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were built. Horses, mules, implements, ofBce furniture, and equip-
ment were secured, and an irrigation and lighting plant and a water-
supply system were installed. The buildmgs assigned to the De-
partment of Agriculture were repaired and remodeled for a power
plant, a tool room, and offices. A propagating house 20 by 50 feet
and cold frames were erected. In November of 1907 the land and
irrigation equipment were ready and the first field planting was
maae.

Plantings at the garden. — ^At the end of the fiscal year there
had been received and planted at the garden 1,482 different varieties
of trees, shrubs, plants, and seeds from various sources, about 40
acres being in growing crops at that time. Of oranges, figs, almonds,
and other fruits and nuts for permanent orchard, 110 varieties were
planted and a vineyard established containing 223 varieties of CTapes.
About 10 acres were devoted to forage crop tests, several foreign
varieties of forage plants being tried with and without irrigation.
The mung bean ana guar from the Orient ^ve promise of v^ue as
leguminous crops for south Texas, where irrigation is impossible.
Several hundrea varieties of vegetables were tested during tne year,
and several of them created considerable interest among the truck
gardeners. The Mamapolka cabbage from Holland attracted special
attention, and some ^wers have arranged to secure seed ana give
this variety ^tn extensive commercial test the coming year.

One of the best collections of opimtias in the world lias been started
and is making an excellent showing. The ranchmen of the section
are interested in this test, especially in the spineless varieties.

Fifteen varieties of long-staj^e and Eg^tian cottons are being

frown for breeding purposes. The best native com was secured as a
asis for com breedmg and selection, and about an acre was devoted
to this work.

A nursery has been established, and apple, pear, orange, persiiomon,
mulberry, date, Kafir plum, Queensland nut, and cork-oak trees are
growing very successfully. Some of the seedling fruit trees have been
budded from scions sent by foreign explorers.

Seven species of fiber plants iiave been started and are making
satisfactory growth. Besides the forage crops referred to, several
species and varieties of trasses have been planted. Great interest has
been manifested in the rara grass and some distribution of it has been
made to planters in south Texas.

Several species of bamboo and a great many foreign plants have
been propagated. Crops of seed of some of the latter are growing and
should be available for distribution next year.

Twelve varieties of aquatics have been established, of which several
have blossomed and produced seed. A lai^e number of seedlings
should be available for distribution the coming season.

Cooperation with farmers. — Since the establishment of the
garden, the farmers and fruit and truck growers of the Gulf coast and
the Rio Grande Valley have organized themselves into a society
known as the South Texas Gardeners, which has its home and holds



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BUBBAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY. 405

its annual meeting on the grounds of the South Texas Garden. This
society is educational in its nature and manifests a lively interest in
the progress and development of the South Texas Garden. This
arrangement tends to develop a close relationship between the practi-
cal growers and the garden employees, which results beneficially to
all. Insect and plant disease outbreaks are promptly reported to the

Sarden by the society members from various parts of south Texas,
idvice is ^ven in return and warnings sent to other locaUties, advis-
ing^each of the outbreak and making timely suggestions.

^y cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology, the South Texas
Garden was enabled to have a permanent entomologist stationed
there the greater part of the year. This arrangement was very
beneficial to the garden, in that the entomologist gave much of his
time to protecting valuable plants against attacks of insects. His
work was especialp^ appreciated and valued by the farmers and fruit
growera of the section. He visited their farms when insect outbreaks
occurred^and advised and assisted them in the control of the pests.

Plans foe future work. — In response to urgent solicitation from
business men and farmers, it is planned to develop cooperative gardens
at several different points along the Gulf coast and in the Rio Grande
Valley. This extension of the sphere * of usefulness of the South
Texas Garden may be accomplished at little expense to the Depart-
ment, as the interested parties freely offer the necessary land and the
money for equipment and maintenance.

There is an understanding with the Bureau of Entomology that an
entomolo^t will be permanently stationed at the garden me coming
year. It is hoped that arrangements may be made by which a plant
pathologist may also be permanently stationed there. Thousands of
dollars' worth of celery, cantaloupes, eto., were lost to the growers last
season on account of fungous diseases, some of which could have been
controlled had a man been on the ground to prompt the fanners to
action at the right time and advise and assist them.

