United States. Dept. of Agriculture.

Annual reports of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended ... : report of the Secretary of Agriculture, miscellaneous reports online

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Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of AgricultureAnnual reports of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended ... : report of the Secretary of Agriculture, miscellaneous reports → online text (page 68 of 86)
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Publications in the Department Library issued in 1900 is out of print
and a new edition with the additions to this class during the past five
years is in preparation. The usefulness of this publication is not con-
fined to the Department, as the catalogue is also used as a check list
in large libraries throughout the country.

BINDING.

The collation of technical periodicals for binding requires special
attention to details, which is time-consuming and yet necessary for
the future usefulness of the volumes. The greater number of works
annually prepared for binding in the Library are of this character ;
therefore the increase in the number of volumes bound from year to
year will not change materially until two assistants at least can be
regularly employed in the work. Thus far even one assistant has not
been constantly employed on this work on account of temporary needs
of the service in other departments of the Library. The number of



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THE LIBRARY. 421

volumes bound the past year was 1,942, an increase of 235 as compared
with the previous year.

Scientific literature is so largely published in serial and pamphlet
form and in paper-bound volumes that the needs of the Library for
binding its accessions continually exceed the provisions made for
them from year to year.

LIBRARY PUBLICATIONS.

The quarterly bulletin entitled "Accessions to the Department
Library " and index cards for Department publications have been
continued during the past year. The distribution of these cards is
principally to the large libraries which receive regularly the publi-
cations oi the Department. The number of institutions receiving
partial or complete sets of the index cards is 403. Since the cards
for the Yearbooks and Farmers' Bulletins have been issued separately
57 small libraries have availed themselves of these cards. During
the past year 1,076,400 index cards have been printed and, with the
exception of a small reserve, have been distributed in five issues, vary-
ing from 219 to 858 cards in each issue. This card index of the
Department publications is not only a great convenience in connection
with Department work, but is valued by all libraries receiving publi-
cations from us. A list of the publications thus far indexed is
given below :

Yearbooks 1804-1903.

Farmers' Bulletins 1-206.

Reports 1-32, 34-72.

Miscellaneous special reports 1-10.

Sj>eeial reports 1, 3, 4. 11, 12, 18, 22. 20, 28. 31, 33-36, 40, 47, 48, 50, 54, 55,
62, 03.

Bureau of Plant Industry : Bulletins 1-50.

Division of Accounts: [Special reports! 1804-1898.

Division of Agrostology: Bulletins 1-24; Circulars 1-30.

Division of Botany : Bulletins 1-20 ; Circulars 1-30 ; Contributions from the
United States National Herbarium, vols. 1-7.

Division of Pomology: Bulletins 1-10; Circulars 1-3; Nut culture; Reports of
the Pomologist 1880-1000.

Division of Soils: Bulletins 1-10; Circulars 1-7.

Office of Fiber Investigations : Annual Reports 1800-1807; Reports 1-11;
United States Flax and Hemp Commission Report.

Office of Public Roads Inquiries: Bulletins 1-20; Circulars 14-30: Reports of
Director 1893-1002.

Section of Seed and Plant Introduction : Inventories 1-8 : Circulars 1-2.

Bureau of Entomology: Bulletins 1-33. new series 1-43, technical series 1-0;
Annual Reports 1803-1003: Bibliography of American Economic Entomology,
pts. 1-7 ; Circulars, series 2. 1-55 : 3 miscellaneous reports ; U. S. Entomological
Commission. Reports 1-5 ; Bulletins 1-7.

Office of Experiment Stations: Bulletins 1-140; Miscellaneous Bulletins 1-3;
Circulars 1-4, <i-8, 11-13. 17-58.

Bureau of Chemistry: Bulletins 1-80; Circulars 1-18: Reports 1802, 18<J4-
1003.

INDEXING AGRICULTURAL LITERATURE.

The announcement in the last annual report of the proposed co-
operation with the Library of Congress for the printing and sale of
catalogue cards for important agricultural periodicals has been car-
ried into effect during the year. Cards prepared by the Library



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422 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS.

have been printed and sold by the Library of Congress to 29 sub-
scribers for the following periodicals, covering the dates given : An-
nates de la Science Agronomique, 1884-1904; Die Landwirtschaft-
lichen Versuchsstationen, 1859-1904, and Landwirtschaftliche Jahr-
bttcher, 1872-1904.

