United States. Congress.

Abridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856. From Gales and Seatons' Annals of Congress; from their Register of debates; and from the official reported debates, by John C. Rives online

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Online LibraryUnited States. CongressAbridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856. From Gales and Seatons' Annals of Congress; from their Register of debates; and from the official reported debates, by John C. Rives → online text (page 177 of 184)
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tance and difficulty, this House has been equally
divided, and my vote has been demanded by the
rules, I have invariably found, in that half of the
members from whose judgment I have differed, a
disposition to allow me the same freedom of delib-
eration and independence of thought which they
asserted for themselves.

The position I have occupied since my elevation
to this Chair has made it my duty to scan closely
the progress of business in this House ; and I owe
it to truth and justice to declare, without reference
to party, that I have witnessed an industry, a pa-
triotism, and independence, a series of information
and eloquence, that would have done honor to any
deliberative assembly in any age or country.

Well am I convinced, in despite of the recent ef-
forts that have been made, in various quarters, by



misrepresentation and traduction, to weaken the
public respect and confidence in the immediate
Representatives of the people, that the scrutiny of
time will prove this House to be the sanctuary of
the constitution — the citadel of civil liberty — the
palladium of this republic. It is here — it is here,
in this grand inquest of the nation — here, if any-
where, that resistance will be made to the silent
arts of corruption, or to the daring encroachments
of power ; and if the constitution, the sacred char-
ter of American freedom, be destined to perish by
the ruthless hand of the demagogue or the usurper,
(which God avert!) here, upon this floor, it will
breathe its last agonies — its dying gasp.

In the course of our deliberations, in a moment
of commotion and excitement, I am sensible I
may, at times, have wounded the feelings of mem-
bers. I have never arrested the progress of busi-
ness, to enter into explanations. My position in
this chair made it impossible for me to do so, with-
out endangering the order and dignity of this
House. Besides, the moment of irritation is not
the most propitious time for satisfactory explana-
tions. I have chosen, at the hazard of injustice to
my motives, to leave my justification to the calm
and sober reflection of members. On my part, I
have no wrongs to complain of from any individ-
ual upon this floor. If any have been intended or
done, they have long since been forgiven and for-
gotten. I thank my God I have no memory for in-
juries.

We are now about to part — many, very many of
us, never to meet again. Let us separate as social,
moral beings should separate — as friends, as broth-
ers. May the honor of this House, and the honor
of this nation, be the paramount ambition of us
all. No matter what may be cur future desti-
ny — whether in private or public life — let all the
ends we aim at be our country's, God's, and
Truth's.

With cordial wishes for your health and happi-
ness, and fervent prayers for the peace, prosperity,
and lasting liberty of our common country, I pro-
nounce this House adjourned without day.

The address was received with loud express-
ions of gratification.
And the House, sine die, adjourned.



INDEX TO VOL. XIV.



A. B. Plot, the.— See Index, toL 8, Mdwards, Mnian,

; address of.

Adajis, Jobs Qcisot, Eepreaentative from Massaohuaette,
S, 881; relative to the North-eastern boundary, 104;
moves to rescind the 21st rule, 145 ; on the Amistad
Africans, 155; on commercial relations with Chin%165;
on navy pensions, 176; on the 21st rule, 289 ; on the re-
lief of Mrs. Harrison, 298, 299; on the decease of Lewis
Williams, 408 ; on the decease of Wm. S. Hastings, 445 ; on
the tariff veto, 488 ; on amending the constitution relative
to the veto power, 504; on the President's protest, 527;
on the fine on General Jackson, 638 ; on the presentation
of the sword of Washington and staff of Franklin, 691.
See Index, vols. 2, 8, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18.

Addresses of the Senate and Mouse in answer to Presi-
demVs Messages. — See Index, vols. 1, 2.

Adjov/mment of Congress.— See Index, vols. 7, 10.

Admirals in the Na/ey. — See Index, vols. 2, 12.

African Slams and Slavery.—See Index, vols. 1, 2, and
Index, vol. 6, Slamery.

Africans Captured.— See Index, vol. 9.

Agriculture, committee on. — See Index, vol. 8.

