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STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM

RECRUITING FOR ESPIONAGE



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE

ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY

ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS

OF THE OAV'A .K ..'

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

UNITED STATES SENATE

EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS

FIRST SESSION
PURSUANT TO

S. Res. 58



JUNE 28 AND 29, 1955



PART 14



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary




UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
59886 WASHINGTON : 1955



Boston Public Library
Superintendent of Documents

JAN 1 8 1956



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia, Chairman

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin

ESTES KEFAUVER, Tennessee WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota

OLIN D. JOHNSTON, Soutli Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas EVERETT McKINLEY DIRKSEN, Illinois

PRICE DANIEL, Texas HERMAN WELKBR, Idaho

JOSEPH C. O'MAHONEY, Wyoming JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland



Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration of the Internal Securitt"
Act and Other Internal Security Laws

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman
OLIN D. JOHNSTON, South Carolina WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas ARTHUR V. WATKINS, Utah

THOMAS C. HENNINGS, Jr., Missouri HERMAN WELKER, Idaho

PRICE DANIEL, Texas JOHN MARSHALL BUTLER, Maryland

J. G. SouRwiNE, Chief Counsel

Richard Ahens and Alva C. Carpenter, Associate Counsel

Benjamin Mandel, Director of Research

n



CONTENTS



P&ga

Bessie, Alvah 1370

Burdett, Winston Mansfield 1324

Dowling, Lyle 1382

Kaufman, Milton 1374

Stern, Monroe William 1363

Weingarten, Violet 1378

Young, Murraj' 1379

m



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM

Recruiting for Espionage



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 29, 1955

United States Senate,
Subcommittee To Investigate the Administration
OF the Internal Security Act and Other Internal

Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary,

Washington, D. C.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 05 a. m., in room 318,
Senate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland (chairman of the
subcommittee) presiding.

Present: Senators Eastland, Johnston, Daniel, Jenner, and
Hennings.

Also present: J. G. Sourwine, chief counsel; Alva C. Carpenter,
associate counsel; Benjamin Mandel, director of research, and Robert
McManus, investigations analyst.

The Chairman. The committee will come to order.

On November 1, 1953, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal
Bureau of Investigation, declared :

The ex-Communist holds in his hands weapons which can strike a mighty blow
against a terrible evil. "When the ex-Communist withdraws, and at the same
time makes a full disclosure to the proper authorities, he does irreparable dam-
age to the cause.

Today we shall have an opportunity^ to hear an ex-Communist dis-
close a phase of the Communist conspiracy which has not been told
before. The subcommittee is fully appreciative of the agonizing inner
struggle experienced by one who has once become entangled in the toils
of the Red octopus and who finally decides to free himself from its
grasp. It is fully aware of the mud guns of vilification which will be
directed against him by the Communists and their allies. Therefore,
we are deeply grateful to this witness, and welcome his courageous
effort to roll up the Iron Curtain protecting the Communist conspir-
acy in the highly important area of his competence.

Call your witness. Mr. Sourwine.

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Winston Burdett.

The Chairman. Will you hold up your hand, please, sir?

Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are about to give the In-
ternal Security Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary of
the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth-
ing but the truth, so help you, God ?

Mr. Burdett. I do, sir.

The Chairman. Sit down, sir.

Proceed.

1323



1324 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Burdett, will you give your full name, please,
for the record, and your home address and your business or professional
connection, if any ?

TESTIMONY OF WINSTON MANSFIELD BURDETT, NEW YOEK CITY

Mr. Burdett. Winston Mansfield Burdett. I live at 430 East 63d
Street, New York City, and I am employed as a staff news corre-
spondent by the Columbia Broadcasting System, at 485 Madison
Avenue in New York City.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Mr. Burdett, were you ever a member of the Com-
munist Party, USA ?

Mr. Burdett. I was, sir.

Mr. Sourwine. Mr. Burdett, will you tell us something of jour
background and experience in the broadcasting field, how you got into
it, and what you have done in that field ?

Mr. Burdett. In the broadcasting field, sir, I have worked for 13
years as a regular staff correspondent for the Columbia Broadcasting
System.

Before then I worked in New York City as a newspaperman, em-
ployed by the Brooklyn Eagle, for which I worked for 5 years, or
51/^ years, from 1934 to early in 1940.

I became regularly employed by the Columbia Broadcasting System
in the spring of 1942, and have worked for that company ever since
then.

A good deal of that experience has been abroad, sir, in the Middle
East, in North Africa, and in Europe. For the past 4 years I have
worked here in this country on the New York staff of CBS.