Cards are available for purchase in complete sets for each or for
all these publications; also, any number of cards for any subject
covered by these periodicals can be obtained. An opportunity is
thus afforded agricultural colleges and experiment stations, as well
as individual scientists, to procure at a small cost index cards relating
to agricultural science. It is expected that additional periodicals will
be indexed each year and that the list of subscribers will increase as
the work becomes more widely known.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

The most pressing needs of the Library at present are for more
space for its yearly additions and for a larger appropriation, the lat-
ter to provide especially for the binding of a larger number of vol-
umes annually, in addition to the usual requirements for the purchase
of books. As new lines of work are taken up by the Department the
Library is called upon to supply all needed data for carrying them on
to the oest advantage. To meet these demands at all satisfactorily,
and thereby further the general and new lines of work of the De-
partment, the appropriation for the general expenses of the Library
must be increased proportionately.



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REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR OF THE OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS.



U. S. Department of Agriculture,

Office of Public Roads,
Washington, D. C, September 29, 1905.
Sir : I Have the honor to submit herewith the report of the Office
of Public Roads for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1905, together
with an outline of the work for the current year and recommenda-
tions and estimates for the ensuing year.
Respectfully,

Logan Waller Page, Director.
Hon. James Wilson, Secretary.



WORK OF THE YEAR.

During the greater part of the fiscal year 1904-5 the work of the
Office was carried on along established lines. The building of object-
lesson roads was considerably increased, and other brandies of the
work were somewhat curtailed in order to make this possible.

During the latter part of the year a reorganization was begun
which involved marked changes in the scope of the work and the
method of procedure. This reorganization was at first tentative in
its character, excepting the collection of information in regard to the
economics of roaa improvement, a branch of the work which was
gotten well under way before the close of the fiscal year, and much
important information was collected.

Pending the consolidation of the Division of Tests of the Bureau
of Chemistry with this Office on July 1, 1905, cooperation was main-
tained with that division, laboratory tests being made of many of the
road materials used in the construction of object-lesson roads built
under the direction of this Office.

object-lesson roads.

This branch of the work was continued along lines previously
followed, except that a more complete and accurate record was kept
of each road built. While the plan of procedure was not materially
changed, every effort was directed toward increasing the amount of
work done within the year. Accordingly, four complete crews and
outfits — composed of one road expert, one machinery expert, and a
full complement of modern road-making machinery — were placed in
the field at the beginning of the season and continued without inter-
ruption throughout the fiscal year.

423



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424 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS.

The terms and conditions under which this assistance was granted
were as follows: This Office furnished expert supervision, supplied
all necessary modern road-making machinery, and provided for the
testing of road materials in the laboratory at Washington. The
local communities were required to furnish all materials, common
labor, teams, fuel, etc., needed in the construction of the road.

Twenty-one roads were built in 9 different States, representing a
wide diversity in character of construction and kind of material
used. The following detailed reports show that granite, limestone,
trap, shale, burnt clay, sand clay, flint, sandstone, oyster shells, clam
shells, novaculite, gravel, chert, and marl were used in the construc-
tion of these roads. The total length of the 21 object-lesson roads
was a little over 9 miles. At many of the places where work was
carried on a complete outfit of machinery, consisting of steam roller,
crushing plant, road grader, sprinkler, dump wagons, scrapers, plows,
etc., was used. At &ainesville and Tallahassee, Fla., where sand-
clay roads were built, only road graders, wagons, scrapers, etc., were
necessary.

The reports show a maximum cost of 98 cents and an average cost
of 55 cents per square yard for macadam roads, and an average cost
of 9£ cents per square yard for sand-clay roads. The cost of the
one burnt-clay road constructed is shown to be 20 cents per square
yard, and of the one shell road, 34' cents per square yard. The wide
difference in the cost of the macadam roads is due to the difference
in cost of labor and teams, the amount of grading, the culverts built,
the length of haul of materials, and the general efficiency or ineffi-
ciency of the labor employed.

Chagrin Falls, Ohio. — This road, located near the town of Chagrin Falls,
was begun July 30 and completed August 29, 1904. The character of construc-
tion was macadam, the material used being sandstone for the foundation
and crushed granite bowlders secured from fields near the work for the sur-
face. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 2,400 feet; width,
9 to 13 feet; depth, 10 to 12 inches. The cost per square yard was about 80
cents.