Alaiama, vote for President In 1840, 250.

Au'OBS, JuLics C, Bepresentative from Georgia, 4, 281.
See Index, vol. 18.

Algerine War. — See Index, vol. 1.

Allegiance, foreign. — See Index, vol. 1 ; also Index, vols. 2,
5, 6, Ea^atriation.

Allen, William, Senator from Ohio, 8, 280 ; on printing
the President's Message, 17 ; on the Maine boundary,
40; on the assumption of State debts, 60; on the north-
eastern boundary, 110 ; on the prospective pre-emption
bill, 201 ; on disturbance in the galleries, 862 ; on naval
schools, 478; relative to the British treaty, 712. See
Index, vols. 12, 18.

Allek, Elisha H., Bepresentative from Maine, 281.

Alluh, Jonn W., Bepresentative from Ohio, 8. See Index,
vols. 12, 13.

Allek, Judsos, Bepresentative from New Toik, 8.

Alleu, Thomas, chosen printer of the House, 298.

Amelia Island. — See Index, vol. 6.

Amendment of the C(mslJWMon.—See Index, vols. 1, 2, 3, 5,
7, 8, 9, 12.

Amendment of the Journal of the Bouse.— See In3«x, vol. T.

AmiMad Africans.— In. the Honse, a resolution of inquiry
relative to the discrepancy in certain documents offered}
155 ; report of the committee in the House, 198.



Amy Da/rSMa Sbrse.-See Index, vols. 1, 2, 8, 4, 5, 11.

AimsBSOH, HirOH S., Eepresentativo from Maine, 8. See
Index, vol. 18.

AKSxBBOir, SiMOH H., Bepresentative from Kentucky, 3:
decease of, 157.

AiTDEBSOK, , Senator from Tennessee, 280 ; on duties

and drawbacks, 128; on repeal of the Independent
Treasury, 168; on the decease of Felix Grundy, 177;
on the prospective pre-emgjion bill, 204.

Anxebson, Johu, the case of, see Index, vol. 6, Britery.

Ahsbews Lakdatf W., Bepresentative from Kentucky, 8,
281.

Ain>BEvrB, SnEELOCK J., Bepresentative from Ohio, 281.

Appoifttm'ents, Moe&utive. — See Index, vol. 5.

Apportionment. — See BaHo qfPepresentation.

Appropriations.— See Index, vols. 1, 2, 8, 5, 7, 8, 11.

Aboheb, William 8., Senator from Yirginia, 280 ; on the
Fauquier Co. proceedings, 885; on the tariff, 470; on
naval schools, 478, 479 ; on the African squadron, 618 ;
on assumption of State debts, 626 ; on the presentation
of the sword of Washington, 692 ; relative to the British
treaty, 708, 711.

Ardent Spirits in the Navy.— See Index, toI. 10.

Arka/mas, admission of— See Index, vol. 18.

Arkansas Territory.— See Index, TOL 6, Territories.

Arkansas, vote for President in 1840, 250.

Arkansas Western Boundary. — See Index, vols. 7, 8.

Armory, -western. — See Index, vol. 8.

Army. — See Index, vols. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10.

Army Desertion, prevention of— See Index, voL 8, and In-
dex, vol. 9, Desertion.

Aekolb Thomas D., Bepresentative from Tennessee, 281.

Aebinqton, Abghibald H., Bepresentative from North
Carolina, 281.

AssassimiUon of President Jackson attempted.— See In-
dex, vol 12.

AesauU on the Presidents Secretary.— See Index, vol. 10.

Assumption of State Debts. — In the Senate, resolutions rel-
ative to, offered, 17 ; a report from the committee, 50 ;
recommitted, 50; report, 50 ; considered, 61-53 ; motion
to lay on the table, 54; motion to print carried, 54; ex-
tra number voted, 54 ; resolutions of the committee, 59 ;
substitutes proposed, 59 ; shall the Federal Government
depart from the sphere of its powers f 60 ; the question
proposed, 61 ; to establish a free government is the most
difficult of all human efforts, 61; the British revolution
of 1688, 61 ; borrowing the most dangerous mode of levy^
ing contributions on a people, 62 ; resort of William III.
to borrowing, 62; origin of the Bank of England, 62;



INDEX.



