United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on the.

Communist activities among aliens and national groups. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, first session, on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration act of October 16, 1918, as amended (Vo online

. (page 1 of 62)
Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on theCommunist activities among aliens and national groups. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, first session, on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration act of October 16, 1918, as amended (Vo → online text (page 1 of 62)
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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG
ALIENS AND NATIONAL GROUPS



HEARINGS

BBFOSB THB

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE

EIGHTY-FIRST CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON

S. 1832

A BILL TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF
OCTOBER 16, 1918, AS AMENDED



PART 2

SEPTEMBER 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 16, 28, AND 29, 1949



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary




COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG
ALIENS AND NATIONAL GROUPS



{ HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
UNITED STATES SENATE

EIGHTY-FIEST CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
ON



U^i



S. 1832



A BILL TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF
OCTOBER 16, 1918, AS AMENDED



PART 2

SEPTEMBER 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 28, AND 29, 1949



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary




UNITED STATES

GOVERNMENT TRINTING OI'FICB

WASHINGTON : 1950



A



1/



'^l.-*. ^P£Rim"ENOENT Of OOCUMfcNib

I OQT231950



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman
HARLBY M. KILGORE, West Virginia ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland HOMER FERGUSON, Micliigan

FRANK P. GRAHAM, North Carolina FORREST C. DONXELL, Missouri

ESTES KEFAUVBR, Tennessee WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana



J. G. SonRwiNE, Counsel



Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration and Naturalization

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland FORREST C. DONNELL, Missouri

Richard Arens, Staff Director

(Senator J. Melville Broughton, of North Carolina, was a member of the Committee
on the Judiciary until his death on March 6, 1949 ; Senator J. Howard McGrath was a
member of the Committee on the Judiciary until his resignation from the Senate on August
23, 1949 ; Senator Bert H. Miller, of Idaho, was a member of the Committee on the
Judiciary until his death on October 8, 1949.)



CONTENTS



statement or testimony of— Pa„^

Malkin, Maurice, Brooklyn, N. Y ^r-V

Huber, joiiu J __:_ .i::::"::::"" — ^nn tti

Draskovich, Dr. Slobodan M., former professor of economics, UnTver-

sity of Belgrade ^^^

Ti^zecleski, Anthony, former purchasing agent, Gdyn'ia-Amerfca LfnT,

Grzelak, Czeslaw, vice presid"ent, Gdynia -AmeiTca" Line" ine~~III"II 728




Biro, Father Benedict, OFM, presidenf ol UNlTAS^^'r''''!"":":": — IS

Fprip'.-iJf''; ^%''T ^- ^■' ^^*^^"fi^e secretary, Hungan"an"Reform"e"d"
i^ederation of America n.^- no-,

^FederaSon ^^''^^'''° ^' ^'^^^"'^''^ secreta^ryrrmerk^n'ilungan'an ""

Nadanyi, Paul, editor, Amerikailla'gyarsa'gllll s?o

Disabled American Veterans 11111" oqi

^"veteran?!"'''' ^^■' ''''^'''''^^ legislative directo^," Di7abTed"Am;"r[ca"n

idex I_III ^^'^

I

III



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND
NATIONAL GKOUPS



WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1949

United States Senate,
Special Subcommittee To Investigate
Immigration and Naturalization of the

Committee on the Judiciary,

Washington^ D. G.
The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11 a. m., in room 424,
Senate Office Building, Senator Herbert K. O'Conor presiding.
Present: Senator O'Conor (presiding).

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom and Frank W. Schroeder, professional
staff members.

Senator O'Conor. The hearing will come to order.
Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would like to present our witness, Mr.
Malkin.

Senator O'Conor. Will you raise your right hand?
In the presence of Almighty God, do you swear that the testimony
you will give in this hearing will be the truth, the whole truth, and
nothing but the truth ?
Mr. Malkin. Yes, sir.^

TESTIMONY OF MAURICE MALKIN, BROOKLYN, N. Y.

Senator O'Conor. For the record, will you give your full name?

Mr. Malkin. My name is Maurice Malkin.

Senator O'Conor. What is your address ?

Mr. Malkin. Brooklyn, N. Y.

Mr. Arens. In order to keep the record straight, may I insert the
statement in the record that this is a continuation of the hearing on
S. 1832 which was introduced by Senator McCarran and is for the
purpose of excluding and deporting subversive aliens.