PLANT INTRODncnON QABDEN, CHICO, CAL*

This garden, which is now in charge of Mr. W. W. Tracy, jr..
Assistant Botanist, is maintained principally as a propagating and
plant introduction station for the propagation and distribution of new
and valuable plants. During the past year over 300 kinds of plants
and seeds have been received from various explorers and experiment-
ers. These importations are now being grown as fast as possible for
fall distribution to all those who wish to experiment witn plants of
possible value to their communities. A large number of these new
plants were collected in northern China and Manchuria. Among
them are the most extensive and varied collection of bamboos ever
brought to this country, a pure white-bark pine, and a number of new
lilacs, roses, and ornamental lemons.

Plant peopagation. — ^The propagation of plants for free distri-
bution includes this year over 300 different species and varieties.
Among the samples now ready for the coming winter's distribution
are 800 Actinidia chincTma, a new ornamental climber from China,
which is said to bear fruits combining the flavor of the gooseberry,
citron, and fig; 1,600 AlewrUes cordata, sometimes called tne national

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406 ANNUAL BEPOETS OF DBPABTMENT OF AGHICULTUBE.

tree of China, and from which the wood oil of commerce is obtained;
3;000 Amygdmia persica, a new wild peach from China, said to be an
extremely hardy and drought-resistant stock for grafting peaches,
almonds, prunes, and plums; 1,000 unnamed Cmriatis^ and 4,000
Pistacia cKinensis, which produces the costly pistache nut of the
confectioners. These plants are distributed, as far as it is po ssible
to determine, only to tiiose who give them a good trial. With so
large a number of plants distributed over as great a range of coim-
try as the coming distribution contemplates, it is very Ukely that
some of the introductions i^U find localities where they will succeed
perhaps better than some of the crops now locally cultivated.

Plant introductions. — ^Another interesting part of the work of the

Sarden is the planting of two specimens of as many of the new intro-
uctions as can be handled. During the past year, the permanent
orchard plantings have been increased to 325 new species and vari-
eties. Many of these are found nowhere else in this country, and
include a great range of different kinds of fruits and ornamentals.
In a few years many of them will be in fruit and flowerinjg condition,
forming not only an interesting sight for the casual visitor but a
valuable study for horticulturists and botanists as well.

Cooperative work. — Besides the work of the Office of Foreign
Seed and Plant Introduction this garden also carries on experiments
for other offices of theDei)artment. The development of a profitable
strain of com for California and of more productive strains of alfalfa;
the discovery of grasses and forage crops best adapted to this
valley and the best methods of cultivation of the same; the selec-
tion, propagation, and free distribution of opimtias of the spineless
variety suitable for stock feedingj the mamtenance of a variety
collection of figs and grapes; expenmente on cotton; and the deter-
mination of the different enects of California climate and soil on
vegetable varieties are still being continued as heretofore. The
plantings at the garden now number over 1,400 samples.

Improvement of the garden. — On accoimt of insufficient appro-
priations, the general improvement of the garden has not progressed
during the past season as rapidly as the work has required. There
has, however, been some worK accomplished in grading the land, and
the task of lawn making, road building, laying or permanent irrigating
pipes, and general ornamentation of the garden is now ready to be
taken up seriously. The necessity of a well-equipped station at this
place becomes very important, because of the great number of new
settlers coining into this region to locate on the lai^e wheat farms,
which are now oeing rapidly subdivided and irrigated and set out to
orchards and gardens devoted to various kinds of intensive farm-
ing. Throughout the great Sacramento Valley, comprising an agri-
ciutural area almost as large as some eastern States and capable
of supporting under irrigation millions instead of thousands of
people, there is not at present a single agricultural station demon-
strating the varied possibilities of this wonderful region, except the
Department garden at Chico. Prospective settlers, therefore, nat-
urally come to this garden in large numbers to inquire what can be
accomplished in this valley, but as this place is strictly a propagating
and plant introduction garden and not a demonstration or genenu
agricultural station, it is possible to answer our visitors' questions



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BUEBAU OP PLANT INDUSTBY. 407

only partially. Nevertheless^ much assistance can be rendered to
settiers by growing to perfection all plants received from agricultural
explorers and maKin^ the place interesting and attractive. As the
giurden is now supplied with many of the necessary buildings and equip-
ment, it will reqmre only a little more expenditure of money and a few
years more to attain the original purpose of this garden, in making it
a place capable of propagating, distributing, and growing rapidly
all the CTeat varieties or plants collected bjr explorers in all parts of
the world, and of serving as a record station of all introductions.

