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The equal rights amendment. Hearings, Ninety-first Congress, second session, on S.J. Res. 61 ... May 5, 6, and 7, 1970 online

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THE "EQUAL RIGHTS" AMENDMENT




HEARINGS

BEFORE THB

SUBCOMMITTEE ON
CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS

OP THB

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
UNITED STATES SENATE

NINETY-FIRST CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION
ON

S.J. Res. 61

To Amend the Constitution

So As To Provide Equal Rights

For Men and Women



MAY 5, 6, AND 7, 1970




THE "EQUAL RIGHTS" AMENDMENT



HEARINGS

BEFORE THE

SUBCOMMITTEE ON

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS

OF THE

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY
UNITED STATES SENATE

NINETY-FIRST CONGRESS

SECOND SESSION
ON

S.J. Res. 61

To Amend the Constitution

So As To Provide Equal Rights

For Men and Women



MAY 5, 6, AND 7, 1970




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

47-425 WASHINGTON : 1970



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $3.25



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY



JAMES O. EASTLAN

JOHN L. McCLELLAN, Arkansas
SAM J. ERVIN, Jk., North Carolina
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut
PHILIP A. HART, Michigan
EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts
BIRCH BAYH, Indiana
QUENTIN N. BURDICK, North Dakota
JOSEPH D. TYDINGS, Maryland
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia



D, Mississippi, Chairman

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska
HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii
HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania
STROM THURMOND, South Carolina
MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky
CHARLES McC. MATHIAS, jK.. Maryland
ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan



Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments

BIRCH BAYH, Indiana, Chairman
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi



SAM J. ERVIN, Jr., North Carolina
THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut
JOSEPH D. TYDINGS, Maryland
ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia



ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska
HIRAM L. FONG. Hawaii
STROM THURMOND, South Carolina
MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky
GRIFFIN, ROBERT P., Michigan

(II)






Ql



CONTENTS

Witnesses by Date

MAY 5, 1970

Page

McCarth.v, Hon. Eugene J., U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota 7

Harmon, Mrs. Myra Ruth, president. National Federation of Business and

Professional Women's Clubs, Inc 10, 36

Shriver, Mrs. Lucille, federation director, National Federation of Business

and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc 10, 36

O'Callaghan, Dr. Phyllis, legislation director. National Federation of

Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc 10, 36

Griffiths, Hon. Martha W., U.S. Representative from the State of

Michigan 22

Dwyer, Hon. Florence P., U.S. Representative from the State of New

Jersey 27

Chisholm, Hon. Shirle}^, U.S. Representative from the State of New York_ _ 32
Heckler, Hon. Margaret M., U.S Representative from the State of