Senator O'Conor. At the request of the chairman of the committee
I am presiding, and am very pleased to have you submit any state-
ment you desire to submit. The members of the staff of the committee
will then conduct the interrogation.

Mr. Arens. Mr. Malkin, 1 understand you have a prepared state-
ment you would like to read at this time.

Mr. Malkin. Yes, sir. At the beginning of my statement, I would
like to give a short biographical sketch of myself, indicating where
I was born, when I came to the United States, and my former
experience.

^ The witness appeared under subpena.

471



472 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS

Mr. Arens. Please proceed.

Mr. Malkin. I was born in Minsk, Russia, on November 10, 1900.
In 1914, 1 came to the United States with my parents. Thereafter, I
became associated with the Socialist Party and the Industrial Work-
ers of the World. In 1919, 1 helped organize and was a charter mem-
ber of the Communist Party of the United States. Thereafter, I asso-
ciated myself actively with the Communist Party's activities in this
country until 1936 and the beginning of 1937, when I left the party.

Mr. Arens. By the way, how did you happen to break with the
party ?

Mr. Malkjn. I broke with the party because I disagreed with
Moscow dictating to us what to do in this country. That actually was
the reason.

Mr. Arens. When did you break with the party ?

Mr. Malkin. x\t the end of 1936 and the beginning of 1937.

I believe that the Communist Party presents a real and continuing
threat to our form of government. Since I left the party, I have done
what I can to expose the Communist Party in the United States for
what it is — a revolutionary foreign party whose aim is to destroy our
freedom and democratic institutions by force and violence.

The Communist Party of the United States was organized and has
been led by aliens since its inception in 1919. The alien organiza-
tional efforts are directed through such channels as the foreign-
language groups such as the Russian Federation in the Socialist Party
and the Ukranian, Italian, Jewish, Bulgarian, and other language
federations and groups.

The backbone of the original Communist Party was the Russian
Federation. They were the most active in immediately alining them-
selves with the Lenin-Trotsky Bolshevists of 1917.

The various language federations of the Socialist Party of the
United States were invited to form the Communist Party by Ludwig
A. C. K. Martens, then the unofficial Soviet Ambassador to the United
States. He was deported from the United States in 1920 as persona
lion grata.

Since Martens' deportation, the Communist Party in the United
States has been directed by the Comintern in Moscow. Every move-
ment of the front organization that has been organized since then
has been directed by the Comintern directly through its representa-
tives to the United States or through the Communist Party leaders
who take orders from the Moscow representatives.

One such Communist-front organization is the American Slav Con-
gress, which was conceived and organized by the Comintern. Its
foundation was laid by B. K. Gebert as early as 1930 through the
Polonia Society and other Communist-front organizations which later
merged into the Slav Congress with the Ukranian-American Fraternal
Society, headed by Mike Tkach, charter member of the Communist
Party, one of the officials of the Ukranian Daily News, and a national
committee member of the International Worl^ers Order, representing
the Ukranian Fraternal Society in the IWO.

Mr. Dekom. May I interrupt you with a question ?

You named B. K. Gebert.

Mr, Malkin. That is right.

Mr. Dekom. Do you know where he is now ?



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 473

Mr. Malkin. Yes; he is in Poland at the present time, sir.

Mr. Dekom. Is he an oflicial of the Polish Government?

Mr. Malkin. 3Ir. Gebert at the present time is in charge of all
trade-unions in Poland under Comintern direction.

Mr. Dekom. Was he not a delegate to the World Federation of
Trade Unions in Paris ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

Mr. Dekom. Would you identify the World Federation of Trade
Unions ?

Mr. Malkin. The World Federation of Trade Unions was con-
ceived, organized, and the foundation laid by the Profintern. In Eng-
lish that means the Red International of Labor Unions, whose head-
quarters have always been at Moscow. They were organized in
1920-21, with the cooperation of the American delegates, one of whom
was William Z. Foster.

Mr. Dekom. Is Mr. Gebert an American citizen ?

Mr. Malkin. Gebert was never an American citizen. He has always
considered himself a citizen of Poland. To my knowledge, he never
even bothered declaring his intention of becoming a citizen.

Mr. Dekom. How long was he in the United States before he
returned to Poland ?

Mr. Malkin. I knew Mr. Gebert from about 1919 to about 1939 or
1940.

Mr. Dekom. Did he go back to Poland on the ship Batory'i

Mr. Malkin. Yes, he did.

Mr. Gebert was a member of the central executive committee of
the American Communist Party since its inception in the United
States.

