United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 188-191 online

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or store.

The Mess Palast is to be used for about a fortnight in spring and autumn
for the actual yearly markets; but from appearances, it is likely that the pro-
moters expect it to become a large perpetual bazaar. It cost 2,500,000 marks
(about j6oo,ooo).



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1 1 2 CLOAK AND CLOTHING STRIKE IN GERMANY.

PROPOSED AMERICAN EXHIBIT.

I would respectfully call attention to the fact that the Mess Palast is some-
thing like the plan that I had the honor to suggest last year for the better
exhibition of American goods and food products in Berlin, namely, a per-
manent exhibition place. I did not, however, suggest that it should be placed
in the southeast of Berlm, but near the center and close to the hotels, where
it could hardly fail to be visited by all transient residents as well as the com-
mercial classes of Berlin. I would like to repeat that good judges consider
such a plan not only feasible, but necessary for the proper furtherance of
American exports, and stand ready to meet with advice and encouragement
any movement on the part of American manufacturers, exporters, or capi-
talists looking toward such a scheme. Unfortunately, the efforts that have
been made in this direction hitherto have proceeded from persons who knew
little of German needs and did not possess the confidence of German com-
mercial men. If done at all, it must be done on a large scale by well-known
firms and a fixed schedule of charges must be laid down, so that the Ameri-
can exporter shall know exactly what he risks when sending goods over for
exhibition.

BERLIN vs. LEIPSIC.

Whether the Mess Palast, with its American ideas, like reading rooms,
restaurants, lifts, and elevators, will prove a serious rival to the famous fairs
of Leipsic, is a question. It will be certain to help Berlin industries by
offering a place where buyers can see many manufactured objects conven-
iently in a short space of time, but notwithstanding the inconveniencies that
Leipsic presents to the crowds that come together on such occasions, she has
the advantage of habit and custom. A merchant naturally considers that if
he goes to Berlin, he may not meet the sellers or the buyers he knows and
has dealt with before, while if he goes to Leipsic, they will surely be there.
Therefore, the Mess Palast may not be to Berlin all that the promoters and
mercantile guilds of the Prussian capital hope it will prove. But its estab-
lishment has given an opportunity to many speakers to express resentment
at various rules, regulations, and laws, in force or projected, the object of
which is to interfere with freedom of business and trade.

CHARLES DK KAY,
Berlin, February 26 , i8g6. Consul- Gene rai.



CLOAK AND CLOTHING STRIKE IN GERMANY.

The very low prices paid for labor in Germany, esp>ecially among the
tailors and tailoresses, has been the cause of bringing about a strike, which
has involved fully 60,000 operatives. Government aid has been suggested to
bring about a better understanding, but the manufacturers having conceded
of their own accord a slight increase in the pay, the strike has been partly
suspended.



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CLOAK AND CLOTHING STRIKE IN GERMANY. II3

The strike involved all the operatives in Berlin, Leipsic, Breslau, and
other large cities, and had the sympathy of the press and public at large.
The Neue Freie Presse, of Vienna, a journal of undoubted veracity, gives
some details of the strike, which will be of interest to manufacturers of sim-
ilar lines and to the laboring classes in the United States.

It would seem that the so-called ''sweating*' system was the main cause
of the strike, whereby the ''sweater*' secures for himself 60 per cent of the
price that he obtains from the manufacturer for the making of a garment.
Women and children engaged in the work are the ones most subjected to this
system. New "sweaters" are recruited from the ranks of operatives, for,
just as soon as one gets work directly from the manufacturer and supplies
him with properly made garments, they (the operatives) are urged to hire
additional help so as to turn out more work, whereby they become "sweat-
ers" themselves.

Since 1870, Germany, and particularly Berlin, has become the principal
cloak-exporting market for the world. It is estimated that 36,000 operatives
are engaged in Berlin in this line; in 1893 ^"^ 1894, there were 164 export-
ing firms and 280 retail establishments, selling yearly about 150,000,000
marks' worth.

In Germany, as well as in other European countries, regulations require
the establishment and maintenance of certain institutions for the amelioration
of the conditions of laboring classes; they are the so-called "Kranken-
Cassen." Funds are provided for these institutions mainly by those who
employ labor, and a very small portion is contributed by the working people.
The employer is responsible for the collection of funds from the operatives.
Those insured get a weekly stipend should they, through sickness, be unable
to work. Funds thus collected are managed by Government officials in the
district where each factory is located.-

Female cloak makers are so poorly paid that they are unable to pay their
share toward the "Kranken-Casse," and are, consequently, debarred in case
of sickness from being assisted.

