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Annual reports of the Department of Agriculture online

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fication of the law will probably be necessary. It is submitted that
this is a matter that should be brought to the attention of Congress.

ANNUAL REPORTS REQUIRED BY LAW.

The following is a list of the annual reports of this Department, the
printing of which is specifically provided for by law. Tne total num-
ber of copies authorized, the number of copies ordered for the use of
the Department, and the average cost thereof are shown:

Annual reports provided Jor by law.



Title of pablication.



Copies
author-
ized.



Yearbook 300,000

Annual Reports of the Department of Agriculture 6,000

Report of Chief of Weather Bureau I 4,000

Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry { 30,000

Report of the OflQce of Experiment Stations , 8,000

Report on Progress of the Beet-Sugar Industry I 8,000

Field operations of the Bureau of Soils I 6,000




The first cost of the reports above enumerated is, under the provi-
sions of public resolution 13, approved March 30, 1906, charged against
the allotment for printing and binding for the Department. This
charge involves the cost of composition, stereotyping, and illustra-
tions, and the cost of paper for tne number of copies ordered by the
Department and the pnnting and binding of the same. The estimated
cost, approximately $45,000. is, imder the law, set aside by the Public
Printer to cover the co«t of tne reports mentioned, and can not be used



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682 ANNUAL BEP0BT8 OF DEPABTMENT OF AGBICULTUBB.

for any other purpose; it therefore constitutes a fixed charge against
the allotment for printing.

The following is a list of the reports to be prepared annually for
submission to Congress, concerning the printing or which there is no
specific provision:

Appointments and promotions in the Department on lump-sum funds.

Estmiates and expenditures.

Book of Estimates— statement concerning employees.

Expenditures from continf^ent fund of Department.

Annual statement of proceeds of public property.

Operations of the Bureau of Animal Industry.

These reports are not always printed, and evidently it was contem-
plated by Congress that the printing of such reports should be left to
the wisdom of that body, as the law (public, 153, approved March 1,
1907) provides that thev shall be forwarded to Congress with an esti-
mate from the Public rrinter of the probable cost tiiereof . Never-
theless, during the last fiscal year, the amount charged against this
Department for the printing of these publications was $4,748.90, which
is believed to be an imjust Durden upon the Department and one not
authorized bylaw. Moreover, special reports are frequentlv called for
by Congress^ which coxild not possibly be anticipated and for the first
cost of printmg which it is not possible to make an intelligent estimate.
During the last year the amoimt of such charges, which could not be
anticipated or estimated for, was $2,227.06. A conservative and safe
reserve for the cost of congressional publications is $60,000. It is
understood that the Joint Committee on Printing desired to fix upon
the executive departments only the cost of such publications as were
already reqxiired to be printed imder the law, and that as regards all
other reports which were required to be submitted to Congress the
cost of the printing, if ordered, should be borne by Congress and not by
the Department. This matter has already been taken up with the
Public Printer.

DISPOSITION OF PRINTING FUND.

The allotment for printing and binding for the Department of Agri-
culture for the last fiscal year was $433,750, against which amoimt
there are what might be called the usual annual fGced charges, approxi-
mately as follows:

For the Weather Bureau $25,000

For Farmers' Bulletins 98, 750

Congressional publications 60, 000

Expenditures lor blanks, blank books, etc 63,000

Maintenance of branch printing office 43, 000

Periodical publications 30,000

Total 319,750

This leaves a balance of only about $114,000 available for the publi-
cation of results of scientific inquiry and the general publication work
of the Department, a sum which is quite madequate to meet the
requirements of the Department for such publications, a number of
which could not be published last year for lack of funds. Particxilar
attention is invited to the item of periodical publications in the above



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DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 633

statement, which involves an expenditure from the printing fimd
amounting to $30,000. These publications and the cost of each are
shown in the following statement:

Experiment Station Record $11, J24. 00

Crop Reporter 11,685.28

Field Programme (Forest Service) 1,208.88

Service Announcements (Bureau of Animal Industry) 430. 68

Monthlv List of Publications (domestic and foreign) 3, 549. 96

Schedule of Wholesale Lumber Prices 1, 200. 00

List of Station Publications Received by the Office of Experiment Stations 387. 48
Monthly Weather Review (paid for from the allotment of the Weather
Bureau).