Mr. Dekom. When was that ?

Mr. Malkin. From 1919 up to the time I left the party, to my
knowledge. I worked with Gebert. He was district organizer in
Chicago when I was organizational secretary under Gebert.

Senator O'Conor. Will you continue, please?

Mr. Malkin. The Russian- American Fraternal Society was headed
by Daniel Kasustchik. This Daniel Kasustchik, to my knowledge,
has been a member of the partj' since 1919. He was one of the leaders
of the original Bolshevik group in the United States. He is at present
one of the leaders of the Slav Congress ; in fact, one of the executive
committee members, together with Mike Tkach and other people whom
I will name. He is also one of the leaders of the International Workers
Order, representing the Russian Fraternal Society.

In 1943, Gebert united a number of the pro-Communist Slav organ-
izations into the organization which is called the American Slav Con*
gress. Leo Krzycki, a leader in Communist front organizations among
the Polish population, was also instrumental in establishing the
American Slav Congress, as was George Pirinsky, who was recently
ordered deported by the Immigration and Naturalization Service for
being a Communist. Pirinsky is free on bail pending an appeal.

The Communist Party is able to mold the opinions and sympathies
of aliens in this country through its fronts, like the one mentioned
above, and through its control of foreign-language papers such as the
Russki Golos, the Russian daily, the Glos Ludowy, a Polish paper,



474 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS

and various other foreign language papers published throughout the
country in all foreign languages.

Mr. Arens. You say that the Communist Party is able to wield in-
fluence over the minds of aliens. How extensive is the influence of
communism among the aliens and foreign language groups?

Mr. Malkin. It is quite extensive because the Communists control
quite a few of these alien fraternal and sickness and death benefit
societies, singing choruses, gymnastic societies, and also by publishing
daily, weekly, and monthly organs in foreign languages.

Mr. Arens. How many organizations among foreign language
groups, in your judgment, are controlled by Communists'?

Mr. Malkin. I would say quite a few. I cannot tell you exactly
the number, but they have control in practically every nationality
group : Hungarian, Bulgarian, Rumanian, Finnish, and Jewish; prac-
tically in every foreign-language group.

Mr. Arens. What you mean is that they do have groups within each
of the nationality units, but you don't mean to testify here that they
control all persons of each nationality group ?

Mr. Malkin. In some groups they might control a big faction
of those groups. There would be quite a few of the Communists within
the group who would take control of it and who are the heads of it.
In some of these groups the Communists are not in control, but they
do have quite an influence.

Mr. Arens. I wonder if you could be a little more specific, Mr. Mal-
kin, in telling us the total number of the members of the groups that
are controlled by Communists, so that we would have perhaps a little
better understanding of the extent and scope of Communist control
in foreign language organizations?

Mr. Malkin. For instance, in the Jewish group, the Communists, to
my estimation, control approximately — and by control I mean have
influence over — between 150.000 to 200,000 as a minimum in the United
States. That is done through its control of the International Workers
Order and various Jewish-controlled unions, like the furriers union in
New York and other sections of the needle trades industry throughout
the country.

Mr. Arens. To be just a little more specific still, I would like to pose
a hypothetical situation and then ask you a question about it. Let us
say that there is an organization of 10,000 persons predominantly of
foreign birth. Is it your testimony that the persons in the group are
led by the Communists, or that the organization itself is used by the
Communists for direction and control ? In other words, the Commun-
ists are the rudder of the group; is that what you mean?

Mr. Malkin. That is correct; yes, sir. The Communists actually
are what you would call the leadership of the group, and they wield in-
fluence due to the fact that they form the leadership. I would not say
that the majority of the members are Communists.

Mr. Arens. Your testimony, then — and I am not trying to put words
in your mouth, I am only trying to clarify the concept here — is that a
number of these foreign-language groups are directed and controlled
by the Communists, which does not necessarily mean that all of the
membership of the group is Communist?

Mr. Malkin. That is true, of course.

Mr. Dekom. How do the Communists gain control so easily ?



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 475

Mr. Malkin. The Communists gain control, whether it be a trade-
union or a fraternal organization, by having what they call something
like military discipline and voting in groups and blocks.