Herr Timm, a reliable authority, a member of the commission to investi-
gate the condition of the working people, reports that a woman of twenty
years' experience in the cloak-making business earned on an average in

1893, ^or forty-five working weeks, the sum of 417.85 marks (J100.28), and,
in 1894, for forty-nine working weeks, an experienced hand earned 537
marks (1^125). Thus, in 1893, ^^ experienced worker earned I2.34, and in

1894, $2.60 per week. The highest wages earned per week were $6.12; the
lowest, ^1.03. The exceptionally large earnings were reached in the height
of the season, when the wage worker labored at night and on Sundays.

A further complaint of the strikers was the great loss of time they sus-
tained when they brought the finished garment for inspection, often leaving
home at 8 o'clock in the morning and being unable to return until 3 to 4
in the afternoon, the delay being occasioned by having to wait in line until
it came their turn to hand in the garments for examination.
No. 188 8



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114 IMMIGRATION CONTRACT WITH VENEZUELA.

The wages mentioned are for experienced hands ; beginners get no pay and
must work four months for nothing; other trades require six months, appren-
tices being entitled to only 3 marks (72 cents) per week.

A fair worker, earning 6 marks (J 1.44) per week, manages her income as
follows: For her daily wants, she spends 15 cents, or I1.05 per week; for
her rent, 20 cents per week; total, J1.25; leaving her the sum of 19 cents
for all other necessaries, such as clothing, shoes, etc. It must further be taken
into consideration that the hand is laid off without any work for a few weeks
(out of season) during the year.

By a resolution of the Reichstag passed May 14, 1885, the Government
was empowered to institute inquiries and investigations relative to wages of
women employed in industrial pursuits, with the view of improving their
condition. The German Government has given this matter most careful
consideration, but, although eleven years have passed, nothing has been
accomplished to that end.

MAX JUDD,

Vienna, March /p, i8q6. Consul- GeneraL



IMMIGRATION CONTRACT WITH VENEZUELA.

I have the honor to inclose a copy and translation of a recent contract
concluded by the Government of Venezuela for the introduction of 60,000
immigrants. Should this enterprise prove successful, it will be the beginning
of vigorous efforts to attract a desirable class of immigrants, who are so much
needed for the development of the vast resources of this country.

E. H. PLUMACHER,
Maracaibo, April 4^ i8g6. Consul.



[Translation.]

Article i. Dr. Manuel Maria Galavis binds himself to bring, within the period of seven
years, 60,000 American, German, Swiss, Spanish, Irish, Italian, and Dutch immigrants, of both
sexes, all to be agriculturists and between the ages of lo and 60 years, with the object of
establishing colonies in the public lands of Venezuela. Upon the arrival at the ix)rt of dis-
embarkation of each expedition of immigrants, the contractor.will give notice thereof to the
Government, in order that the number may be verified. The contractor must present docu-
ments proving that the immigrants are agriculturists.

Art. 2. Dr. Galavis binds himself to furnish, on his own account, to the immigrants, for the
period of at least six months after commencing their agricultural labors, clothing, food, and
medicines. He will also furnish them with the nece:»sary shelter for one year, and with ihe
farming tools, animals, seeds, etc., that they may need for the first two years for the cultiva-
tion of the lands conceded by this contract.

Art. 3. The contracts that Dr. Galavis may celebrate with the immigrants must conform
to the immigration laws now in force.

Art. 4. The National Government cedes to Dr. Galavis 6 hectares* of pubUc land for
each immigrant that he brings to the country and who fills the conditions prescribed in article

*i hectare— 2.471 acres.



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IMMIGRATION CONTRACT WITH VENEZUELA. II5

I, and these lands will be cultivated according to the prescriptions of article 26 of the law of
August 26, 1894, respecting immigration. Dr. Galavis will select these lands at the place or
places which, in his judgment, may be most suitable for the purposes of colonization, and b
obliged to distribute the half among the colonist^, according to article 27 of the law already
cited-

Art. 5. The National Government will give to Dr. Galavis the property right to 3 hectares
of public land for each immigrant as indemnification for the expenses of transport.