721



consequences of its creation, 62 ; attendant incidents, 68 ;
drew interest from both Government and people, 63;
whole moneyed wealth of the empire drawn into this
reservoir, 63; consequences of the paper system, 64;
principles of Hamilton and his party, 64, 65 ; facts rela-
tive to the manner in which the Government went into
operation, 66 ; Hamilton's arrangement with the banks,
66 ; his Treasury order, 66 ; first open infraction of the
Constitution, 66 ; the commencement of Hamilton's sys-
tem, €6; his plans hurried through Congress, 6T; fur-
ther proceedings, 67 ; why this hurry ? 67 ; who owned
the stock ? 67 ; the first bank a branch of the English
system, 68 ; founded on a national debt, 68 ; has not the
paper system expanded from one bank to a thousand ?
69 ; paralyzed the euer^es and resources of the country,
69; the banks of the two countries receive impulses
from the central power where capital is aggregated, 69 ;
with regard to currency Great Britain and this country
consolidated, 70 ; are not these things true ? 70 ; how the
lesolutious declaring the unconstitutionality of assuming
these debts, received, 70 ; where is the pretext for the
objection urged to the proceeding? 71; when did these
Senators become the guardians of public credit ? 71 ; the
insurrection of 1887, 71 ; one feature tending to discredit
the indebted States, 72; what is the proposition con-
tained in the substitute ? 78 ; the distribution of the land
proceeds a distribution of revenue generally, 73; further
debate, 75 ; resolutions, 78, 79 ; motion to postpone in-
definitely lost, 80.

Manner in which the report has been received, 80 ;
disregard of denunciations from political opponents, 81;
the proposition made in the most formidable and im-
posing shape, 81 ; the scheme proclaimed, 81 ; the man-
ner, 82 ; distribution is providing means of payment to
the States, 82 ; it is asked, what right we have to notice
the proceedings of State Legislatures ? 83 ; terms of the
cession by Virginia of her public laud, 83 ; the letter and
spirit of the cession are complied with in the present
mode of disposing of the revenue, 84; a fraud on the
Legislature of Kentucky, 84 ; it is said I did not stand
the first fire, 85; I am charged with being in favor of an
exclusive metallic currency, 85 ; what we desire is safe
banking, 86 ; effect of distribution on the tariff, 86 ; it is
urged, a part of the army might be discharged, 86 ; that
our diplomatic corps might be reduced, 87 ; further de-
bate, 88, 89 ; amendments moved and voted upon, 92, 93,
94 ; resolutions agreed to, 94.

In the House, notice given of an intention to ask leave
to bring in a bill, 489 ; bill reported, 489 ; motion to sus-
pend the rules, &c., lost, 489.

** In the Senate, a resolution of inquiry whether any
proposition was made by the special minister of Great
Britain relative to, 626 ; message in answer to the reso-
lution, 629; resolutions relative to, 695; great impor-
tance to set at rest the idea that this Government can
have any constitutional power to assume these debts,
695 ; the proposition now before the other branch of
Congress, 696 ; history of the origin of the suggestion,
696 ; why such relentless effort to denounce the indebt-
ed States ? 696 ; a fatal measure in its effects, 696 ; not
such an assumption at the close of the Kevolutionary
"War, 696; further debate, 697, 698, 699 ; motion to post-
pone lost, 700.

The resolution, 703 ; amendments, 70S ; a false issue
presented to the people, 704; the power of the Govern-
ment on this point settled affirmatively, 704; the ques-
tion is, ought these debts to be assumed? 704; motion
to postpone, 705; othci' resolutions laid on tlie table,
707.

In the House, motion to print reports, 702.
Vol. XIV.— 46



ATnEETON, Chakles G., Representative from New Hamp-
shire, 3, 281 ; relative to the documentary history, 183.
Attach on the Caroline, — See Indeoo, vol. 13.
Attorney' General, office o/.— See Indeo), rol, 10.
AitoTmey- Generals, a Uat of, 269.
Ayckigg, John B., Eepresentative from New Jersey, 3, 281.