Total 29,485.28

These publications involve a fixed charge, approximately as stated,
and because of their periodicity the expense of their pubUcation is
increased. It is recommended, therefore, that this class of pubUca-
tions be not increased, as such increase will reduce the amoimt avail-
able for publishing results of important scientific investigations.

It is apparent from the figures herein given that a considerable
increase m the printing fund is necessary to make available for the
public the information collected by the Department. Accordingly, an
estimate of $50,000 additional has been submitted.

This year, as last, the niunber of copies of the congressional publi-
cations ordered for the use of the Department has been reduced to the
nunimum. The Public Printer >\ill be advised of the number it is
proposed to order \mder the provisions of public resolution 13, which
permits the Department to make requisition for only a portion of the
allotment, by which means it is hoped that a considerable sum may
be deducted from the amount reserved for congressional publications
and made available for general printing.

EEPEINT OF SPECIAL REPORT ON DISEASES OF CATTLE.

Following is the text of the resolution (H. R. 176) passed at the
first session of the Sixtieth Congress^ approved by the President
May 23, 1908, providing for the printmg of the Special Report on
Diseases of Cattle:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in
Conaress assembled^ That there be printed and bound one hundred thousand copies of
the Special Report on the Diseaaea of Cattle, the same to be first revised and brought to
date under the supervision of the Secretary of Agriculture; thirty thousand copies for
the use of the Senate; sixty thousand copies for the use of the House of Representatives
and ten thousand copies for distribution by the Department of Agriculture.

The copy was in course of preparation at the close of the fiscal year,
and it was expected that the same would be forwarded to the pnnter
about the 1st of October. Two eutirely new articles are to be
included in the work, taking the place of two that are now out of date.
The other revisions comprise but slight chants in the text and
illustrations. An edition of 4,000 copies will probably be ordered for
the Department, for distribution to crop correspondents and col-
laborators.



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634 ANNUAL BBPOBTS OF DEPABTMENT OP AGBICULTUBE.
PBACTICB or ECONOBiY IN THE PBINTING FOB THE DEPABTMENT.

With a view to emphasizing the necessity for most rigid economy in
the expenditure of printing funds allotted to the Department, the
Secreftary approved May 21, 1908, the following recommendations of
the Advisory Committee on printing and publication work:

Mat 21, 1908.
2b Chiefs ofBwreauBf Divmons^ and Offices:

The graduaUy increasing demand for printing required by the Department without a
correeponding increase in the appropriation for the ensuing fiscal year emphasizes the
necessity for the practice of the most rigid economy in every detail in the printing of
blanks, blank books, bulletins, circulars, pamphlets, etc. Every blank should be
carefully scrutinized, and after the necessity for it has been established, it should be
printed in the most economical size and style. As r^ards publications, the effort
should be made to condense the subject-matter to the fewest possible words, and in
the printing of the same every device for reducing the cost should be employed, and
mecnanical make-up and uniformity of style, however desirable, when possible must be
sacrificed in the interest of economy. Circulars should be published without covers,
title-pages, organization lists, contents, lists of illustrations, or other unnecessary
matter.

As regards blanks, considerable money could be saved by the use of less expensive
paper. There are very few blanks which require linen led^r, the ordinary white
writing paper being suitable. For blank books good heavy leager will generally meet
all requirements.

The order of the Secretary relating to corrections in proof should be strictly enforced,
as the editing in proof, if permitted, may add one-third — and in some cases even
more — to the cost of a publication. Only absolutely necessary illustrations should be
permitted. Great care should be exercised in the selection of illustrations for publica-
tions. Only those should be used that convey some meaning that can not be expressed
in words.

The Division of Publications is hereby authorized and enjoined to enforce the most
rigid economy in the printing and binding required by the Department, and the
Department Editor is empowered to do everything which may in his judgment reduce
the expense of the work without detracting from tne quality thereof, the object being
to secure the greatest amount of the best work from the fund appropriated.