The Chairman. Now proceed.

Mr. Sourwine. Will you tell the committee, please, when and where
you joined the Communist Party ?

Mr. Burdett. I joined the Communist Party, sir, in August of 1937
when I was employed by the Brooklyn Daily Eagle in Brooklyn,
N. Y. The unit of the Communist Party which I joined was the
Brooklyn Daily Eagle unit of the partj^.

Mr. Sourwine. Who recruited you into the Communist Party, Mr.
Burdett?

Mr. Burdett. No particular person, sir. That is to say, I can't
attribute my recruitment to any one individual. There were various
persons in the unit of the party at the Brooklyn Eagle whom I knew,
whom I knew to be Communists, and whom I knew well as friends
and as colleagues.

The person whom I knew most intimately and most well and who,
I think, probably had the greatest influence upon me was a man and
colleague named Alvah Bessie. He was my close colleague at the
Eagle. He was a man whom I knew and liked well and warmly.

When I actually joined the Eagle unit, he was not a member of it,
because he had left the newspaper, so that I cannot say that I ever
saw him at a meeting of the Communist Party. Nevertheless, I knew
him to be a Communist.

There were others in the unit at the time. That is to say, in the unit
at the time I joined it. I cannot say that anyone exerted great in-
fluence on me to join.



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1325

The Chairman". Was Mr. Bessie later known as one of the Holly-
wood Ten ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Excuse me, sir ?

The Chairman. Was Mr. Bessie later known as one of the Holly-
wood Ten ?

Mr. BuRDETT. That is the man, sir. It is he. Of the other members
of the party unit at the Eagle whom I knew and whose friendship
counted in my decision to join the party, there were, I should say,
several.

One was Nat Einhorn, another was Victor Weingarten, whom I
knew^ at that time, who was a colleague on the paper, Violet Brown,
I knew well on the paper, and it was the friendship of these persons
and my intimacy with them not only as persons and as colleagues, but
also in our common work in the Eagle unit of the Newspaper Guild
which was personally influential in bringing me to join the Communist
Party.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Now you have named several persons. Will you
identify them a little further, please ?

\^'lio is Nat Einhorn ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Nat Einliorn, sir, was, if I am not mistaken — all of
the persons I mentioned worked in the editorial department of the
Brooklyn Eagle, that is to say, as reporters or rewrite men. Nat
Einhorn was a reporter, and if I am not mistaken, he covered the
Brooklyn courts and city news in Brooklyn.

Nat Einhorn was, I should say, the leading spirit of the Communist
Party unit at the Brooklyn Eagle. I believe, without knowing, that
he was the oldest member of that unit. He was certainly the organiz-
ing spirit of the unit. He was also extremely active in Newspaper
Guild affairs.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know where Mr. Einhorn is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Excuse me, sir ?

Mr. SoTTRwiNE. Do you know where Mr. Einhorn is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not, sir. I have not seen him or heard from him.
I have not seen him since 1940 when I left the Eagle, and I don't know
where he is.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now you mentioned Victor Weingarten. "\Mio is
he?

Mr. BuRDETT. Victor Weingarten was an editorial employee. He
was a reporter, a general-assignment reporter, I believe, for the Eagle
at that time.

Mr. Sour\\t:ne. Do you know where he is now ?

Mr. Burdett. I do not, sir.

Mr. SouRWiNE. You mentioned a Violet Brown. Can you identify
her any further ?

Mr. Burdett. She was exactly the same, sir. She was, as I recall,
a general-assignment reporter working on the city desk of the Brook-
lyn Eagle.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Did she marry Mr. Weingarten ?

Mr. Burdett. She did, sir.

Mr. Sourwtne. Do you know where she is now ?

Mr. Burdett. I do not, sir ; no.

Mr. Sourwine. Were you active in the Communist unit at the
Brooklyn Eagle ?

Mr. Burdett. I was.



1326 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was there a unit of the Newspaper Guild at tlie
Brooklyn Eagle ?

Mr. BuRDETT. There was.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Was this Communist unit a unit of that Guild unit,
or was it just a unit of employees of the Eagle ?

Mr. BuRDETT. It was a unit in no way directly connected with the
Newspaper Guild, but a unit of the Communist Party, to w^hich I
should say all employees of the Brooklyn Eagle would have been
eligible.

Mr. SouKWiNE. How many members belonged to this Communist
unit of which you were a member at the Brooklyn Eagle ?