Flans foe future work. — ^The work of the garden for the coming
year contemplates a continuation of the expenmental work of pre-
vious years and additions to present bmldings and equipment,
especially^ the remodeling of the propagating houses, laying of imder-
ground pipes for irrigation, additional gramng of lana, and general
ornamentation of the whole place. The propagation of the present
shipment of bamboos and otner plants whicn are yet to amve and
a variety test of casabas, or winter muskmelons, thought to be of
fi;reat promise for extensive eastern shipment, will be prominent
Features of next season's work.



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BEPOBT OF THE FOBESTEE.



U. S. Department of Aqriculture,

Forest Service, .
WoBhingtlm^ D. C, December i, 1908.
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith a report of the work
of the Forest Service for the fiscal year ended June 80^ 1908, together
with an outline of the plans for the work of the Service for the cur-
rent fiscal year.

Bespectfully, Oifford Pinohot, Forester.

Hon. James Wilson,

Secretary of Agrumlture.



FIELDS OF WOBK AND CLASSIFICATION OF EXPENDirTTBES.

Since February 1, 1905, the work of the Forest Service has included
both the protection and administration of the National Forests and
the promotion throughout the United States of the best use of all
forests and forest products.

Neither the or^nization of the Service nor the vearly reports of
expenditures make distinction between these two nelds of activit7,
for the reason that the same lines of work run through both fields.
The problems of forest management, for example, call for investiga-
tions both on National Forests and on private lands. To make these m-
vestigations through two distinct branches of the Service organization
and pay for them from separate funds would result in needless work,
duplication of facilities, and a seriously increased demand for trained
foresters to equip a staff already too small. The reports of expend! •
tures are made m complete detail, and also in summary, under the
requirement of the act of March 3, 1885, and in another form in con-
nection with the estimates of appropriations called for by the act of
March 4, 1907; but in neither case does the grouping serve to show
how much is expended upon National Forest work in the West and
how much upon Federal cooperation, forest investigations, and the
dissemination of the knowledge gathered.

The following statement presents a classification of the Forest
Service expenditures to bring this out. In connection with the esti-
mates submitted for 1910 an appendix has been prepared which
presents a similar classification, itemized under each neaa.

Forest Service expenditures^ fiscal year 1908,

Administration and protection of National Forests $2,526,098.02

Permanent improvements Nationa 1 Forests 592, 169. 19

Federal cooperation 6,319.38

Forest investigations 235,855.14

Diffusion of information 55,665.88

Total disbursements from appropriations on account of

work of the Forest Service 3,416,107.61

Disbursed from cooperative funds 23,417.48

Total expenditures for Forest work 8,489,525.09

409



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410



ANNUAL BEPOBTS OF DEPABTMENT OF AQBICULTUBE.



Disbursed for other purposes:

Payments to States of 10 per cent of receipts from National

Forests for fiscal year 1907 $153,032.19

Refunds to depositors of excess deposits 48, 678, 01

Total disbursements for all purposes 3, 641, 235. 89

Unexpended balance of appropriations 20. 973. 11

Total of sums ayailable for all disbursonents of the year. 3, 662, 209. 00

The expenditures from appropriations were derived from the fol-
lowing sources:

Agricultural appropriation act ($1,900,000, less unexpended bal-
ance of $13,414.72) $1,886,585.28

Agricultural appropriation act ($500,000 available for permanent
improvements, less $6,213.21, expended before July 1, 1907)... 493, 786. 79

Agricultural appropriation act (balance of appropriation for
Appalachian survey, etc., carried over from fiscal year 1907,
less unexpended balance of $7,558.89) 15, 845. 37

Receipts from National Forests before July 1, 1907, appropriated
to Forest Service, less payments to States of $153,032J.9 1, 019, 890. 17

Total disbursed from appropriations on account of work of
the Forest Service 3,416,107.61

The unexpended balances of appropriations are^ under the law,
available for two years to meet anj outstanding liabilities of the vear
1908, but will for the most part revert to the general fund or the
Treasury.

The amounts paid the States and Territories, to be expended for
roads and schools, from the receipts of the year 1907, were as shown
below. For purposes of comparison, the amounts payable from the
receipts for 1908, under the provision of law increasing the share of
the IStates to 25 per cent of the gross receipts, are shown in the second
column.



Stote.


Amount
paid 1907.


Amount


Increase.


State.


Amount
paid 1907.


Amount


Increase.




10 per cent.


28 per cent.


10 per cent


26 per cent.




ArkADHLS




1818.68
2.684.78
42.610.44
62,487.78
60.966.67
66,807.84
648.66


f81jf.68
2.817.68
25.802.62
86,878.49
86.164.00
86,716.18
624.16


NcTada

New Mexico.
Oklahoma...