Art. 6. Should there be necessity of railways for the transport of products, merchandise,
etc., the Government of the Republic binds itself to give the preference to Dr. Galavis or his
assigns for the construction of these works, with all the concessions permitted and granted by
law, previous arrangement being made with the Government respecting tariff rates and other
details of operation.

Art. 7. When Dr. Galavis shall have finished his explorations for the selection of the
lands where the colonies are to be established, he will give immediate notice thereof to the
Government, and should it be necessary to construct railways, their starting points must be
indicated, as well as their length, the zone of country through which they will pass, and their
terminals.

Art. 8. Exemption from all customs dues will be granted for the instruments, tools, ma-
chinery, wood, seeds, rails, and other accessories introduced for the development of the lands
and in benefit of their products, as well as the articles for the construction of the houses of the
colonists, warehouses, railways, and wharves, the prescriptions of the law to be complied with
in all cases.

Art. 9. Should it be necessary to establbh one or more steamship lines, the Government
will concede the free navigation of the rivers and interior lakes and of the seas adjacent to the
territory of the Republic, always in case Dr. Galavis complies with the prescriptions of law.

Art. 10. Dr. Galavis may freely work the mines and do business with the woods and
other products found in the ceded lands, complying in the case of mines and other natural
products with the requirements of the laws upon the subject.

Art. II. Dr. Galavis will be careful to arrange that in the various colonies that may be
established no one nationality among the colonists predominates as to number over those of the
others.

Art. 12. In each colony, the colonists shall have a right to elect their own police author-
ities in conformity with article 34 of the immigration law of August 26, 1894.

Art. 13. In each colony, there shall be a primary school for every 5,000 colonists. These
schools shall be maintained by Dr. Galavis during the first three years, counting from the
foundation of the colony.

Art. 14. In the contracts that Dr. Galavis may celebrate with the immigrants, there
shall be a clause by which they bind themselves not to leave the country within two years from
the time of their arrival, and the Government shall have the right to oblige them to remain
during said ]>eriod unless they should repay the expenses which they may have caused to be
incurred.

Art. 15. The National Government will extend to Dr. Galavis the property titles of the
6 hectares of land for each immigrant, according to the terms of the law now in force upon
the subject, and the titles of the lands for the indemnification referred to in article 5 of this
contract will be extended upon the arrival of the immigrant at the colony to which he may
be assigned.

Art. 16. The Government grants to Dr. Galavis the right of exemption from military
service of all the laborers, artisans, and employees of Venezuelan nationality engaged in the
service of the railways and wagon roads, as well as of the vessels, steamships, and wharves
pertaining to the enterprise.

Art. 1 7. Dr. Galavis binds himself to construct the necessary wharves for the embarka-
tion of passengers, products, and other merchandise at all suitable points where the necessi-
ties of the enterprise so demand. These wharves shall be subject, for public service, to a



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Il6 TRADE OF PACIFIC COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.

tariff which shall be fixed by agreement between the Government and the contracior and
shall be the property of the latter for a period of nmety years, counting from their readiness
for service. At the expiration of this period, they shall become the property of the nation,
without indemnification whatever, and must be delivered in a perfectly good condition.

Art. 1 8. The enterprise shall not be taxed by any class of national imposts.

Art. 19. Dr. Galavis bmds himself to commence the explorations and studies for the se-
lection of all or the greater part of the colony sites within the period of one year from the date
of approval of this contract by the National Congress, or within one year more at the latest if
allowed, and the first expedition of immigrants within one year, counting from the expiration
of the period granted for the exploration.

Art. 20. The company which may be formed according to this contract shall be incor[x)-
raled in Venezuela.

Art. 21. In case Dr. Galavis does not comply with his obligations specified in article 19
of ihis contract, he will indemnify the Government for the damages thus caused, said indem-
nification in no case to exceed 50,000 bolivars.

Art. 22. The National Government will release Dr. Galavis from the payment of reg-
istry fees for the registration and transfer of the present contract.

Art. 23. The present contract may be transferred to another person or company, previ-
ous notice to be given the Government and with its consent, but it may not be transferred to
a foreign government.

Art. 24. The doubts and controversies which may arise respecting the interpretation and
execution of this contract shall be resolved by the tribunals of the Republic, according to its
laws, but in no case can they give rise to international reclamations.



MARITIME TRADE OF PACIFIC COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA.