Massachusetts 38

Goodell, Hon. Charles, U.S. Senator from the State of New York 45

Hernandez, Mrs. Aileen, National Organization for Women 54

Witter, Jean, chairman, Equal Rights Amendment Committee, National

Organization for Women 68

Fasteau, Brenda, National Organization for Women 69

Goldman, Emma, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C 78

Grimke, Sarah, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C 78

Grimke, Angelina, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C ■ 78

Furay, Mr. Mortimer, Detroit Metropolitan AFL-CIO council 81

Rawalt, Miss Marguerite, Women's Bar Association of the District of

Columbia 112

Anderson, Mrs. Lee Berger, president. Women's Bar Association of the

District of Columbia 112

Farians, Dr. Elizabeth, professor of theology, Loyola University 307

MAY 6, 1970

Finegan, Mrs. Betty, Michigan W^omen's Commission 313

Wolfgang, Mrs. Myra K., vice president. Hotel and Restaurant Employees

and Bartenders International Union, AFL-CIO, in behalf of Michigan

■ - Women's Commission 316

^ Steinem, Miss Gloria, writer and critic 331

Bird, Miss Caroline, Author of "Born Female" 337

Basto, Mrs. Eloise M., special representative. Communications Workers of

America, District Four 354

Gutwillig, Mrs. Jacqueline, chairman, Citizens' Advisory Council on the

Status of Women 360

Sandler, Dr. Bernice, Women's Equity Action League 412

Boj-er, Dr. Elizabeth, Women's Equity Action League 441

Leonard, Miss Margery, national vice chairman. National Women's Party.. 448

Franklin, Mrs. Butler, vice president, National Women's Party 455

McFarland, Stanley J., assistant secretary for legislation and Federal

relations of the National Education Association 457

MAY 7, 1970

^ Meiklejohn, Kenneth A., legislative representative, AFL-CIO 465

^ Draper, Miss Anne, economist, AFL-CIO 483

'^ Freidan, Miss Betty, Author of "Feminine Mystique," and Founder of

NOW 491

Weaver, Mrs. Adele T., president-elect, National Association of Women

Lawyers 498

(III)



.D



JV

Allan, Miss Virginia R., chairman, President's Task Force on Women's P_age

Rights and Responsibilities ; - - -^18

Fitzgerald, Dr. Lanrine E., professor and associate dean of stvidents, ]\Iichi-

gan State University •'^18

Boersma, Miss P. Dee, graduate student 518

Carter, John Mack, editor and publisher, Ladies Home Journal and presi-
dent Downe Publishing -^39

Megel, Carl J., legislative director, American Federation of Teachers o57

Heide, Wilma Scott, chairman, board of directors. National Organization

for Women, Inc., NOW •'>63

Sellers, Gcorgianna, on behalf of the Indiana and Kentucky unit of the

League for American Working Women 575

Madar, Olga M., vice president of the United Auto Workers 592

Witnesses Alphabetically

Allan, Miss Virginia R., chairman, President's Task Force on Women's

Rights and Responsibilities _-. - - 518

American Federation of Labor — Congress of Industrial Organizations {At L-

CIO) ,

American Federation of Teachers ,"":' ''*'^

Anderson, Mrs. Lee Berger, president, Women's Bar A.ssociation of the

District of Columbia -. - - - - - 112

Basto, Mrs. Eloise M., special representative, Communications Workers ot

America, District Four 354

Bird, Miss Caroline, Author of "Born Female" ^ - '^

Boersma, Miss P. Dee, graduate student.: 518

Bover, Dr. Elizabeth, Women's Equity Action League 441

Carter, John Mack, editor and publisher, Ladies Home Journal and presi-
dent, Downe Publishing - - - - - 539

Chisholm, Hon. Shirlev, U.S. Representative from the State of New York- . •>Z

Citizens' Advisory Council on the Status of Women 3<>0

]:)raper, Miss Anne, economist, AFL-CIO ,-;f - ^^

Dwyer, Hon. Florence P., U.S. Representative from the State of New

JprsGV - "* — "- **"■

Farians, Dr. Elizabeth, professor of theologj^ Loyola University 307

Fasteau, Brenda, National Organization for Women, Inc., NOW 69

Finegan, Mrs. Betty, Michigan Women's Commission -7 - .- 313

Fitzgerald, Dr. Launne E., professor and associate dean of students, Michi-
gan State University 518

Franklin, Mrs. Butler, vice president, National Women s Party 4n5

vFriedan, Mrs. Betty, Author of "Feminine My.stique" and founder of NOW- 491

Furay, Mr. Mortimer, Detroit Metropolitan AFL-CIO council 81

Goldman, Emma, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C 78

Goodell, Hon. Charles, U.S. Senator from the State of New York 4.^

Griffiths, Hon. Martha W., U.S. Representative from the State of Michigan- 22

Grimkr, .\ngelina, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C 78

Grimk^, Sarah, Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C 78

Gutwillig, Mrs. Jacqueline, chairman, Citizens' Advisory Council on the

Status of Women ,-f, - T 3 ^^

Harmon, Mrs. Myra Ruth, president, National Federation of Business and

Professional Women's Clubs, Inc ;;-,-/"" ^^' ^^

Heckler, Hon. Margaret M., U.S. Representative from the State of Mas-
sachusetts . - 38