Oregon

SouthDakota

Utah

Washington.
Wyoming ...

Total..


82.188.96

9,614.06

126.60

18.960.89
2.762.28

18.667.88
8.781.66

16.221.49


$4,677.96
26,464.12
664.48
82.818.S2
8.466.60
82,161.08
18,082.79
41,402.88


82.448.97


Alaska

Arlxona

California....

Colorado

Idaho

Kansas

Minnesota


1887.16
17,807.92
16.064.29
16.791.67
19.691.66
U9.89


16,860.06
428.98
18,882.68
6,704.87
18.698.66
14.801.24
25.180.89


Montana

Nebraska


20.656.42
1.017.61


76.807.41
2.849.77


66.161.99
1.832.18




168,082.19


447,068.79


294,081.62



• Subject to change by Treasury Department in adjustment between States.



THE NATIONAL FOSBSTa



ABEA.



The net result of the additions, eliminations,^ and new Forests
created during the year by presidential proclamation was to increase
the total area of National Forests by 17,142,941 acres.



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FOREST SEBVIGB.



411



The following table shows in detail the changes made :

Natianai Forests, showing new Forests, addUions, and eiiminations, July 1, 1907,

to June SO, 1908.





Foreflt.


Area July 1,
1907.


Changes in area by
1907, to June 80, 1906.


Area July 1,


8Ut«.




New Forests
and addi-
tions.


Elimina-
tions.


1908/


Arlioiui


BabOQiiiTArl


Acre$.

126.720
2,080,240

287,620


Aeret. Aera,


Acre*,
126,720




BUcKMeM


542,009





2,572,249
287,620
626,800
69,120

2.267,920
814,126
140,880




Cbiricahoa

Dixie






626.800






Dngoon

Grand CanTon


69.120

2,267,920

814.125

140,880

45,760

428.680

1,976,810

156,620

490,658

1,115,200

208,550






1




Huacbuca

Mount Graham










Pinal Monntainsa






PreBCOtt

San Francisco Mountolnf« .
Santa Catalina


819,808




748,488
1,975,810

406,690

490,568
2,449,280

208,560








251, 170






Santa Rita






Tonto :

Tnmacacori

Verde


1,288,820










721,780




721.780




Arkansaa










9.636,108


8,749,887




13,886.990






ArkanMu ,




1,078,955
917,944




1,078,966
917,944




Osark








Diamond Mountains

Inyo












1,991,899




1,991,899










ChlUomia


649,888
221,824
1,896,818
807.115
288,218
885,196
14.108
787,742






649,888








221,824




Klamath






1 896 818




lAim^n Peak


141.881
570,800
25,109




1,038,996

859,018

860,800

14,108

787,742

140,069

765,800

622,820

1,751,489

363,850

1,962,100

1,528,770

6,697,698

1,645,370

987,569




Modoc




.


Monterey






Pinnacles






Pluman








San Benito


140 069
28,680
67,426






San Bernardino


787.120

665,896
1,761,489

868,860
1.982.100
1,628,770
6,049.984
1,296,800

987,569
1,894,772

109,920
1,248.042

806,618






San Gabriel






San Jacinto






San Lull Obiipo








Santa Barbara








8hAft4^...








Sierra


1,553,419
848,670


5,760




Stanlslauii




Stony Creek






Tahoe






1,894,772
168,887




Trabuco Canyon


43,467
850,471






Trinity




1,598,518
806,518




Warner Mountains














22,841.682


8,269,887


5,760 1 25,605,709


Colorado ...


797,720

1,138,880

7,680

901,270

1,061,280

29,502

196,140
1,219,947
1.846,166
1,612,146

278.176
1,188,686
1,681,667

821,227
2,208,918

619.428

289,621

970,880






797,720

1,188,880

7,680

901,270

1,061,280

29,602

196,140




Oochetopa








Fruita.r.








Gunnison








Holy Cross








La Salle








Las Animas








Leadville






1,219,947
1.846.165




Medicine Bow








Montezuma






1.612.146
278,176




Ouray








Park Ranee






1.138,686

1,681,667

821,227




Pikes Peak








San Isabel








San Joan




1,840


2,202 078




Dnoompab^rt*




619.428




Wet Mountains






289,621




White River






970,880














15.748,772




1,840


15,746,982




iir 1





•Pinal Moontalna Included In Too to January 18, 1008. ^

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412



ANNUAIi REPOBTS OP DEPABTMBNT OF AGBICULTUBB.