For instance, let's take a local union. It might have a membership
of 12,000, but only about 300 of 400 will come to regular meetings.
Now, amongst those 400 there will be, we will say, 100 Communists,
but they vote in a block like a disciplined group. By voting in that
group they are able to wield influence over the others. Not only that,
but the Communists have got into the habit of dragging out the meet-
ings until 12 o'clock or 1 o'clock at night and until such a time that
other members who are not so much interested in the organization,
and who are just card-carrying members, go home, being tired of
having the meeting dragged out. But the Communists remain there
until the last moment and are able to take control by voting in blocks.

]Mr. Arens, How do you distinguish between a foreign-language
group composed largely of foreign-born persons and other groups,
from the standpoint of susceptibility to Communist control and dom-
ination? I noticed, if I may make an observation, that you have
testified to the effect that Communists are particularly active and par-
ticularly powerful among foreign-language groups.

Mr. Malkin. Yes, sir.

Mr. Arens. How do you account for that ? What is your analysis
of that situation ?

Mr. Malkin. My analysis of that is that an American group, not
a foreign-language-speaking group, is able to read the American
press, the American literature, the American history, and is able to
mold its opinion more toward the American-history side. They are
able to read both sides of the question. They will read the Soviet
side of the question and they will read the American side of the ques-
tion. They will be convinced more by the American part of the
question than they will be by the foreign-language part of the question.

Mr. Arens. Do you have information, Mr. Malkin, respecting the
number of foreign-language publications in the United States which
are or were in the past under Communist control and domination?

Mr. Malkin. I have not, but I could get it.

Mr. Arens. Will you be kind enough, Mr. Malkin, when you return
to your office or your home, to assemble that information in memo-
randum form and submit it to the subcommittee ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes ; I will.

Mr. Arens. Will you accompany that with a statement that these
papers are, in your judgment, on the basis of your background and
experience, Communist controlled and dominated ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

(The material is as follows :)

Foreign Language Press

The following is a partial list of the Commvinist publications amongst the
foreign language press in the United States :

I'auvor : An Armenian weekly.

Radnicki Glasnik : A Croatian language daily located at 1629 Blue Island
Avenue, Chicago, 111.

Saznanie (Knowledge) : Bulgarian language weekly. OflScial Communist Party
publication.

Schodeni Visti : Ukranian Daily News. Official Communist Party organ. New
York City.



476 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS

Russki Golos (Russian Voice) : Russian daily under Communist Party in-
fluence.

Narodni Glasnik : Croatian weekly. Published by Communist Party.

Novy Mir : Official weekly of the Russian section of the American Communist
Party. Official publication of the International Workers Order. Published in
New York City.

New York Tyd : Finnish language paper under Communist domination.

Uus Urn (The New World) : Esthonian language weekly.

Laisve : A Lithuanian daily. Published at 46 Ten Eyck Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Official party publication in the Lithuanian language.

Ludovny Dennik : Slovak daily published at 1510 West Eighteenth Street,
Chicago, ill.

Rovnost Ludu : Slovak daily published at 1510 West Eighteenth Street, Chi-
cago, 111.

Pravda Weekly.

L'Unita Del Popolo : Italian. Published in New York City.

Naileben : Published in New York City by the Communist Soviet front "The
Icor."

Vida Obrera (Workers Life) : Semimonthly. Communist initiated and con-
trolled.

Vanguarda : A Portuguese Communist Party paper.

Vienybe : A Lithuanian triweekly. Communist initiated and controlled.

Toveri (Comrade) : E'innish Communist Party section weekly.

Tyolaisnainen (The Working Woman) : Finnish weekly. Communist initiated
and controlled.

Tyomis (The Worker) : Finnish Communist Party daily.

Obrana : Communist controlled Czech weekly published at 3624 West Twenty-
sixth Street, Chicago, 111.

Desteptarea : Rumanian weekly. Published at 6527 Russell Street, Detroit,
Mich.

Greek American Tribune : Published in Ne\v York City.

Eteenpain : Official organ of the Finnish Federation of the Communist Party
of the United States of America. Published at 50 East Thirteenth Street, New
York City. Communist headquarters.

Fraternal Outlook : Published by the International Workers Order at 80 Fifth
Avenue, New York City.

Morning Freiheit: Jewish Communist daily. Published at 50 East Thirteenth
Street, New York City.

Deutsche Amerikaner (German American) : Published at 50 East Thirteenth
Street, New York City.

Glos Ludowy : Polish daily. Official Communist Party publication.

The Communist Party has either under its full control or influence between
200 and 250 foreign-language periodicals in daily, weekly, and monthly publi-
cations throughout the United States. These also include trade-union publica-
tions and fraternal foreign-language publications, etc.