Chiefs of bureaus, divisions, and offices shall cooperate with the Division of Publica-
tions in the carrying out of the recommendations herein made.

W. M. Hays,
Willis L. Moore,
Geo. Wm. Hill,

Advisory Committee.

Approved.

James Wilson, Secretary.

As a further means of enforcing economy, the Secretary on July 1 ,
1908, issued the following order relative to the use of *'rush slips"
for printing.
To chiefs of bureaus j divisions, and offices:

My attention has been called to the increasing use of the red ticket or **rush " slip as
applied to the printing ordered for the various bureaus, divisions, and offices. Inas-
much as an extra charge of 20 per cent is hereafter to be made by the Public Printer
for rush work, it is imperative that the number of such orders be reduced to the mini-
mum, and I have accordingly instructed the Editor and Chief of the Division of Publi-
cations that no rush order will hereafter be sent to the Public Printer without the
signature of the Secretary.

There is rarely any excuse for rush orders for blanks, blank books, letter heads,
envelopes, etc., as it should be the duty of some person in each bureau to look after
such matters and make requests for additional supplies before the stock on hand is
exhausted. As r^^ards bulletins, circulars, and pamphlets, ample time must be
allowed and the use of the red ticket avoided. The printing fund is already insuffi-
cient for our actual requirements and eveiy effort must be made to reduce, rather
than to increase, the cost of printing.

Very respectfully, Jambs Wilson, Secretary,



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DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 635

It must be admitted that the practice of aflSxing "rush" slips to
requests for printing had become too prevalent — so much so, indeed,
that the object sought was often not obtained, for, as a rule, where
everything is marked ** special" nothing is made special. More-
over, it was learned that the Public Printer had decided to aflSx a
chaige of 20 per cent additional for rush work, which decision caused
the Secretary to promptly issue the order above given. It is par-
ticularly desirable to avoid the necessity of ordering printing one
day the delivery of which is desired the next. Of course there may
be instances when such a course is justifiable, but as a rule they wul
not arise if proper care be exercised by the various bureaus, divisions,
and offices in the handling of their supplies. The pink warning
slips are now furnished by the printer with all work delivered. These
slips are designed for insertion at convenient places to serve as a
warning that the supply is running low and that an order for a
reprint should be placed when these slips are reached in the distri-
bution of blanks, blank books, etc. The rush slips should be used
only in cases of great emergency, and if this restriction be observed,
as it must be under the Secretary's order, a considerable saving will
be effected in the printing fimd of the Department.

THE EDrrORIAL SECTION.

This section is imder the immediate supervision of the Associate
Editor. The policy of keeping the chiefs of bureaus informed con-
cerning the scope and character of all manuscripts submitted for
publication has been continued with satisfactory results. This
policy tends to prevent dupUcation of published matter and to main-
tain clear lines of separation between the spheres of the different
bureaus. Perhaps the most striking feature of this section's work
during the year was its success in the promotion of economy. Many
manuscripts were reduced in size from 10 to 40 per cent, r articular
attention was given to the condensation and general improvement
of tabular matter, which always affords opportunity for the exercise of
economy in its preparation. All drawing and photographs sub-
mitted for illustrations were carefully scrutmized, and many of them
regarded as unnecessary were oniitted. The economy effected in
this line of work, however, is not limited to the manuscripts and
illustrations actually submitted. The Division's stand in favor of
economy in publication work has exerted a healthful influence
throughout the Department, tending to the more careful preparation
of manuscripts and to a closer sifting of the illustrations in the various
offices in which the publications originated. The most striking proof
of this claim is foimd in the statistics of the Department's pubhcation
work. Notwithstanding the great growth of the Department and
the greatly broadened scope or its operations, the number of printed
pages of fts new publications is very little in excess of the average
figure for a number of years past.