Mr. BuRDETT. At the time that I joined in August of 1937, there
were, I think, 10. I am not sure, I have not made a count, but about
10, including myself.

The unit acquired 1 or 2 new members during the years that I was
there, and its highest membership, as I recall, was a dozen or so.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Now, of those 10 you have named 4, Alvah Bessie,
Nat Einhorn, Victor Weingarten, and Violet Weingarten, formerly
Violet Brown. Can you name others ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; I can.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Will you do so, please ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Charles Lewis. He was, if I am not mistaken, he was
a rewrite man and a copyreader on the city desk at the Brooklyn
Eagle.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know where Charles Lewis is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead.

Mr. BuRDETT. There was Hy Charniak, who similarly was, as I
recall, a general-assignment reporter working in the city room of the
newspaper.

Mr. SouR"\viNE. Did the "Hy" stand for Hyman ; do you know ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I believe it does, sir.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where Charniak is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know where he is now.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Go ahead.

Mr. BuRDETT. Herbert Colin, I believe without the "e." He was
again an editorial employee, and for a good stretch of time he was
the movie reviewer at the Brooklyn Eagle.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where Herbert Colin is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. No, sir.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember others ?

Mr. BuKDETT. Yes, sir, I do. There was Melvin Barnett. Melvin
Barnett again was a general-assignment reporter.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know where he is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know where he is now, sir. There was David
Gordon, who again was a city desk reporter. Charles Grutzner, who
again was a reporter.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know where Melvin Barnett is ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not know.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you know anything about Mr. Barnett's activ-
ities after you left the Brooklyn Eagle ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I have never heard of him, and I know nothing of
his activities ; no, sir.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know the whereabouts of David Gordon?



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COIMJVIUNISM 1327

]Mr. BuRDETT. I do not.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you know anything of his activities after you
left the Eagle ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Do you know the whereabouts of Charles Grutzner ?

Mr. BrRDETT. I believe that I do, that is to say, I believe that the
Charles Grutzner whom I knew on the Brooklyn Eagle, and who was
my colleague there, is presently employed by the New York Times.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Do you remember any more names of those who
were in the Communist unit at the Brooklyn Eagle with you ?

Mr, BuRDETT. Yes, sir ; I do.

Mr. SouRAViNE. Name them.

]\Ir. BuRDETT. There was Gladys Bentley. She was not an editorial
employee but was employed in one of the commercial departments of
the newspaper. I believe that she was in the advertising department.

Mr. SouRwiXE. Do you know where she is now i

^Ir. BuRDETT. I do not.

Mr. SouRwiXE. Any others ?

]Mr. BrRDEiT. Larry Adler ^ was, as I recall, the youngest member —
he was very young indeed ; he was in his late teens or early twenties —
of the party unit at the Brooklyn Eagle. He was emplo3'ed in one of
the commercial departments. I am not certain of his exact job.

Mr. SouRWix'^E. Do you know where he is now ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I do not.

Mr. SouRwiXE. Any others?

Mr. BuRDETT. I am trying to think, sir, whether I have recollected
every one. I think that I have recollected — oh, no, I have not. Lyle
Dowling. Lyle Dowling came to the newspaper as an executive in a
very high executive position.

In September of 1937 the Newspaper Guild went out on strike at
the Brooklyn Eagle, and there was a 3 months' strike. Lyle Dowling
went out on strike with us, with the Newspaper Guild, although I am
quite certain that he is not a member, that he went out in sympathy
with the Guild, and it was during that period that Lyle Dowling joined
the Eagle unit of the Communist Party and remained so as long as
I remained at the Eagle.

Mr. SouRwixE. Do you remember any other names ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I think that I have recollected every one, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. Did vou know Murrav Young?

Mr. BuRDETT. Murray Young ?

Mr. SouRwixE. Yes.

Mr. BrRDETT. Yes, I did, sir.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who was Murray Young ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I will have to explain the circumstances, sir.

Mr. SoFRwixE. By all means.

Mr. BiRDETT. As I told you, I joined the jjarty unit in August of
1937, and early the following year, or in the spring of the following
year, Nut Einhorn, whose name I have mentioned, suggested that I and
another member of tlie party unit at the Eagle attend what was
called a section school : the section, as I understand it, being the next
larger organizational, geographical organizational unit of the party,

^ In executive testimony Mr. Burdett referred to a Leonard (not Larry) Adler as a fellow
member of the Communist cell on the Brooklyn Eagle.