Senator O'Conor. Mr. Malkin, did your work, while you were an
active member of the party, bring you in direct contact with this
method of operation?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

Senator O'Conor. As a member of the party, did you have direct
contact along the lines indicated by the last questions which have been
propounded to you?

Mr. Malkin. Yes. As an organizer, and as a member of the party,
I used to have direct contact with these papers, for this reason, I will
give you an illustration :

If I am an organizer of a certain territory and a Communist paper
is within my territory, I would be in full charge of that paper. I
would give orders to the others, tlie editor of that paper, as to what
to publish and as to what they should not publish.

Mr. Dekom. Could you name some of those papers ?

Mr. Malkin. The Ukranian Daily News.



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 477

Mr. Dekom, The editor is Mike Tkach ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

There used to be a paper called the Novy Mir, a Eussian paper. The
Russki Golos was not controlled by the Communist Party at that
time, but its sympathies have always been toward the Soviet Union.

Mr. Dekom. Are you familiar with the Croatian newspaper,
Narodni Glasnik, published in Pittsburgh ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes. It is edited by an old friend of mine by the
name of Toni Minerich.

Mr. Dekom. I wonder if you would enlarge on the matter of this
editor of the newspaper Narodni Glasnik?

Senator O'Conor. Will you just give us some detail, please?

Mr. JMalkin. Toni Minerich has been a member of the party, to my
knowledge from personal contact with him, since 1925, He was origi-
nally a coal miner .

Senator O'Conor. Is he an American citizen ?

Mr. Malkin. I recall that he was naturalized in 1927 in the Penn-
sylvania district. I have known Toni Minerich for years as a party
member. I worked with him in the party and also with his coworker
Borich.

Mr. Dekom. Is that Frank Borich ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

Mr. Dekom. Is he now under deportation order?

Mr. Malkin. Yes, that is right.

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not Toni Minerich was an
official of the Young Communist League?

Mr. JVLilLkin. Yes, a member of the National Executive Committee.

Mr. Dekom. And an organizer?

Mr. Malkin. Yes, that is right.

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not he has ever been in prison ?

Mr. Malkin. He was arrested, I think, in Pittsburgh or in Phila-
delphia for disorderly conduct, having a meeting without a permit,,
or something of that kind.

iSIr. Dekom. Was he active in the organization of the American
Slav Congress ?

Mr. Malkin. Yes.

Mr. Dekom. Was he one of the original organizers ?

Mr. Malkin. He was one of those ; yes. He was from the Croatian
division.

Mr. Dekom. There are a number of newspapers published in De-
troit at 5856 Chene Street, including Glos Ludowy, which you have
identified as a Communist paper. Can you state whether theNarodna
Volya published there is a Communist paper, too?

Mr. Malkin. The Narodna Volya is the original Russian name of
the terrorist group that Lenin's brother ^ was hanged for his partici-
pation in the assassination of Czar Alexander in 1880. Narodna Volya
was also the name of their paper. That is Pirinslry's paper.

Mr. Dekom. Is it a Bulgarian paper ?

Mr. Malkin. It is a Bulgarian paper.

Senator O'Conor. Will you continue with explaining the details
of your credentials ?

1 Alexander Lenin (Ulianov).



478 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS

Mr. Malkin. During my activity in the party, I used to come in
contact with a lot of these newspapers. There used to be a paper
called the Uj Elore of which Peters was in charge of at one time.

Senator O'Conor. We have heard a lot about him.

Mr. Dekom. Could you identify him further ?

Mr. Malkin. I testified in Peters' deportation hearing and identi-
fied him in New York.

Mr. Dekom. You identified him as what ?

Mr. Malkin. J. Peters was born in Hungary. He was active in
the Hungarian revolution in 1919.

Mr. Dekom. That was the Communist revolution ?

Mr. Malkin. That is right ; under Bela Kun.

He came to the United States with another person called Emil
Gardos. He started to work, and I met him for the first time in
1923 or 1924. He was later in charge of all of the underground ap-
paratus of the organization, the hush-hush organization of the party,
and the espionage that the party did for the Soviet Union in this
country. He collaborated with the Central Control Commission and
the resident GPU agents in this country, some of whom I will name
later in my statement. They were later known as NKVD.

The foreign-language newspapers published on behalf of the Com-
munist Party are governed by a policy laid down in the first section



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on theCommunist activities among aliens and national groups. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, first session, on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration act of October 16, 1918, as amended (Vo → online text (page 1 of 62)