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Consular reports



Estats Units d'America. Department of State. Bureau
of Statistics, United States. Bureau of Foreign ...



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CONSULAR REPORTS.



COMMHRCH, MANliFACTlIRHS, HTC.



Vol.. LI.

No». 188, i8<j, ic><'i, arid iqi.

MAY, JUNK, JULY, AND AUOUST, 1896.



\VASIIINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.

1896.



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PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF STATE.

The publications of the Bureau of Statistics, Department of State, are:

I. — Commercial Relations, being the annual reports of consular officers on the com-
merce, industries, navigation, etc., of their districts.

II. — Consular Reports, issued monthly, and contaiuing miscellaneous reports from
consular officers.

III. — Advance Sheets, Consular Reports, issued for the convenience of the news-
paper press, commercial and manufacturing organizations, etc., usually three or four times a
month, and containing selected reports of immediate interest.

IV. — Exports Declared for the United States, issued quarterly, and containing the
declared values of exports from the various consular districts to the United States for the pre-
ceding three months.

t V. — Special Consular Reports, containing series of reports from consular officers on
particular subjects, made in pursuance to instructions from the Department.

Following are the special publications issued by the Bureau prior to 1890:

Labor in Europe, 1878, one volume; Labor in Foreign Countries, 1884, three volumes;
Commerce of the World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1879; Commerce of the
World and the Share of the United States Therein, 1880-81 ; Declared Exports for the United
States, First and Second Quarters, 1883; Declared Exports for the United States, Third and
Fourth Quarters, 1883. Cholera in Europe in 1884, 1885; Trade Guilds of Europe, 1885;
The Licorice Plant, 1885; Forestry in Europe, 1887; Emigration and Immigration, 1885-86
(a portion of this work was published as Consular Reports No. 76, for the month of April,
1S87); Rice Pounding in Europe, 1887; Sugar of Milk, 1887; Wool Scouring in Belgium,
1887 ; Cattle and Dairy Farming in Foreign Countries, 1888 (issued first in one volume, after-
wards in two volumes) ; Technical Education in Europe, 1888; Tariffs of Central America and
the British West Indies, 1890.

The editions of all these publications except Tariffs of Central America, etc., are exhausted
and the Department is, therefore, unable to supply copies.

Information relating to special subjects — secured by circulars addressed to consular
officers — increased to such an extent that, in 1890, the Department decided to publish such
reports in separate form, to be entitled Special Consuiar Reports. There are now the
following Special Consular Reports :

Vol. I {i8go). — Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in Spanish America, Carpet
Manufacture in Foreign Countries, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, and Fruit Culture in
Foreign Countries.

IW, 2 {i8gi). — Refrigerators and Food Preservation in Foreign Countries, European
Emigration, Olive Culture in the Alpes Maritimes, and Beet Sugar Industry and Flax Culti-
vation in Foreign Countries.

Vol.^ (i8gi). — Streets and Highways in Foreign Countries.

lo/. 4 {i8g2V — Port' Regulations in Foreign Countries.

Vol. 5 \18g2). — Canals and Irrigation in Foreign Countries.

Vol. 6 (i8g2). — Coal and Coal Consumption in Spanish America, Gas in Foreign Coun-
tries, and India Rubber.

Vol. 7 (i8g2). — The Stave Trade in Foreign Countries and Tariffs of Foreign Countries.

JW. 8 Ii8g2). — Fire and Building Regulations in Foreign Countries.

Vol. g \18g2 and i8gj). — Australian Sheep and Wool, and Vagrancy and Public Charities
in Foreign Countries.

Vol. JO {i8g4). — Lead and Zinc Mining in Foreign Countries and Extension of Markets
for American Hour.

Vol. II (i8g4). — American Lumber in Foreign Markets.

Vol. 12 {i8gs)' — Highways of Commerce.

Of these Special Consular Reports, Cotton Textiles in Foreign Countries, Files in
Spanish America, Malt and Beer in Spanish America, Streets and Highways in Foreign
Countries, Canals and Irrigation, and Fire and Building Regulations are exhausted and no
copies can be supplied by the Department.