During the year the Associate Editor was fully occupied in super-
vising the work of his assistants, keeping the recoras, necessary
consultations with authors and bureau chiefs, and conferences wito
the Government Printing Office. The actual work of reading and
revising the manuscripts and correcting proofs was done by the five



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636 ANNUAL REPORTS OF DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.

assistant editors. The publications receiving editorial attention
during the year contained an aggregate of 22,028 printed pages. The
edi tonal work on these publications involved the reading, revision,
and preparation of about 38,000 pages of manuscript, the reading
and correction of nearly 11,000 galleys of proof, and the revision or
about 45,000 pages of first and second page proofs.

The job work done in the branch pnntmg office was revised and
proof read in this section. As the number of jobs to receive atten-
tion numbered 4,575, it will be seen that this line of work is of great
importance.

Cards are prepared for an up-to-date card catalogue of all Depart-
ment publications as they are received from the printer. A smsJl
stock of all the Farmers' Bulletins and of most other publications
of the Department is kept in the editorial section in order to promptly
supply copies in response to special requests. At the request of the
United States Civil Service Commission several himdred examina-
tion papers relating to proof reading, etc., were read and rated during
the year, part of this work being done in the indexing section and
part in the editorial section. The foregoing will suffice to illustrate
the miscellaneous duties of the editorial force. Such work consumes
much time and is of great value, yet it can not be included in any
statistical sununary ofresults accomplished.

THE DOCUMENT SECTION.

On July 1, 1907, there were 2,732,069 copies of diflPerent publica-
tions in the document section, and 18,514,809 copies were received
from the Public Printer during the twelve months ended Jime 30,
1908, making an aggregate of 21^46,878 in the document section,
of which number 8,020,141 were Farmers' Bulletins and 13,226,737
were miscellaneous publications other than Farmers' Bulletins. Of
these, 18,442,755 were distributed, of which 6,687,019 were Farmers'
Bulletins and 11,755,736 were miscellaneous publications, leaving a
balance in stock at the termination of business June 30, 1908, of
2,804,123 copies about half of which were Farmers' Bulletins.

CORRESPONDENCE .

The correspondence connected with the distribution of documents
consisted of 38,081 dictated and other letters prepared for the signa-
ture of the Secretary by the Chief of the Division and the assistant
in charge and over 300,000 letters to which replies were made on blanks
filled up by the clerical force over the printea signature of the Chief of
the Division. It was necessary to address franks and envelopes for
mailing bulletins, Crop Reporters, Monthly Lists, and other publica-
tions, amounting to approximately 7,500,000, one-fifth of which
were prepared on the addressing machines now in regular operation
in the document section.

FOREIGN HAIL.

By far the larger portion of the publications are, of course, dia«
tributed to residents of the United States, but in the aggregate a
large number of books are sent; to foreign countries, and the extra



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DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS. 637

work inyolved in recording and mailing packages addressed to foreign
countries occupies the larger portion of the time of one employee.
The following is a summary of the work:

Packages of publications sent abroad (hiring the fiscal year 1908.



Item. I Number. Weight.



Postage
raid by
Depart-
ment.



Packages sent abroad (Canada, Mexico, and Cuba not included) 00, 808

Packages sent to Canada, Mexico, and Cuba I 21, 508

Packages sent to Smithsonian Institution, to be sent to foreign addresses. . 60



Total 82,475



Pound*. I
20.225i SI, 904. 85
4,400i None.
286 I None.



24.912 1.904.86



Mall sacks used (domestic and foreign): No 2. 23,801; No. 3, 7,074; total, 29.825.
LABOR-SAVING DEVICES.

The additional clerical assistants added to the force on July 1, 1907,
and the additional skilled laborers provided for under the appropria-
tion for the year beginning Julv 1 , 1908, furnish a number of employees
more nearly adequate to the ciemands of the work than has heretofore
been the case, but the work continues to increase in greater amount
than the increased force will be able to handle in a satisfactory and
efficient manner unless aided in some other way. This we are attempt-
ing to do by introducing labor-saving machmes. If the appropna-
tions asked for and approved by the Secretary are granted, it will
enable us to so increase the machines and labor-saving devices as to
relieve a large force of clerks from the duty of addressing envelopes
and writing franks and permit their employment at other urgent
work. It is only by some such arrangement that it will be possible
to handle the increase of work. The mailing equipment now com-
prises the following machines: Two foot-power addressing machines,
two foot-power stencil cutters, and two No. 2 automatic paper-folding
machines. With these machines the following work was accomplished
during the year:

Number of envelopes and franks addressed 1, 564, 284

Copies of Monthly List folded 2,115,000

Number of miscellaneous circulars folded 986, 000

The use of stencils in addressing envelopes and franks, adopted
some time ago, continues to be satisfactory, and this method is being
applied to all permanent lists as rapidly as possible. It is proposed
to use the stencils for the entire list to which the Monthly List of
Publications is sent. For this list 133,750 stencils have been pre-

Eared and are in use, leaving 102,000 names and addresses which
ave not yet been cut, and which are now addressed by hand. The
number of stencils belonging to the other bureaus of the Department
and kept in the document section is 82,976. During the year 71,804
stencils were cut for the Monthly List; 5,937 for miscellaneous lists:
2,454 were removed from the Monthlv List, and 2,082 were removed
from the miscellaneous lists. The addresses now on stencils number
216,726; and in order to use stencils for all lists in our possession, new



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638 ANNUAL BEPOBTS OF DEPABTMENT OF AGBICULTUBB.

supplies and the addition to the equipment of an electric machine
for cutting stencils and an electric aadressing machine will be re-
quired.

The introduction of other machinery would imdoubtedly expedite
the work, as a franking machine to paste address labels of Senators,
Representatives, and Delegates on envelopes in which bulletins are
to DC mailed, approximately 5,000,000 oi these franks bein^ used
annually, all of wnich are now pasted on by hand; and an additional
sealing machine, larger and more satisfactory than those now pos-
sessed by this oflSce, would greatly relieve tne employees of much
time-consuming work and obviate the necessity tor an increased
nimiber of employees.

THE SECTION OF ILLU8TBATIONS.

The number of drawings made by our draftsmen during the year
aggregated 1,967, without any increase in the cost of performing
the work or in the force employed. Attention is called to the im-

Sortance and necessity of having draftsmen of exceptional ability,
delity, and experience, as the work required is of varied character,
covenng practically the entire field of illustration, and such drafts-
men are not readily secured and can be retained only by the pay-
ment of adequate compensation.

The photographic work has grown beyond our ability to handle
with the smaU force and inadequate equipment available. The result
is that the work is from four to six months in arrears, and it is im{>os-
sible to bring it up to date without additional assistants and equip-
ment. It is gratifying to report that the bureaus, divisions, and
offices of the Department are availing themselves of our expert
assistance, and would, it is believed, willingly turn over all their pho-
tographic work to us if the illustrations section were manned and
equipped to perform it. Field photography was done during the year
for tne Bureau of Plant Industry, the Bureau of Animal Industry,
and the Bureau of Entomology. Unfortunately the force was so
small that it was not possible to comply with all requests for work of
this character; however, every effort was made to meet the demand,
for the reason that the photographs thus obtained will be used to
illustrate the reports on investigations made by the Department's
scientific force, and should be technically and artistically of the highest
order.

Negatives are being added constantly to the files and indexed as
rapidly as possible, as the concentration of the negatives greatly facil-
itates the work. There is a constant increase in the requests from
miscellaneous applicants for prints, lantern slides, etc., usually selected
from illustrations in our puolications. Most of these requests xome
from newspaper, magazine, and syndicate correspondents, who want
their prints at very short notice. In locating negatives to fill these
requests ii^uch time is spent that could be devoted to other work if
the negatives used to illustrate the departmental publications were
filed in this office. If the money received for photographic prints
were not turned into the Treasury, as now reouired by law, but were
made available for the purchase of material from time to time, the
special fund of this Division would be relieved of a considerable sum



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DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS.



639



which could be spent to advantage in the purchase of supplies required
in executing orders from the various bureaus, divisions, and offices
of the Department.

It is gratifying to state that near the close of the year additional
room was secured, so that the quarters now occupied by the illustra-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of AgricultureAnnual reports of the Department of Agriculture → online text (page 80 of 108)