59886 — 55— pt. 14 2



1328 STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM

and this sectional school was a school conducted for purposes of train-
ing party members in Communist Party theory, in short, for purposes
of general indoctrination.

I attended that school, as I recall, for 2 or 3 months. There were
2 classes which I attended, 2 courses, that is to say, as I recall, and
this meant going to this school twice, on 2 evenings each week for
a period of 2 or 3 months, as I remember.

Murray Young, sir, was a teacher at that school and conducted one
of the courses I mentioned.

Mr. SouRWiNE. Who attended that school with you ?

Mr. BuRDETT. The member of the Eagle unit who attended that
school with me was Violet Brown.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Who later became Violet Weingarten?

Mr. BuRDETT. That is so, yes.

The Chairman. Wait just a minute. I want to ask you a question
right there. Did you ever engage in espionage ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I did, sir.

The Chairman. When was that ?

Mr. BuRDETT. This was after I went abroad in February of 1940,
and it was while I was abroad, off and on, sir, from the time that I
initially went abroad in that month until the time that I broke with
the movement.

The Chairman. Now, you went abroad in 1940 ?

Mr. BuRDETT. That is correct, sir.

The Chairman. When did you break with the movement ?

Mr. BuRDETT. In March of 1942. That was 2 years, roughly 2 years
thereafter.

The Chairman. Were you contacted by the Communist under-
ground abroad ?

Mr. Btjrdett. Was I contacted by them ?

The Chairman. The Communist underground abroad.

Mr. BuRDETT. Yes, sir.

The Chairman. Now, what information did you give them, and
how did you secure it ?

Mr. BuRDETT. Sir, would you wish that I begin with the circum-
stances of my going abroad ?

The Chairman. Yes, sir.

Mr. BuRDETT. Very well.

In January of 1940, when I was still working at the Brooklyn
Eagle, I was contacted by a member of the party miit with respect to
this trip which then developed. It was in the latter half of January
1940 that I received a telephone call from Nat Einhorn, the Eagle
party unit member whom I have mentioned, and Einhorn asked me
to get in touch with a man named Joe North.

Joe North, the name, was well known to me. Joe North, the name,
was well known to all Communist Party members as a correspondent
for the Communist Daily Worker.

Einhorn indicated to me in his phone call that this was a matter
of some importance, and I was to visit Joe North at his apartment,
as I remember, on the following Sunday of that week, in order to
find out what the matter was.

Einhorn gave me his address and I went to his apartment, which I
remember was in the Greenwich Village section of New York City
somewhere west of Seventh Avenue.



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1329

I saw Joe Xortli as Einhorn had instructed me, and North told me
that "we," as he said — and by "we" I understood that he was speak-
ing of the Communist Party, there was no question in my mind —

We want you to go to Finland. We have an assignment for you there, In
which you can be useful to the party.

And he told me that he would put me in touch with the man who
would give me the specific instructions concerning this trip.

Should I relate now these entire circumstances, sir ?

The Chairman. Yes.

Mr. BuRDETT. Joe Xorth told me that he and this third man, as I
shall now call him, would rendezvous on a street corner in New York
City 2 or 3 nights following my meeting with Joe North on that par-
ticular Sunday in his apartment.

I was to rendezvous with Joe North and meet this third man on a
street corner, which was just south of Union Square in New York
City — I have forgotten whether it was on Broadway or on Fourth
Avenue, but it was a specified 13th Street corner.

This was done, and I met Joe North on the street, and this third
man was nearby and we rendezvoused together, and we all proceeded
to a restaurant or cafeteria-style restaurant on the south side of 14th
Street.

I believe it was on Union Square itself, although I can't recall
exactly.

This man, this third man, told me shnply this : that they, or "we"
have a mission for you in Finland :

We want you to go abroad. We want you abroad as a correspondent for the
Brooklyn Eagle.

It was known to him that the Brooklyn Eagle had no foreign cor-
respondents, did not maintain a foreign staff, and therefore I was to
propose that I go abroad as a roving reporter for the Brooklyn Eagle,
but paying my own expenses since, in fact, I did have my own means.

The CiiAiRMAX. Who was that man ?

Mr. BuRDETT. This man, sir ?

The Chairman. The third one.

Mr. BuRDETT. He was never identified to me by name at the time
by Joe North. I had never seen him before, and I did not know who
he was ever until I went to the FBI, and from photos shown to me by
the FBI, I was able to identify him to my own complete satisfaction,
and his name was Jacob Golos.

jNIr. SouRwiXE. Mr. Burdett, I send you a photostat of a passport
application containing a picture of a man, and I will ask you if that
is the man that you are now talking about.