Of the monthly Consular Reports, many numbers are exhausted or so reduced that the
Department is unable to accede to requests for copies. Of the publications of the Bureau
available for distribution, copies are mailed to applicants without charge. In view of the
scarcity of certain numbers, the Bureau will be grateful for the return of any copies of
the monthly or special reports which recipients do not care to retain. Upon notification
of willingness to return such copies, the Department will forward franking labels to be used
in lieu of postage in the United States, Canada, the Hawaiian Islands, and Mexico.

Persons receiving Consular Reports regularly, who change their addresses, should give
the old as well as the new address in notifying the Bureau of the fact.

In order to prevent confusion with other Department bureaus, all communications relating
to consular reports should be carefully addressed, ** Chief, Bureau of Statistics, Department of
State, Washington, U. S. A.'*



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CONTENXS.



Page.

I. — United States Trade with Japan Connelly i

II. — Progress and Present Condition of Japan .Jones 12

III. — American Manufactures in Japan Dun 15

IV. — Merchant Marine of Japan Merritt 17

V. — Commerce of Hakodate. Mclvor 19

VI. — Freight Rates Between China and the United %iKiYs..,Seymour 20

VII.— Foreign Trade of Siam ^ 2t

V Barrett

VIII. — Irrigation in Siam ) 30*

IX. — Currency Reform in Russia 1 2^-^

X. — Gold aud Paper Money in Russia \Karel 34

XI. — United States Gold Coin in Russia J 39

XII. — Bimetallism in Germany Moore 41

XIII. — Currency of Morocco Barclay 45

XIV. — Commerce of Spain in 1895 Bowen 47

XV. — Malaga's Trade with the United States Burke 49

XVI. — ^Trade of Almeria Fischer 52

XVII. — Spanish Fruits and Nuts Bawen 53

XVIII. — Peruvian Salt Monopoly McKenzie 55

XIX. — Sugar Industry of Peru .Jastremski 56

XX. — South Wales Tin-Plate Trade. Howells 67,72

XXI. — ^Transportation Tariff for A.merican Goods from Genoa to

Zurich Germain 77,79

XXII. — Fruit Trade of Sicily with the United States ^ 81

> Caughy

XXIII. — Lemons and Lemon Orchards in Messina i 82

XXIV. — The Poppy and Opium in Persia McDonald 83

XXV — Bean Raising in Ontario Bishop 86

XXVI. — Plum Culture in Bosnia Stephan 88

XXVII. — Potatoes as Food for Cattle and Sheep Bartholow 90

XXVIII. — ^American vs. European Interests in South America... Thompson 91

XXIX.— Hankow Tea Trade Child 93

XXX. — Production of Salt in Russia Aarel 95

XXXI. — New Railroad Station in Dresden Carroll 96

XXXII. — Electric Street Railways in Dresden Monaghan 97

XXXIII. — Proposed Margarin Law in Germany Moore 98

XXXIV. — Sault Ste. Marie and the "Soo" Canals McCall 100

XXXV. — Berlin's Industrial Exhibition 1 109

\de Kay

XXXVI. — Berlin's Trade and Industrial Fairs J no

I



' I de Kay
I

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II CONTEXTS.

Page.