Heide, Wilma Scott, chairman, board of directors, National Organization

for Women, Inc., NOW - ^z,-, - ''"'f']

Hernandez, Mrs. .\ileen, National Organization for Women, Inc., NOW.. 04

Indiana and Kentucky unit of the League for American Working Women.. 575

Leonard, Miss, Margerv, national vice chairman, National Women's Party- 448

Madar, Olga M., vice president of the United Auto Workers 592

McCarthy, Hon. Eugene J., U.S. Senator from the State of Minnesota-.. 7
McFarlaiifl, Stanley J., assistant secretary for legislation and Federal

relations of the National Education Association 457

Megel, Carl J., legislative director, .American Federation of Teachers 557

Metropolitan Detroit .VFL-CIO counsel 81

Meiklejohn, Kenneth A., legislative representative, AFL-CIO 465



Page

Michigan Communication Workers of America 354

Michigan Women's Commission IIIIIIII'SIS 316

National Association of Women Lawyers I "II "I "I "_ ' 498

National Education Association "~ ' "" " 457

National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Ync ' 10 36

National Organization for Women Inc., NOW . '54 es' 69

National Women's Party _~ 443 455

O'Callaghan, Dr. Phyllis, legislative director. National Federation of Busi- ' '

ness and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc 10 36

President's Task Force on Women's Rights and ResponsibifitiesI" 11"/ 518
Rawalt, Miss Marguerite, Women's Bar Association of the District of

Columbia _ _ __ _ 112

Sandler, Dr. Bernice, Women's Equity Action League l///.\ 412

Sellers, Georgianna, on behalf of the Indiana and Kentucky unit of the

League for American Working Women 575

V Shriver, Mrs. Lucille, federation director. National Federation of Business

and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc _ 10, 36

^Steinem, Miss Gloria, writer and critic I__I I_ 331

United Auto Workers ~ 592

Weaver, Mrs. Adele T., president-elect, National Association "of" Women

Lawyers __ 49g

Witter, Jean, chairman. Equal" Rights Amendment "Com"mit"tee, National

Organization for Women gg

Wolfgang, Mrs. Myra K., vice-president, Hotel and" Re"staurantEm"ploy"ees

and Bartenders International Union, AFL-CIO, in behalf of Michigan

Women's Commission 31g

Women's Bar Association of the District of Columbia ~_~_ J 112

Women's Equity Action League __ 412 441

Women's Liberation, Washington, D.C I I /_ ' 78

Statements for the Record

Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, Jacob S. Potofsky, general

president ^_ g-j^g

American Medical Women's Association, Inc., New York"N."Y_ _"_"_"!"'" gl9
B'nai B'rith V\^omen, Mrs. Michael Shapiro, president, Wc4hington, D.C"' 619
Commission on the Status of Women, Betty J. Durden, chairman Govern-
or's Commission on the Status of Women, Des Moines Iowa G'^O

Council for Women's Rights, Elizabeth M. Scott, president, Pittsburgh, Pa" 622

Cowles, Jack R., Brooklyn, N. Y g23

District of Cokimbia Commission on the Status of Women Washington,

D.C ' g23

District of Cohimbia State Federation of" Business" "and" "Pro'fessional

Women s Clubs, Washington, D.C _ g24

District^of Columbia State Federation of Women's Club, 'Washingt"o"n''D."c" 625

Doian, Jo Dunn, attorney at law, Miami, FUa 625

Farbstein, Hon. Leonard, U.S. House of Representatives, New York "" I 626

Faust, Jean, assistant on Women's Rights to Congressman William F

Ryan _ g28

General Federation of Women's Clubs, Mrs. Walter Yarney Magee

president ______ ' 637

Huggins, Luella A., attorneyatlaw, Altadena, CaHfI_" " "" I 639
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, AF'L-CIO, Evelyn

Dubrow, legislative representative '_ 642

Ireton, Barbara, Fails Church, Va I '_ "__'_ g43

Lipschultz, Claudia, Silver Springs, Md I II __ 97

May, Hon. Catherine, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington 660