Baecoce, Alfred, Eepresentative from New York, 281.

Bagbt, , Senator from Alabama, 289 ; on the appor-
tionment bill, 404 ; on the tariff, 471 ; on the assumption
of State debts, 699.

BahaTna Banks.— See Index, vol. 9.

Baltimore <& Ohio Railroad. — See Indeas, vol. 10.

Baltimore <fc Washington Railroad. — See Index, vol. 11.

Bank Notes, tax oti.— In the Senate, a motion for leave to
bring in a bill relative to, 168; nothing more reasonable
than to require the moneyed interest to contribute to
the support of Government, 169 : in other countries the
banking interest subject to taxation, 169 ; formerly taxed
in this country, 169 ; manner of levying the bank tax in
Great Britain, 169 ; taxation of the circulation of the
Bank of England for the last fifty years, 169; extract
from a recent history of the Bank, 170 ; equity of this
tax, 170; the tax in 1813 in this country, 170; a petition
of Stephen Girard, 170; details of the bill and probable
amount of the tax, 171; the bill a measure simply of
revenue, 171 ; effect on small notes, 172 ; objections an-
ticipated to the bill, 172 ; infractions of the Constitution,
172; origin of the idea of this bill, 172; extract from
Gallatin's essay on currency, 178.

All revenue measures should originate in the House,
173 - not within the powers of the Constitution, 174 ; the
compromise act originated in the Senate, 174; farther
debate, 174, 175.

Bank of the United States. — In the Senate, resolutions rela-
tive to the circulation of the dead notes of, offered, 19.

In the House, a resolution to inquire into the expe-
diency of establishing a National Bank offered, 800.

In the Senate, u. bill reported, 800 ; amendment of-
fered, 306.

"Who caused the delay of the bill ? 309 ; what are the
measures proposed? 309; it is said the country is in an
agony, crying for action, 309; motives of Senators, 809;
is it the intention to pass the gag-law of the other
House? 310; a fair and open opposinon only Is meant,.
810 ; Senators conceive they are following the path of.
duty in trying to defeat the measure, or if they cannot
do that, in rendering it odious as possible, 810 ; a meas-
ure should be brought forward that would give the ma-
jority the control of the Senate, 310; the relationship of
the proposed measure to the alien and sedition law, 811 ;
what does the minority question but their undoubted
right to examine every measure which they believe in-
imical to the interests of the country ? 311 ; what is the
situation of parties here ? 3U ; from whom are we to get
this ten millions? 311; what right has Congress to lend
money at all ? 811 ; the "Whigs, during the late adminis-
tration, had brought to bear against the party in power
a vexatious and frivolous system of assault, 812; the
course attributed to the opponents- of the bill would be
unjust and improper, 312; the amendments, 812.

The defalcation of Swartwout took place under the
deposit bank system, 313 ; the Government is invoked
to become a speculator in stocks, 818; the power to re-
peal charters exists not only in this particular c^e under
the constitution, but was- sanctioned by judicial deci-
sions, 813; can Congress annihilate the sovereign pow -



722



INDEX.



ers conferred upon them for the benefit of the whole
people by transferring them to a corporation ? 813 ; is
this bank a public or private corporation ? 318 ; the case
of Gaszler and the corporation of Georgetown, 314 ; this
power should be exercised only in an extreme case,
814.

These threats of repeal pass as the Idle wind, 814; a
monstrous proposition, 814; then the liberties of the na-
tion may be bartered away without their consent, 814 ;
what is the proposition fairly stated ? 814 ; to state it is
to answer it, 314; the subject of contract is a aovereign
power of Government, and not a mere private right,
815.

"Why had not the loan bill been taken up in the other
House before the land bill? 315; how has the House got
before the Senate, except by the gag-law? 815; some
measure will be introduced to give to the majority the
control of the business, 816 ; look at the facts in the case,
816 ; the majority have consumed the time, 316 ; the
freedom of debate has never yet been . abridged in this
body, 816.