XXXVII. — Cloak and Clothing Strike in Germany ,Judd 112

XXXVIII. — Immigration Contract >yith Venezuela Plumacher 114

XXXIX — Maritime Trade of Pacific Coast of South \^iiLK\CK...Jastremski 116

XL. — Tariff Changes in Antigua BartUman 117

XLI. — Sierra Leonk: Railroad, Boundary Commission, Trade,"]

Etc \ PooUy 124

XLII. — Work on the Sierra Leone Rail\yay J 125

XLIII. — Development of Southeast Africa Andmus 127

XLIV. — German-Bulgarian Trade Monaghan 129

3CLV. — Government Supervision of Insurance Companii-j^ in Ger-
many Moore 130

XLVI. — Nova Scotia Steel and the Canadian Bounty. Pendleton 131

XLVII. — A Russian View c)F Seal Hunting ") 132

XLVIII. — Russian Regulath>ns as to Imports of Pi^nts, Fruits, \ Karel

and Vegetable^ J 133

XLIX. — Notes (Exposition at Brussels in 1897 — Guatemala Exposition of
1897 — Model Village at the Swiss Exposition — Mozambique and
South African Trade — Insurance Companies in Japan — Growth of
Shanghai — Decline of American Kerosene Trade at Amoy — Wages
in India — Angora Goats and the Mohair Trade — Wages in the Brad-
ford Dyeing Trade — British Consular Officers and Trade — Bradford
Oiamber of Commerce and United States Consular Reports — Ameri-
can Leather Manufactures in England — Heating of Houses in Wur-
temberg — Austrian Regulations as to Imported Cattle — New Vessels
Between Palermo and Naples — Proposed Changes in Portuguese
Tariff — Tariff Changes in British Guiana — Banana Shipments from
Jamaica to England — Harbor Improvement at Hamilton, Bermuda —
Metallic Sand at Martinique — Exixirts Declared for the United
States — Exports from Cuba to the United States — Exports of Sugar
from Cuba — Roentgen-Rays and Infernal Machines — Fruit Shipments
from Palermo — Haitian -American Trade — Foreign Trade of Japan —
Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments — Dangerous

Aniidiphiheriiic Serum) 135

L. — Foreign Reports and Publications (Railway Enterprises in China —
Chinese Revenue from Salt — French Commerce with the Transvaal —
British Trade Returns — Jubilee Exhibition at Vienna — California
Oranges in London) 153



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RERORTS BY COUNTRIES.

Antigua : Page.

Tariff changes in , 1 17

ArsTRlA:

Regulations as to imported cattle in 145

AirSTRIA-HUNGARY :

Plum cvkure in lk)snia 88

Belgium :

Exposition at Brussels in 1897 135

Bermuda :

Harbor improvement at Hamilton 147

Buix^aria:

Trade with Germany 129

Canada :

Bean raising in Ontario 86

Bounty of, and NoVa Scotia steel 131

Sauk Ste. Marie and the "Soo" Canals ^ icx)

China:

liecline of American kerosene trade at Amoy ^ 140

Freight rates between the United States and China. 20

(irowih of Shanghai.. 139

Hankow tea trade 93

Cuba :

Exports from, to United States 148

Exjxflts of sugar from 149

Eng LAN D.-
American leather manufactures in 144

Angora goats and the mohair trade 141

Banana shipments from Jamaica to 147

Bradford Chamber of Conmierce and United States Consular Reports 144

British consular officers and trade of. 143

Roentgen rays and infernal machines I49

Wages in the Bradford dyeing trade 142

Germany :

Berlin's industrial exhibition 109

Beriin's trade and industrial fairs no

Bimetallism in Germany 41

Cloak and clothing strike in 112

Dangerous antidiphtheritic serum in 151

Electric street railways in Dresden 97

Government sup.ervision of insurance companies in 130

Heating of houses in Wurtembei^ 144

New railroad station in Dresden 96

Potatoes as food for cattle and sheep in 90

Proposed margarin law in 98

Trade with Bulgaria 129

III



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IV REPORTS BY COUNTRIES.

Guatemala: Pag^^

Exposition of 1897 136

Guiana (British):

Tariff changes in 147

Haiti :

United States trade with 150

India :

Wages in 140

Italy :

Fruit shipments from Palermo 150

Fruit trade of Sicily with the United States 81

Lemons and lemon orchards in Messina 82

New vessels between Palermo and Naples 146

Transportation tariff for American goods from Genoa to Zurich 77, 79

Japan :

American manufactures in 15

Commerce of Hakodate • 19

Foreign trade of. 150

Insurance companies in 139

Merchant marine of. 17

Progress and present condition of. 12

Trade of United States with i

Martinique:

Metallic sand at 148

Morocco:

Currency of. 45

Mozambique:

Trade of. 137

Nova Scotia:

Steel of, and the Canadian bounty 131

Persia :

The poppy and opium in 83

Peru:

Salt monopoly in 55

Sugar industry of. 56

Portugal:

Proposed changes in tariff of 146

Russia:

A view of seal hunting in 132

Currency reform in 33

Gold and paper money in 34

Production of salt in 9$

Regulations as to imports of plants, fruits, and vegetables 1 33

United States gold coin in 39

Si am:

Foreign trade of 21

Irrigation in 30

Sierra Leone:

Railroad, boundary commission, trade, etc 124

Work on the railway 125

South Africa:

Trade of. 137



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REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. V

St »UTH America: Page.