The maritime trade of the Pacific coast of South America gives evidences
of a steady and substantial growth. Lately, a telegram from Valparaiso
stated that the net earnings of the Compaftia Sud Americana de Vapores
(Chilean) for the six months ending December 31, 1895, amounted to 700,-
000 ]>esos (§638, 400). During the past year, this company has added a mag-
nificent new vessel (the Loo) to its fine fleet, and another, which is said to
be still finer, is on her way from England to reinforce the said fleet.

The Pacific Steam Navigation Company (English), which monopolizes
the coasting trade between Panama and Valparaiso in combination with the
former company and engages in the direct trade with Europe via the Straits
of Magellan, is having four steamships constructed, viz: One fast twin-
screw vessel of 5,000 tons for the direct mail service of Europe via the
Straits of Magellan, and another, a cargo vessel of 6,000 tons, having the latest
appliances for handling cargo, intended for the direct trade with Europe
(both vessels are being built by Harland cSc Wolfi*, Belfast) ; for the trade be-
tween Panama and Valparaiso, Laird & Co., of Greenock, are constructing
two superb steamships. Th^y will have the finest accommodations for pas-
sengers and the best appliances for handling cargoes.

These companies have an alternating weekly service between Valparaiso
and Panama and Valparaiso and Pimentel, Peru, and intermediate princi-
pal ports. This gives a semiweekly steamship service between the principal



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TARIFF CHANGES IN ANTIGUA.



117



ports of Peru and Chile and Valparaiso and a weekly service only with
Panama. Both lines collect freight and passengers for the steamships in the
direct trade between Valparaiso and Europe.

There are, besides, several lines of steamships navigating between Ham-
burg and Liverpool and the ports of this coast as far north as Central
America.

Obviously, these arrangements give a southward and Europeward trend
to the trade of this west coast. This must continue until the American
people utilize the shorter and inner routes from our Pacific seaboard and
across the Isthmus of Panama.

Meanwhile, it is gratifying to note that, in a late circular, Messrs. W. R.
Grace & Co., agents of the Merchants' Steamship Line, operating between
New York and this coast, announce the early completion of the CorocorOy
which is destined for this trade, and that this addition to their fleet will
enable them to have one departure monthly from New York for this coast.

LEON JASTREMSKI,

ConsuL

Callao, February 27, i8g6.



TARIFF CHANGES IN ANTIGUA.

I inclose herewith copies of the new customs tariff act of 1896, which
came into operation on the 2d instant, having been passed by the legislative
council on the 31st ultimo and approved by the governor of the Leeward
Islands on the ist of January.

By reference to No. 2, it appears that, from and after the commencement
of this act, an additional duty of 10 per cent of the amount of duty payable
under the provisions of said customs tariff act has been imposed upon all
goods mentioned in the schedule.

Changes in the specific import duties.



Article.



Aerated and mineral waters..

Alcoholic liquors:

Ale, beer, porter, stout, pciry, and cider.

In casks

Bitten of all kinds

Cordials, liqueurs, and sweetened spirits

Spirits, not sweetened, not exceeding the strength of
proof by Sykes's hydrometer and so in proportion
for any greater strength of proof-
Brandy

Gin

Rum..

Whisky

All other spirits

Wine, including all flavored or medicated wine



Unit.



Dozen reputed pints..

Dozen reputed quarts..

Gallon^

Dozen reputed pints..
Gallon



..do..
..do..
..do..
..do..



;^ioo value..



Tariff of

1896.



Tariff of
1893.



£. s. d.



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ii8



TARIFF CHANGES IN ANTIGUA.



Changes in the specific import duties — Continued.



Articles.



Animak :

Cattle

Horses

Asses

Mules

Bricks and tiles

Boots and shoes

Cement

Coal, coke, and patent fuel

Drugs :

Opium (bhang)..

Other „

Firearms and ammunition :

Guns

Pistols

Gunpowder and all explosives..

Grain:

Com and wheat

Oats

Pease, beans, barley, and calavances

Rice.-

Matches

Oil meal, linseed meal, cotton-seed meal, and similar prep-
arations.
Perfumery and perfumed spirits, hair oil, pomades, pow-
ders, toilet or fancy soaps, and similar toilet accessories.
Provisions :

Arrowroot, sago, tapioca, and all similar starches and
all preparations of the same.

Beef in pickle or tin..

Bread and biscuit, not fancy or in tin



Butter

Cheese..

Coffee, cocoa, and chocolate..

