of the country, as they well know, there
will still be a decrease in resources instead of an increase, due to
the shifts in the Census and the proposed formula change.

So I will sav these recommendations are all well-intended, and



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on LaboESEA, framework for change : hearings before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Education, Arts, and Humanities, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, first session, on S. 1513 ... March 2, 16, 18, 24, April 12, 14 (Washington, DC), 18 (Chicago, IL), 21, 2 → online text (page 1 of 96)