National Forests, shoioing new Forests, additions, and eliminations, etc — Cont'd.





Forest.


Area July 1.


Changes in area by
proclamations, July 1.
1907, to June 80, 1908.


Area July 1,


state.


1907.

Aere$.
416,860
804,140

3,860,960
494,560
733,000
826,160

2,831,280
798,720
165,242

1,344,800
194,404

1,460,960

49,920

99,508

815,100

293.044

1.879.680

3.340.160

1.126,429
303,000


New Forests
and addi-
tions.

Acrts.


Elimina-
tions.


1908.


Idaho


Bear River


Acre*.


Aert9.
416,860




Big Hole




.....f ...


804,140




Bitter Root!






8,860.960




Cabinet






494,660




Caribou






738,000




ORm^a






826,160




Coeiir d'Alene






2,831,280




Henrys Lake

Kootenai






796,720








165,242




T^mhi . .






1,844,800




Palouse






194,404




Payette .






1,400,960




Pocatello






49,920




Port Nenf






99,506




Priest River

Rkft River






816,100








203,044




Salmon River . . ...






1,879,680




Sawtooth






3,840,160




Weiser






1,126,429




Yel lowstone






803,000




Garden City «










20,836,427




20,886,427










Kanms


97,280


1 ;




Kansas


205,107




302,887




Minnesota







Minnesota




294,752




294,762




Biir Belt






Montana


641,460

1.612,960

691,920

1,566,400

234,760

33,808

186,240

888,660

782,160

1,582,400

45,080

887,860

5.541.180

1,053,160

31,000

1,211,680

111.446

958,800

194.480

590.720






641,460
1,612,960




Big Hole








Bitter Root






1,566! 400




Cabinet








Crazy Mountains






284,760




•Ekalaka






88,806




Elkhom






186,240




Gallatin






888,660




Helena






782,160




Hell Gate






1,682,400




Highwood Mountains

Kootenai






46,080








887,860




Lewis and Clark






6,641,180




Little Belt






1,068,160
81,000




LittleRockies








Lolo






1,211,680




Long Pine






111. 446




Mamson






958,800




Missoula






194,480




Otter






690,720




Pryor Mountains


78,738

126,080

1.352,240






78,788




Snowy Mountains






126,080




Yellowstone






1,852,240




Diflmal River










20.402,676






2(^402,676










Nebraska


85,123






86,123




Niobrara

North Platte


123,779
847,170






128,779








347,170




Charleston










556,072






666,072











Nevada


149, 165






149 166




Independence


135,019
572,640
428,660






185,019




Monitor






672,640




Ruby Mountains






428,660




Sierra


62,678




62,678




Tahoe


59,115
625,040
368,000




69,116
625.040




Toiyabe








Toquima






368,000
196,840




Vegas


196,840






a Garden City included i








2,382,639


•258.413




2,691,062












n Kansas, Maj


r 15, 1908.

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FOREST SBBVICE.



413



National Forestn, showing new Forests^ additiona, and eliminationB, etc, — Cont'd.



1

1


Forest.


Area July 1,
1907.


Changes in area by
proclamations, July 1,
1907, to June 80. 1908.


Area July 1.


State.


New Forests
and addi-
tions.


Elimina-
tions.


1908.


Xew MexifX)


Biff Burros o


Acrt9.
156,780


Acrc9.


A(rc9.


Acret.




Datll


89.000




61,270,500




Gallinas


78,480

288,065
1,460,245
627,436
480
158,782
459,726
110,526
430,880
178,977
881,841
424,663
283.200




78,480




Gila


28,180


2.554


©1,774.801




Ouadalupe


283,066




Jemec


197,120




1,657,865




Lincoln ...,..,, r r t ,.,..,. .


109,312


618. 128




Las Animas




480




Magdalena






158.782




Maniano


184.018


167,156


<< 587, 110




Mount Tavlor ......






Pecos River






430,880




Peloneillo









178,977




Sacramento







881.841




San Mateo




424.668




Taos




288,200




Wichita .•.


1






8.808,979


448,316


279,027


8,478,267


Oklahomn


60.800




60,800




Ashland






Oretfon


172.800

3,608.920

142,080

6,886,840

148,317

1,235,720

680,000

292.176

1,750,240

1,182,582

175,518

798,400

494,942




172.800


tVfgV


Blue Mountains





131,648


3,472,277




Bull Run




142; 060




Cascade




6,886.840




Coquille





Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of AgricultureAnnual reports of the Department of Agriculture → online text (page 50 of 108)