Com meal

Fish, dried or smoked

Pickled salmon



Pickled mackerel

Pickled herrings and other

Flour of wheat ,

Oatmeal or rye meal

Fraits and vegetables —

Canned, tinned, bottled, or otherwise preserved...

Almonds, currants, Ags, prunes, and raisins

Potatoes, except sweet potatoes...

Hams and bacon

Lard and its compounds

Macaroni and vermicellL

Oleomargarine

Pork in pickle or salt

Sausages and tongues„

Sugar —

Muscovado and melado

All other

Tea

Vinegar



Unit.



Tariff of
1896.



Each

do ,

„do

do

Thousand ..



Barrel..
Ton ,



Pound...



Elach

do

Pound......



Bushel ..„

do

do

xoo potmds..

Gross -

xoo pounds..

;^xoo value..



xoo pounds..



..do..



Barrel not exceeding

100 pounds.

xoo pounds

-do

.do

Barrel

Cwt

Barrel not exceeding

300 pounds.

Barrel-

do

do

-do



Reputed pound..

Pound

Barrel

xoo pounds

do

do

do

-do

-do



do..

-do..

Pound..
Galk>n..



Ad valorem,
o X 6



Ad valorem,



Tariff of




^892




£>


s.


d.


2


I


8




Free.





9


6





6


3


4^ per cent.





2








2


6


^\ per cent.


}■














4








A








6








8








X






4





xo





4





4


6


4





10











X


8


6









Ad valorem.
034



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TARIFF CHANGES IN ANTIGUA.
Changes in the specific import duties — Continued.



119



Articles.



Tallowr and oils :

Candles, except tallow

Candles, tallow„

Oils-
Castor and cod liver ...^

Olive

All other, not being rock oil..

Petroleum and its products



Unit.



Tar: AT of

1896.



Pound..
do..



Soap, other than toilet or fancy

Tobacco :

Cigars, except those known as Long Toms Pound..

Long Toms I do,

Cigarettes

Leaf—

If imported in packages containing not less than Pound..

500 pounds.
If imported in packages containing less than 500

pounds do..

Manufactured (including snuflf) ..do .

Wood:

Cedar and pine shingles^ ,

Cypress and wallaba shingles

Hoops.. „

Pitch pine



Gallon

-do

„do

Case of 8 imperial

gallons.
100 pounds



Oak, beech, elm, mahogany, hickory, and all hard
woods.

White pine and spruce

Slaves.- „

Shooks-

With heads-

All g^oods not hereinbefore specified and not exempted by
the act or Schedule C.



Thousand

do

Twelve hundred

xoo superficial feet of

I inch thick.
-do



-do

Thousand .
Each



;^ioo value..



Tariff of
1892.



C s. d.

Free.

016



084
052



R. M. BARTLEMAN

Consul,



Antigua, January 7, i8g6.



Text of thk New Tariff Law.

no. i of 1896. — an act to grant duties of customii ul'on certain imported goods
and to allow drawback.s upon certain exported goods.

Be it enacted by the governor and legislative council of Antigua as follows :
(i) This act may be cited as the ** customs tariff act, 1896."

(2) Th'is act shall come into operation on the 2d day of January, 1896.

(3) The acts specified in Schedule A to this act are hereby irepealed ; provided that such
repeal shall not affect any right acquired, liability incurred, or prosecution pending, or the
enforcing of any fine, penalty, forfeiture, or im prison nn en t incurred or imposed by or upon
any person prior to the commencement of this act.



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120 TARIFF CHANGES IN ANTIGUA.

(4) In this act, except where and so far as the subject-matter or the context otherwise re-
quires, the term '* goods" includes wares, merchandise, animab, articles, and things; and
the term " duty" means duty of customs.

(5) From and after the commencement of this act, the sums specified in Schedule B to
this act shall be paid into the treasury for the use of this presidency as duties of customs upon
goods of the respective classes, kinds, and descriptions mentioned in that schedule, when
imported into this presidency; and proportionate sums shall be so paid upon the importation
into this presidency of any greater or less quantities of such goods than those mentioned in
that schedule.

(6) (a) The following goods shall l)e admitted free of duty into this presidency, that is
to say, all samples, not of salable value, of manufactured and other goods, and all articles
intended for exhibition only, and not for sale, which the treasurer, in his discretion and subject
to any rules made as hereinafter mentioned, shall allow to be imported into this presidency
free of duty ; (d) it shall be lawful for the governor to make rules for the guidance of the



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