The rights of Senators relative to debates, 317; the
nature of amendments, SIT; the people want discussion,
818; the old sedition law and the previous question are
measures of the same character. 818 ; here was a palpa-
ble attempt to infringe the right of speech, 319 ; let the
gag be brought on, 319; threatened people live longest,
819 ; the Senator from Kentucky in a very trying situa-
tion, 819; pass these measures if you can, 819.

Amendments, 821 ; directors prohibited from borrow-
ing more than $10,000, 321 ; better restrain them alto-
gether, 322; the restraint on members of Congress
should be preserved, 822 ; restriction on directors struck
out, 822; proviso inserted that no note shall be dis-
counted for any member of Congress, 823 ; the banner
of repeal will be unfurled, 823 ; idle to speak of the in-
corruptibility of members of Congress, 828 ; sums loaned
to members by the former bank, 324 ; amendment car-
ried, 824; bill passed, 824.

In the House, the Senate bank bill read and referred,
824.

Veto message read in the Senate, 348 ; excitement in
the galleries, 850 ; hisses, 350 ; motion that the Sergeant-
at-Arms arrest the offenders, 351 ; better pass th 3 dis-
turbance over, 351; an American President insulted
by bank rulfians, 851 ; a national bank not yet our mas-
ter, 851 ; hisses distinctly heard, 351 ; one of the offend-
ers arrested, 852 ; all is accomplished that the motion
intended, and let him be discharged, 352 ; time for the
consideration of the Message fixed, and the Message or-
dered to be printed, 858.

Motion to farther postpone, 354; carried, 355; con-
-Mdered, 859; bill lost, 859.

Tn'the House, a bill to incorporate the subscribers to
the Fiscal bank, &c., considered, 861 ; difference be-
^twecn this bill and the one recently before the House,
362; resolution to terminate debate offered, 862; ob-
jections to the resolution, 863 ; a new measure, 863 ; a
measure " to head Captain Tyler," 863 ; further reasons
to be excused from Toting, 364; resolution adopted, 364.

Motion to strike out the enacting clause of the bill,
864 ; the veto gave evidence this bill would be signed,
865; motion to strike out lost, 865; bill passed the
House, 365.

In the Senate, the House bill received, 366 ; moved to
refer to a Select Committee, 866 ; bill referred, 866.

Bill on its third reading, 866; unlimited power to loan
money under this bill, 866; mode of discounting at the
"West, 866; bill passed, 86T.

Referred to in the annual message, 376 ; two points
presented in the plan wholly unconstitutional and dan-



gerous, 876; to emit bill of credit and to authorize the
Government to deal in exchanges, 376; the British debt
began on the issue of exchequer bills, 876 ; identity of
this policy with that of Walpole, 376; first time a prop-
osition has been made to change our bard-money gov-
ernment into a paper-money machine, 877.

Board of Exchequer. — Administration of Walpole the
fountain head of British woes, 878 ; corporations brought
into existence by "Walpole, 878 ; corporation credit ruined
in England by the explosion of banks and companies,
378 ; our administration stands now where Great Britain
stood one hundred and twenty years ago, 878 ; the origi-
nal of our Exchequer scheme in the British acts, 879;
design to substitute Government credit for corporation
credit, 379 ; manner in which the Exchequer system has
worked in England, 879 ; issues of Exchequer bills, 879 ;
British debt the fount of the Exchequer system, 8S0;
the English people bound for two-fifths more of capital
and pay two-fifths itiore of interest on account of their
debt than they ever received, 380 ; shall we adopt this
system ? 381 ; at the adoption of the constitution it waa
established that the new Government was a hard-money
Government, 881 ; proceedings in the convention, 381 ^
inherent baseness and vice of paper money, 382 ; facility
with which an industrious country can supply itself with
hard money, 382 ; metallic currency in Cuba, 882 ; Hol-
land and Cuba have the best currencies in the world,
883; different manner in which this plan is received
now from what it was a few years ago, 383 ; answer of
the French merchants to Colbert, 884.

Ba/nk of the United States, — See Indeso, vols. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, T,
9, 11, 12, 13.

Ba/nb JTbiea in Paym&nt of DuUes.~Se6 Index, to^b. 7, 13.