Montoya, Hon. Joseph M., U.S. Senator, New Mexico 660

JSational Council of CathoHc Women, Mrs. Norman Folda, president Wash-
ington, D.C _ gg2

National Council of Jewish Women, Inc., New York, N.Y 662

National Federation of Republican Women, Mrs! Gladys O'Donnell"

president \_ __ ___' qq^

National Woman's Party, Marjorie R. Longwell, California" chair"man"a"nd

national chairman ggg

Proxmire, Hon. William, U.S. Senate, Wisconsin" I_l_ I "I I " g70



VI

Page

Saint Joan's Alliance, Frances Lee McGillicuddy, president 671

Scott, Hon. Hugh, U.S. Senate, Pennsylvania. _ 673

Torrey, Jane Wheelwright, professor of psychology, Connecticut College for

Women, New London, Conn 674

Unitarian Universalist Women's Federation, Alice H. Kimball, prosid(!nt_. 675
University of Missouri-Kansas City, Ann Crisp, assistant professor of law,

UMKC; president, Greater Kansas City Chapter, National Organization

for Women 677

Washington Forum, Thelma R. Davenport, president, Washington, D.C- 678

Wyngaardon, Mrs. Joseph, Westwood, N.J 67!)

ZONTA International, Myra Fowler, s(>cretary, Chicago, 111 679

ZONTA International, Beuta Lisa Harter, president, Birmingham, Mich.

Club 679

Additional Material

Senate Joint Resolution 61 2

Senator cosponsors of Senate Joint Resolution 61 9

Excerpt, report No. 1, Resolutions Committee, 22d Constitutional

Convention, UAW, April 23, 1970 101

Letter from Marguerite Ravvalt to Mrs. Richard M. Nixon, April 21,

1970 132

The White House, letter from Constance Stuart, White House Staff, to
Marguerite Rawalt, Women's Bar Association of the District of Colum-
bia 133

President's Task Force on Women's Rights and Responsibilities, letter to

the President, December 15, 1969 133

*- Report of the Task F'orce on Family Law and Policy to the Citizens' Ad-
visory Council on the Status of Women, April, 1968 137

-Report of the Committee on Civil and Political Rights to the President's

Commi.ssion on the Status of Women, October, 1963 215

Account of re.solutions and actions of the National Conference of Women

Law Students, April 3, 4, 1970, NYU School of Law 300

Caroline Bird, "Let's Draft Women Too!", Saturday Evening Post, June

1966 338

^•■•^^largaret Mead, "A Case for Drafting All Boys and Girls," Redbook,

September 1966 340

Policy resolution adopted December, 1967, by the Seventh Constitutional

Convention, AFL-CIO 358

Jacqueline Gutwillig, Congressional action to draft nurses during World

War II 367

^Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, "The Proposed Equal

Rights Amendment to the Constitution" 369

Susan Deller Ross, New York LTniversity Law School, "Sex Discrimination

and Protective Labor Legislation" 392

Universities and colleges charged with sex discrimination under Execu-
tive Order 11246 as amended 431

Percentage of doctorates awarded to women in selected fields in 1967-

68 . 433

Sex Discrimination in Universities and [Colleges (selected quotes) 434

Letter of Complaint under Executive Order 11246 from Women's Equity

Action League to Secretary of Labor 438

John Hoyle, "Who Shall Be Principal— A Man or A Woman?" 460

AFIj-CIO eighth constitutional convention. Policy Resolution on Women

Workers, October, 1969 _. 466

AFL-CIO statement on method of removing legal discrimination against
women, submitted to the Civil and Political Rights Committee of the
President's Commission on the Status of Women, March 13, 1963 467

State Actions on Women's Hours Laws, 1965-70 471

Opinion of the Attorney General of Pennsylvania (abrogating the State

Women's Labor Law), November 14, 1969 475

International Labour Conference Convention No. 127 477

Letter from Senator Bayh to HEW Secretary Finch concerning sex dis-
crimination in education, May 19, 1970, and response from Secretary
Richardson, June 25, 1970... 573