Columbus. Ohio. — This road, located on the ground of the State University,
was begun the 1st of October and was practically completed the last of Novem-
ber, 1904. The character of construction was macadam. The foundation
course consisted of brickbats from a burned building, which were crushed and
rolled by the steam roller, and the surface composed of crushed granite bowl-
ders gathered from fields around Columbus. The dimensions of the road were
as follows: Length, 835 feet; width, 18 feet; depth, crushed rock, 6 inches,
with a foundation of crushed bricks 4 inches deep. The total cost was $1,629.64,
which Includes $228.55 for grading and $849.78 for 466 tons of granite bowl-
ders, at $1.45 per ton. The cost per square yard was 97 cents.

Coshocton, Ohio. — Work was begun on this road in November, 1904, and
continued until the early part of December, when operations were suspended on
account of adverse weather. In May, 1905, the work was resumed but was not
completed at the end of the fiscal year. The character of construction was
gravel macadam, the material used being sandstone for the foundation and
crushed gravel for the surface. The dimensions were: Width of macadam, 9
feet ; total width of road, 24 feet ; depth of material, 10 inches. The length of
finished road and total cost will be given in the next annual report.

Dekalb, III. — This road, an extension of South First street, one of the main
highways leading into the town, was begun the latter part of July and com-
pleted about the 1st of October, 1904. The character of construction was mac-
adam, the material used being limestone, shipped from Oak Ridge, nearly 100
miles distant. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 4,510
feet; width, 12 feet; depth, 8 inches. The total cost of this road was



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OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS. 425

$5,920.42, of which amount $2,642 was for material and $3,278.42 for labor. Of
the amount paid for labor, $1,334 was paid for grading. The cost of crushed
stone per cubic yard f. o. b. Dekalb was $1.15; the cost per square yard of
road surface was therefore 98 cents.

Lebanon, Mo. — This road, located on the Hartville road, 1$ miles from
Lebanon, was begun about the 1st of October, and completed in thirty-eight
days. The character of construction was macadam, the material used being
novaculite or chert from fields near the work. The dimensions of the road
were as follows : Length, 2,950 feet ; width of macadam, 9 feet ; depth, 11 inches.
The total cost was $987, making the cost per square yard 33 cents.

Springfield, Mo. — This road, known as the Cherry Street road, extends ( west
from the Government boulevard and the southeast limits of the city of Spring-
field, in Greene County. The work was begun about the 1st of November,
1904, and completed in twenty-three days. The character of construction was
macadam, the material used being novaculite or chert from a field 2£ miles
from the road. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 1,310
feet ; width of macadam, 16 feet ; thickness, 9 inches ; total width of road, 24
feet The total amount of material used was 672 cubic yards, and the total cost
of the road was $780, making the cost per square yard of surface 33 cents.

Neosho, Mo. — This road, called the Seneca road, beginning at the city limits
and extending one-half mile to the west in Newton County, was begun Novem-
ber 19 and completed December 31, 1904. The character of construction was
macadam, the material used being novaculite or chert gathered from fields near
the road. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 2,640 feet;
width, 12 feet; depth, 7 inches. The cost, including labor, teams, culverts,
tuel, and incidentals, was $1,529.11, of which amount $408.25 was for culverts.
The cost per square yard was therefore 43 cents.

Arkansas City, Kans. — This road, located in Cowley County and known as
the Walnut street road, was begun December 8, 1904, and completed January
26, 1905. The character of construction was macadam, the material used being
limestone quarried and crushed at the end of the road near Walnut River bridge.
The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 3,615 feet; width of
macadam, 14 feet, and depth, 10 inches. The amount of stone used was 1.600
cubic yards. The total cost, including blasting, quarrying, crushing, and haul-
ing, teams, labor, and incidentals, was $2,223.98, making the cost per square
yard 39 cents.

Belling ham, Wash. — This road was begun September 2 and completed Octo-
ber 18, 1904. The character of construction was macadam, the material used
being 894 cubic yards of granite bowlders, shipped from Sand Creek Mountain.
The dimensions of the road were as follows : Length, 2,050 feet ; width, 15 feet ;
depth. 8 inches. The total cost of the road, including quarrying, crushing, trans-
portation of material, fuel, oil, etc., was $2,683.86. Of this amount $285.26 was
paid for grading, ditches, and culverts. This cost is based on labor at $2 per
eight-hour day and $5 per day for man and team. The cost per square yard was
78 cents.