Banks Deposit. — See Indeas, vols. 7, 12, 13.

Ba^h of Engla/nd.—See Jndeas, vol. 11.

Bankrupt Bill.— In the Senate, the Bankrupt bill consid-
ered, 246; amendment to include banking and trading
corporations moved, 246 ; banks established by sovereign
authority in Alabama, 246; remarks of Senator Yan
Buren in former years, 246.

Amendment modified to take effect Jan. 1st, 1843, 247 ;
does it make any difference whether it was a State or
a member of the State that held the stock in banks ? 247 ;
high time the banks should be brought under some such
provision, 247 ; if we can interfere with any portion of
the sovereignty of the States, wo can with it all, 248 ; we
cannot touch banks incorporated by the State Legisla-
tures, 243; expediency of the measure, 248; a State, as
New York, may place her banks under the operation of
the bankrupt law, 248 ; does the State of Alabama ac-
knowledge herself bound to pay the notes of her banis ?
249.

In the House, a petition for, presented, 297 ; referred
to the Judiciary Committee with instructions to consid-
er the expediency of bringing in a bill, 297 ; a message
from the President communicating a petition relative
to, 805 ; referred, 306 ; a voluntary bankrupt law from
beginning to end, and retrospective in its operation on
all obligations, 320 ; former experiments of such laws,
820; the machinery of the General Government incom-
petent for such a system, 820 ; this bill will be repealed
in a short time, 820 ; the passage of this bill will not have
a tendency to expand credit, 320 ; further debate, 821 ;
bill passed, 321.

Its provisions explained, 832 ; failure of previous ef-
forts to pass this law, 832 ; are the people any more in
favor of it ? 332 ; distinction of the terms bankrupt and
insolvent, 382 ; the law should be prospective and not
retro-active, 332 ; injurious operation of the bill, 332;
petitioners in favor of the law, 832; inherent difficulties
in the case, 833 ; whole country covered with debt, 833 ;



INDEX.



723



tho law of 1800 only prospective, 888 ; not being uniform
in its operation, It Is not constitutional, 834; motion to
strike out the enacting clause, 888 ; power and obliga-
tion of Congress to maintain sucli a law at all times, 83S ;
emphatically a measure of relief, 839; defects of the
bill, 839; objections to including State corporations,
340 ; none but natural persons contemplated in the pro-
visions of the constitution, 840 ; none of the motives
which applied to a law for individuals applied to the
case of corporations, 840 ; the compulsory bankruptcy
clause, 341; the voluntary bankruptcy, 841 ; the debtor
will be able to control the creditor, 341.

Motion fixing a time to close the debate, 844 ; lost, 344 ;
policy of granting a full discharge to the insolvent debt-
op, 844; the voluntary portion of the bill In hostility to
the constitution, 845 ; a bill for the relief of lawyers,
commissioners, »Scc., 345; differences of opinion as to
the extent of tho power in the constitution, 846 ; as-
sumes jarisdiction over the whole relations of debtor
and creditor throughout the country, 846 ; no bankrupt
bill passed this session, 846; its repeal will be more
popular than its passage, 846 ; state of parties, 346 ; Con-
gress bound to exercise this power whenever a case
arises to require it, 347; it enjoins unreasonable prefer-
ences in certain cases, 347; other objections, 348.

Laying the foundation stone of a system that will not
benefit the people in any manner, 854 ; bankrupt laws
designed to give more efficient remedy to creditors, 354;
relief laws of Kentucky, 354; motion to strike out the
enacting clause lost, 354

Motion to fis. the time for the bill to take effect, 855 ;
be repealed before it takes effect if there is opportunity,
355 ; enough to destroy any Administration, 855 ; further
debate on the time of operation, 856 ; motion to post-
pone, 356 ; motion to reconsider the vote by which this
bill was laid on the table, 856 ; carried, 856 ; motion to
fix the time for the operation of the bill in February



Online LibraryUnited States. CongressAbridgment of the Debates of Congress, from 1789 to 1856. From Gales and Seatons' Annals of Congress; from their Register of debates; and from the official reported debates, by John C. Rives → online text (page 177 of 184)