American vs. European interests in 91

Maritime trade of Pacific coast of. 116

Spain:

Q>mmerce of, in 1895 47

Fruits and nuts of.. 52

Malaga's trade with United States 49

Trade of Almeria^ 52

Switzerland:

Model village at the exposition in 136

Transportation tariff for American goods from Genoa to Zurich 77, 79

United States:

Exports declared for 148

Exports from Cuba to 148

Freight rates between China and United States 20

Fruit trade of Sicilywith 81

Gold coin in Russia. 39

Trade with Haiti 150

Trade with Japan 1

Venezuela:

Immigration contract with 114

Wales (South) :

Tin-plate trade of.. 67, 72

Wurtemberg:

Heating of houses in 144



F^ull cHrectlons /or t>lci.cllci.B the Consular Reports are siven. In No.

X31, pai^e 663.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as given by
the Director of the United States Mint and published by the Secretary of the
Treasury, in compliance with the first section of the act of March 3, 1873,
viz: "That the value of foreign coins, as expressed in the money of account
of the United States, shall be that of the pure metal of such coin of standard
value,*' and that **the value of the standard coins in circulation of the vari-
ous nations of the world shall be estimated annually by the Director of the
Mint, and be proclaimed on the ist day of January by the Secretary of
the Treasury."

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual statements
were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that issued on Jan-
uary I, 1874, and ending with that issued on January i, 1890. Since that
date, in compliance with the act of October i, 1890, these valuation state-
ments have been issued quarterly, beginning with the statement issued on
January i, 1891.

These estimates "are to be taken (by customs officers) in computing the
value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said currencies, imf)orted
into the United States."

The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to April i,
1894, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values in Ameri-
can money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in foreign coun-
tries, as given in consular and other reports. The series of years are given
so that computations may be made for each year in the proper money values
of such year. In hurried computations, the reductions of foreign currencies
into American currency, no matter for how many years, are too often made
on the bases of latest valuations. When it is taken into account that the ruble
of Russia, for instance, has fluctuated from 77.17 cents ini874t037.2 cents in
April, 1894, such computations are wholly misleading. All computations
of values, trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the " fluctuating-currency coun-
tries" should be made in the values of their currencies in each year up to
and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter.

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 1876,
1877, 1879, 1 88 1, and 1882 are omitted, these years being selected as show-
ing the least fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding
and following.

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided
into three classes, viz: (A) countries with fixed currencies, (B) countries
with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valuations of fluctuating cur-
rencies.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



VII



A. — Countries with fixed currencies.

The following official (United States Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include ' ' rates of exchange."
It follows, therefore, that when foreign money orders are required, the post-office authorities, to save the De-
partment from incurring loss in such transactions, add the rate of exchange to these valuations.



I.



Countries.



Argentine Republic*. ..

Austria- Hungary t

lielgium

Brazil



British North America
(except Newfound-
land)).

ChUe:.



Cuba....



Denmark^..

Egypt



Finland..
France...



Germany ,

Great Britain..



Greece..



Monetary unit.



Value in

terms of

United

States

gold.



Coins.



Gold and silver... Peso ' fo.96,5

I

Crown „..| .20,3

I

Franc ' .19,3

Milreis 1 .54,6

Dollar ' 1.00



Gold

Gold and silver...

Gold

.... do



"I



Gold and silver....' Peso I .91,



I



..do..



..do..



Gold ..
do..



do j

Gold and silver.... I



Gold

do



Crown j

Pound (100 pias- 1
lers). '

Mark



Franc.



Mark

Pound sterling 1



Gold and silver....! Drachma..



Haiti-..
Italy....



..do..
..do..



Gourde..
Lira



Liberia

Netherlands^ „..

Newfoun dlan d . .

Portugal

Spain



Gold

Gold and silver...,



Sweden and Norway...
Switzerland^



Gold

Gold

Gold and silver....



Gold

Gold and silver....



Turke>'

Venezuela.,



Gold

Gold and silver....



I



Dollar..
Florin...



Dollar..
Milreis .
Peseta..



Crown....
Franc



Piaster..
Bolivar..



.92,6

.26,8
4-94,3

.»9,3

•19,3

.23,8
4.86,6}



.96.5
•19,3

1.00
.40,2

I . ox , 4
1.08



.26,8
.19,3

.04,4

.19.3



Gold— Argentine ($4.82,4) and %
Arj^cntinc; silver— peso and di-
visions.