Walla Walla, Wash. — This road was begun October 24 and completed
November 29, 1904. The character of construction was macadam, the material
used consisting of 400 cubic yards of trap rock hauled 13 miles by rail. The
dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 2,048 feet; width, 18 feet;
depth, 8 Inches. The total cost, including grading, material, hauling, crushing,
spreading, and transportation of material at 38 cents per cubic yard, was
$1,701.84, of which amount $185 was paid for grading and ditching and $277
for transportation of material. The cost of teams was $3 per day and of labor
$1.50 per day. The cost per square yard was 41 cents.

Beaumont, Tex. — This road, constructed along Grand avenue, beginning at
Magnolia avenue, was begun September 27 and completed November 11, 3904.
The material used was small unwashed clam shells brought to BeAimont
by boat 28 miles. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 3,154
feet ; width, 16 feet ; depth, 7 inches ; width of roadway, 40 feet The only labor
used was that of city and county prisoners. The total cost of material was
$5,712.30, being at the rate of $2.15 per cubic yard.

Shreveport, La. — This road, located outside the city limits of Shreveport, in
Caddo Parish, and known as the Fairfield road, was begun about the 1st of



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426 DEPARTMENTAL REPORTS.

July and completed about the middle of September. 1904. The character of
construction was gravel, the material being transported by railroad from pits
near Sibley, La., a distance of more than 32 miles. The length of the road was
3,306 feet, and the width 16 feet. The total cost was $1,962.28, or 33 cents per
square yard.

Jacksonville, Fla. — This road was begun January 11 and completed April 22,
1905. The character of construction was macadam, the material used being
1,727 tons of marl shipped by rail from Macon, Ga., a distance of 250 miles.
The dimensions of the road were as follows : Length, 5,280 feet ; width, 15 feet ;
depth, 6 inches. The cost of grading and draining was $931, and the total cost
$5,211.03. The cost of labor was at the rates of $1 and $1.25 per day, and teams
cost at the rate of $3 for an eight-hour day. The cost per square yard was
59 cents.

Gainesville, Fla. — At this place two object-lesson roads were constructed,
of which the following is a brief description :

Road A 7 o. J. — This road, leading from North Gainesville to Paradise, was
l>egun February 14 and completed ' March 18, 1905. The character of con-
struction was sand-clay, the material having been secured about 1 mile from
the road. The dimensions were as follows: Length, 1 mile; width, 14 feet;
average depth, 9 inches. The cost of labor was at the rate of $1 per day, and
of teams at the rate of $3 per day. The total cost was $881.25, and the cost
per square yard, 10 cents.

Road No. 2. — This road, located on East Main street, was begun March 14
and completed March 29, 1905. The character of construction was macadam,
the material used being 750 tons of flint rock procured 5 or 6 miles from Gaines-
ville and hauled by wagons. The dimensions of the road were as follows:
Length, 265 feet ; width, 70 feet. The total cost was $572.31, of which amount
$476.95 was for teams and labor on the basis of $1 for day laborers and $3 per
team. The cost per square yard was 23 cents.

Pensacola, Fla. — Two roads were constructed at this place.

Road No. 1. — This road, located on West Komaine street, was begun April 24
and completed May 8, 1905. The character of construction was macadam, the
material used being approximately 450 tons of granite mixed with trap rock
and shale, all of which was brought from Germany as ballast. The dimensions
of the road were as follows : Length, 506 feet ; width, 32 feet ; depth, 6 inches.
The cost of labor was at the rate of $1.25, and teams at $4 per day of ten hours.
The total cost was $771.60. The cost per square yard was 42 cents.

Road No. 2. — This road, located on East Gladston street, was built at this
place to illustrate the sand-clay method. The work was begun April 28 and
completed May 5, 1905. The material consisted of sand and clay properly
mixed. The dimensions of the road were as follows: Length, 1,800 feet; width,
15 feet ; depth, 10 inches at the center and five inches at the sides. The total
cost was $419.50, of which amount $222 was paid for moving, installing, and
maintaining a convict camp. The cost per square yard was 14 cents.

Tallahassee, Fla.— This road, extending from the Seaboard Railroad station
to Capitol square, was of sand-clay construction. The dimensions of the road
were as follows: Length, 4,480 feet; width, 16 feet; depth, 7$ inches. The
total cost was $440, on the basis of labor at $1 and teams at $3 per day. The
cost per square yard was 5 cents.