Mr. Burdett. That is the man, sir, and there is no question in my
mind that it is he.

Mr. SouRwixE. Mr. Chairman, this is a passport application made
by Jacob Golos under one of his aliases, Jacob Eaisin. I ask that
this may be put in the record at this point as an exhibit.

The Chairman. It will be admitted.

(The passport application was marked as an exhibit and is found
in the files of the committee. A reproduction of the photograph on
that document appears below:)



1330



STRATEGY AXD TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM



MVM««WM4C<>VMUrt(4hVLvMn:i{. w.\VWW>»!AS?.VLv.i. ^,vi« y^m^.-^fi-^iVAyir^cMWff.fi^^SafSV't^^V^^ «WtrfKX^A SS^" ^ -S^^-VWiKM!?





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The Chairman. Now, proceed.

]Mr. SouRWixE. This is the same Jacob Golos, Mr. Chairman, whom
E]izai)eth Bentley testitied was her contact in Soviet espiona<re.

Mr. BuKDETT. This man Avhom I will refer to now as Golos, although
I didn't know him by that identity at the time, instructed me, as I
have said, to persuade the Brooklyn Eagle to send me abroad as a
roving correspondent on my own, financially.

Secondly, he instructed me at this first meeting to bring to him, in
order to surrender it to him at my next meeting with him, my Commu-
nist Party card.

He asked me to write out a short autobiography of myself — this I
presume for purposes of identification — and this short autobiography
of myself I did write out in my own hand, a short 1 or 2 pages of
paper or so, putting down the vital statistics, and he asked me also
at our next meeting to bring to him 4 or 5 passport-size photos of my-
self for his use.

The Chairman. Proceed.



STRATEGY AND TACTICS OF WORLD COMMUNISM 1331

Mr. BuRDETT. He told me nothino; of the actual purpose or the spe-
cific nature of my mission to Finland, but he indicated that it was Fin-
land and it was to Finland that he wanted me to go. I made this pro-
posal to the Brooklyn Eagle and to the managing editor of the Brook-
lyn Eagle at that time, and he quite readily accepted it.

Mr. SouRwixE. ^Yhen you say you made this proposal, your pro-
posal to him was only that you go as a foreign correspondent in behalf
of the Eagle, but paying your own expenses, is that right ?

Mr. BuRDETT. That is exactly it, sir.

Mr. SouRwixE. You said nothing to him about doing any work for
the Communist Party ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I want to stress that tlie Eagle and the managing edi-
tor had no knowledge whatever of the Communist Party aspects of
the trip. He agreed readily, however, that this be done because it was
obviousl}' to the Eagle's interest that it have a correspondent associated
with the writing as its representative from abroad.

Mr. SouRwixE. You had then been with the Eagle how long ?

]\lr. BuRDETT. Four and a half 3'ears.

Mr. SouRwiXE. And you had been a reporter all that time ?

Mr. BuRDETT. I had not been, no. For only a very short spell had
I actually been a general-assignment reporter. Most of my jobs and
tasks were editorial, sir.

Mr. SouRwiNE. Go ahead.

Mr. BuRDETT. That is all that took place at my first meeting with
Golos and North, and I should say that, at all the meetings with Golos,
Xorth was present, and the meetings took place in the same way that
I have described, that is to say, there was a rendezvous in the early
evening on the street between the three of us, I usually, as I recall,
meeting North first, and then Golos appeared from around the corner,
and all of us on each occasion proceeding to this cafeteria and sitting
down there for half an hour or so, and that is where our business was
transacted.

The Chairmax. Go ahead.

What information were you to get in Finland ?

Mr. BuRDETT. The next meeting with Golos was a very few evenings
thereafter.

At this time I gave to Golos the photos of myself, the short auto-
biography, the party card, and I told him, I must have told him, that
I had made the proposal to the Eagle, the proposal which he had
requested.

I had applied for a passport naturally, and the Eagle naturally had
written to the Passport Division of the' State Department explaining
the nature of the assignment for the Eagle, as an Eagle assignment.

The passport did not come immediately, and the Passport Division
raised objections to the granting of the passport because it did not. as
I recall, it did not aj^iiear to them, to the Passport Division, that I was
a bona fide correspondent, that is to say, I was not going abroad as a
staff corresjjondent of the Brooklyn Eagle in the regular sense of the
word, with a Brooklyn Eagle salary and at their expense.


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