Thelma Bowe v. Colgate-Palmolive Company 580



VII

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Georgianna Sellers v. Pa&e
Colgate-Palmolive Co 586

UAW Administrative Letter, Vol. 21, Letter No. 10, November 6, 1969__ 595

Stephen Schlossberg, general counsel, UAW, statement to the EEOC,

May 2, 1967 598

Memorandum: Double Standard Between Men and Women in Employ-
ment Opportunities, Handling, Weight Lifting, Work Hours and Pay... 680

AFL-CIO, letters to Congressmen and Senators, February 7, 1963, "and

enclosures 701

Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., memorandum to Dr.

Phyllis O'Callaghan, May 27, 1970 705

Faith Seidenberg, "The Submissive Majority: Modern Trends in the Law-
Concerning Women's Rights," 55 Cornall L. Rev. 262 (1970) 712

Marguerite Rawalt, "Are Married Women Competent To Manage Their

Property?" General Federation Clubwoman, May-June, 1970 723

Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, "The Age of Majority

for Men and Women in 8 States, June, 1970 725

Librarv of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, "Women as Jurors on

State Juries, June 10, 1970 725

Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, "Marriage Laws as of Decem-
ber 1, 1989" 728

Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor, "Summary of State Labor

Laws for Women," March, 1969 729

Memorandum, "Summary of Legal Action in 1969 Affecting State Labor

Laws for Women" 750

Memorandum, "Significant Changes in State Labor Laws for Women

since 1966," June 18, 1970 751

Paul A. Samuelson, "Prejudice," Newsweek magazine, March 23, 1970 751

"A Matter of Simple Justice," Report of the President's Task Force on

Women's Rights and Responsibilities, April, 1970 (released June, 1970) _. 753



SENATE JOINT RESOLUTION 61— THE "EQUAL
RIGHTS" AMENDMENT



TUESDAY, MAY 5, 1970

U.S. Senate,
Subcommittee on Constitutional Amendments

OF the Committee on the Judiciary,

Washington^ D.O.

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9 :40 a.m., in room
318, Old Senate Office Building, Senator Birch E. Bayh presiding.

Present : Senators Bayh, Fong, and Cook.

Also present: Paul J. Mode, Jr., chief counsel, and Mrs. Dorothy
Parker, minority counsel.

Senator Bayh. We will please come to order this morning.

Members of the subcommittee may have some brief statements.
I have a few remarks I would like to make as chairman of the
subcommittee.

I think it is fair to say that today begins an all-out effort to
secure a long overdue objective — equal rights under the law for men
and women.

^ The amendment we are considering provides that "Equality of
rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United
States or by any State on account of sex." This amendment would
outlaw discrimination on account of sex in the same manner and
to the same extent that we prohibited discrimination on account
of race, religion or national origin in the 14th amendment 100 years
ago. This amendment would be a sorely needed step in striking
down laws still on the books that deny more than half our population
the right of first-class citizenship.

It is hard for many Americans to believe that discrimination
against women continues to exist in^ our country today. Strangely
enough, we find that all women do not support the effort that we
are undertaking. I hope that this is because of lack of knowledge.
But the plain fact is that women have often been left behind in the
struggle to make American society a fair and just one. Despite the
passage of title VII of the 1964* Civil Rights Act and the Equal
Pay Act of 1963, widespread employment discrimination continues
throughout the United States. In a recent management survey,
for example, 59 percent of the companies admitted that they continue
to disqualify women from jobs solely on the basis of sex; 63 percent
recruit at men's schools while only 30 percent recruit at women's
schools ; and 47 percent continue to use separate "male" and "female"
classified^ advertisements despite Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission regulations against such placement.