Febnandina, Fla. — This road was begun May 15 and completed May 30, 1905.
It was built of shells, and was 1.199 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 6 inches deep.
The road had been located and graded before the road experts of this Office
arrived. The total cost was $1,113.85 ; the cost per square yard, 34 cents.

EXPERIMENTAL ROAD.

One of the greatest problems to be solved in connection with road
improvement in the United States is to provide suitable materials for
road building at a reasonable cost in the vast sections of country
where natural hard road materials are not available except at very
great expense. Even where materials are procurable, it is frequently
the case that the cost of hard roads is beyond the means of the people.



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OFFICE OF PUBLIC ROADS. 427

Accordingly, investigations and experiments have been carried on
from time to time by this Office for the purpose of obtaining a substi-
tute for natural hard materials which would make a satisfactory road
at a reasonable cost. #

The following report on an experimental burnt-clay road at Clarks-
dale, Miss., as outlined by Mr. W. L. Spoon, expert in charge of the
work, is given at some length, together with a later report on the
result of the experiment, on account of its important bearing upon the
question of road improvement throughout the great Mississippi Delta
and the prairie States :

Tlie work was performed September 1 to 10, 1904. The length of road burnt
was 300 feet, and the width 12 feet. The cost was as follows :

Wood used, 30* cords, at $1. 30 ! $39.65

Harks and chips, etc., 20 two-horse loads 6.00

Labor at $1.25 and teams at $3 per day 38.30

Total cost 83. 95

Total cost per mile at this rate 1,477.52

Although the road was only burned to a width of 12 feet it showed a finished
surface of nearly 14 feet.

In the preparation of the road for burning it was first plowed up as deep as
four mules and a steel plow could break it, from ditch to ditch, a width of 20
feet, after which it was crowned up with a road machine. Then trenches were
cut across the road 4 feet apart and about 12 inches deep, the earth being
thrown up so as to form ridges between the trenches. Next, on the middle
part of the road to a width of 12 feet, a layer of 4-foot sticks of cord wood
was placed over each trench, the ends of the sticks resting on the tops of the
ridges and the intervening trenches forming flues across the road. Upon this
floor of wood was thrown " gumbo " in lumps and clods, so as to form an open
layer, only partially covering the wood. On this was placed a second floor of
wood, the sticks being laid at right angles to the road and as close together as
possible, and being supplemented with small sticks, chips, bark, and brush, to
make a tighter floor. On this floor was thrown a layer about 10 inches thick
of " gumbo," partly clods and partly pulverized.

Firing was then begun. The fires were started very much as they are in the
fires of a brickkiln. The fires were started on the windward side. We found
it desirable to burn in sections of 60 feet, 15 flues at a time, as this enabled
one person to look after the burning proirerly and to see that the fires in all
the flues advanced at the same rate and burned out evenly.

After being burned and sufficiently cooled to permit working the burnt sur-
face was smoothed down so as to form a proi>er crown, and the road was opened
to travel without adding clay or any other substance. The ridge and the space
between the ridges was generally burned and rendered nonplastic.

Under date of March 27, 1905, Maj. T. G. Dabney, chief engineer,
Yazoo-Mississippi Delta levee district, writes as follows regarding
this road :

Last summer, during my absence, Mr. W. L. Spoon came here by your direc-
tion, at my request, to supervise an experiment in burnt " buckshot " for a road
metaling. I had arranged to put Mr. Spoon in the hands of Mr. Walter Clark,
an influential citizen and planter, who is interested in road improvement

The exj)erlment was a small one, only $200 being available from the county
fund. The extent of road treated was a little less than 300 linear feet, about
12 feet wide. The clay was burnt in situ.

This method has the great advantage of extending the effects of the burning
to a considerable depth below the subgrade, thus giving a more secure
foundation.

The experiment was made in crude fashion, as after the burning process the
roadbed was neither surfaced nor rolled, but left in a rough state. During the
dry fall months the travel avoided this rough piece of road, but when the adja-
cent ground was softened by the winter rains the wagons took to the burnt

II. Doc. 0, 5D-1 3G

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Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of AgricultureAnnual reports of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended ... : report of the Secretary of Agriculture, miscellaneous reports → online text (page 68 of 86)