Gold — ao crowas (^.05,2) and 10
crowns.

Gold — 10 and 20 franc pieces ; sil-
ver— 3 francs.

Gold — 5, 10, and 20 milreis; sil-
ver — J4, I, and a milreis.



Gold— escudo ($1.82,4), doubloon
($4.56,1 >, and condor ($0 12,^);
, silver — peso and divisions.

Gold— doubloon ($5. ox, 7) ; silver —
peso.

Gold — 10 and ao crowns.

Gold — 10, ao, 50, and 100 piasters ;
, silver — i, 2, 10, and 20 piasters.
j Gold— 10 and 20 marks ($1.93 and
>3-85,9).

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 francs ;
I silver— 5 francs.
I Gold— 5, xo, and 20 marks.
I Gold — sovereign (pound sterling)
: and half sovereign.
. Gold — 5,xo,2o, 50, and 100 drach-
mas; silver — 5 drachmas.

Silver — gourde.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 lire;
I silver— 5 lire.

' Gold — xo florins; silver — J^,i,and

I z%, florins.

I Gold — fa ($2.02,7'.

' Gold — 1, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.

Gold — 25 pesetas; silver — 5 pese-
I tas.
j Gold— 10 and 20 cfowns.

Gold — 5, xo, 20, 50, and 100 francs;
silver — 5 francs.
' Gold — 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500
I piasters.

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 boli-
vars ; silver — 5 bolivars.



*In 1874 and X875 the gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. Its currency does not appear
in the statements again until 1883, when the double standard prevailed, and the peso attained a fixed value of
96.5 cents.

t On reference to the table of " fluctuating currencies," it will be seen that Austria had the silver standard
up to and including the quarter ending July i, 189a. The next quarter (October i ) inaugurated the gold stand-
ard (x^^note under table of " fluctuating currencies ").

I The gold standard prevailed in Chile until January i, 1890. The value of the peso has been the same
under both standards.

f The Neiheriands florin, as will be seen i.i the " fluctuating " table, became fixed in value (40.2 cents) in
1880



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VIII



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS.



B. — Countries withJluctutUing currencUs, i8j4r-^go»



Countries.



Standard. Monetary unit.



Auslria<Hungary*. Silver

Bolivia ' do.^



Central America... do...

China Silver

Colombia I do.„

Ecuador , do...



Egyplt ! Gold..„

India Silver

I (Gold

>P*" 1 Silver

Mexico ' do

Netherlands \ Gold and silver^

Peru Silver

Russia ' do

Tripoli^ ' do



Florin

Dollar until
1880; bolivi-
ano there-
after.

Peso

Haikwan tael....

Peso

do

Pound (100
piasters).

Rupee

\ Ven._



Dollar

Florin .„

Sol

Ruble

Mahbub of 30
piasters.



Value in terms of the United Sutes ^old dollar on
January 1—



1874.



50.47.6
.96,5



.96,5
1. 61
•96,5
.96.5



.45.8
f-99.7

x.o4,7j
.40.5
-9^,5
.77»i7|
•87,09



1875 1878. I 1880. I 1883.



I



1884.



50.45,3
•96,5



.91,8
1.61

.96,5
.91,8



.43,6
.99.7



•99.8
.38,5
.91,8
.73,4
•8a, 9



50.45,3 50.41,3
.96,5 I .83,6



91,8 I .83,6



.96,5

.91,8

4^97,4

■43,6
•99,7



•99,8
.38,5
.91,8

•73,4
.83,9



.83,6
.83,6



•39,7
•99,7



50.40,1 I 50.39,
.81,3 .8o,(



.90,9
.40,3
.83,6
•66,9
•74,8



•81, a 1
.8x,a
4.90

.38,6
.87,6



.80,6
.80,6
4.90

■38,3

.86,9
•87,5



.81,3 !



.80,6
•64,5

73.3 1 .7a,7



I



Standard.



Austria-Hungary*.
Bolivia



Monetary unit.



Value in terms of the United Sutes gold dollar on
January x —



1885.



Central America...

Colombia

Ecuador

EgJ'ptt-



Silver Florin... 5o«39,3



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 1 of 102)