(1)



But the rano;e of discrimination against women is not limited
j to areas of pay and employment. State laws in Illinois and seven
j other States provide that Avomen attain the age of majority at
I 21. while men attain majority at 18, despite the fact that science
Tias proven women actually mature earlier than men. Such provisions
hamper many mature young women in their efforts to secure em-
ployment, si^n contracts, lease real property, and conduct otlier
routine activities. Many States impose limitations on jury service.
State property laws are a jumble of restrictions, many dating to
the 12th centur}'', wholly out of tune with the role of women in
modern American society. For example, California and Xavada
require married women to follow a formal procedure of obtaining
court approval before they may engage in independent businesses.
Public universities continue to discriminate against women in ad-
missions and in financial assistance. I am hopeful that before these
hearings end we will have heard of any other areas in which such
discrimination continues to be practiced.

/^Despite this record of inequality before the law, Congress has
repeatedly refused to enact the equal rights amendment, a provision
which has been before it since 1923. In every Congress since I have
, been chairman of this subcommittee, we have reported the equal
! rights amndment to the judiciary Committee and urged favorable
action. In the 88th Congress, in 1964. the Senate Judiciary Commit-
tee in turn reported the amendment to the floor, but no further
action was taken. In the 89th and 90tli Congress, the Judiciary
Committee itself failed to act.

But today I believe we have a better chance than ever before
to secure passage of the equal rights amendment. We begin this
set of hearings with the purpose of incorporating a fundamental
change in our Constitution. I realize that there are some, perhaps
some of you here who are critical of the very fact that these hearings
are being held. But I would like to point out from a practical
standpoint there have only been 25 amendments to the Constitution
of the United States. Try as we will, we are not going to be successful
unless we are able to mount a nationwide effort which recognizes
tjie critical problem which we confront.

/^It is important, as I see it, for these hearings to stimulate national

I concern and hopefully to prick the national conscience. If we are

I successful, as I hope we will be, we can provide the type of grass-

roots support which is absolutely indispensable if Ave are to get

I two-thirds of the U.S. Senate, two-thirds of the House of Repre-

I sentatives, and perhaps most critically of all, three-fourths of the

' State legislatures to vote for the equal rights amendment.

^ I ask that a copy of S.J. Res. 61 be included in the record at this

point.

(The material referred to follows:)

[S. J. RES. Cl, 9l8t Cong. First sess.]

JOINT RESOLUTION Proposing an amendment to the Constitution of the United States
relative to equal rights for men and women

Resolvrd hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congrats assembled (tjco-thirds of each House concurring therein).
That the following article i.s proi)osecl as an amendment to the Constitiuion
of the United States, which shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part



r
I:



of the Constitution when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the
several States :

"Article —

"Section 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged
by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress and the
several States shall have power, within their respective jurisdictions, to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation.

"Sec 2. This article shall be inoi>erative unless it shall have been ratified as
an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the
several States.

"Sec. 3. This amendment shall take effect one year after the date of
ratification."

Senator Bath. Senator Fong?

Senator Fong. Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Mr. Chairman, I want to welcome the distinguished Senator from
IMinnesota and the distinguished witnesses who have come to testify
on behalf of S.J. Res. 61 and to thank them for their time, interest,
and effort.

I have given considerable thought to the problem of equality for
all citizens. T^^lerever possible, I haA'e activated my firm belief that
all people should be considered on their merits and not on extraneous
factors such as race, religion or sex.

Of course, the only question we shall be addressing ourselves to
at this hearing is the question of equality for women and the elimina-
tion of discrimination because of sex. This is a most crucial matter
for the entire United States.

In 1968, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau^
of Labor Statistics, there were almost 70,000,000 women 16 years !
of age and over, of whom 28,697,000 were in the labor force.

The Department of Labor, Manpower Administration release
entitled "Manpower Report of the President, Including a Report
on Manpower Requirements, Resources, Utilization and Training,"
published January, 1969, shows that in 1968, 81.2 percent of all
men ages 16 and over were in the labor force, while 41.6 percent
of all women ages 16 and over were in the labor force. Its 1980
projection is that 80.3 percent of men over age 16 will be in the labor
force, while 41.9 percent of the women over age 16 will be in the



Online LibraryUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on theThe equal rights amendment. Hearings, Ninety-first Congress, second session, on S.J. Res. 61 ... May 5, 6, and 7, 1970 → online text (page 1 of 90)