United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 188-191 online

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as American genuine hams, and warning the public against being deceived.
The importer said his business had been very much injured by the publica-
tion, and that every one in the trade knew it to be impossible to make hind
hams of pigs from fore hams of seals, and he was entirely at a loss to account
for such a publication. He further stated that the same report had been in
the German Butchers' Journal, which, according to him, makes war on all
foreign meat. He did not contradict the report at the time, he and his cus-
tomers taking it more as a joke than anything else, and not worth noticing.
But since attention had been given to it in official quarters, he felt obliged
to ask for proofs of this assertion in order to protect his trade, his firm being
the only wholesale dealers in American bacon in this neighborhood, and it
therefore appearing as if the publication had been specially directed against
them.

On the other hand, this firm asserts that- the reputation of American
meat has been made to suffer by a packing company in Kansas, who sent
over thousands of cans of spoiled goods. The reason the meat arrived in a
bad condition in Europe was carelessness in salting.

In this connection, it will be well to produce here an extract from a re-
cent article in the German Butchers' Journal on the subject of the importation



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GERMAN CRITICISMS OF AMERICAN MEATS. 1 83

of American meat into Germany. After stating that the import had vtry
considerably increased during the past year, it goes on to say that the total
import of meat into Germany amounted to 44,000,000 pounds from Jan-
uary until August, while during the whole of 1894, it was only 57,000,000
pounds, as against 78,500,000 pounds in 1886. The imports from the United
States, January to August, 1895, amounted to 24,750,000 pounds, and for
the whole of 1894 to 31,250,000 pounds. With this increase in the imports,
there is a proportionate decrease in the exports from Germany, the total
export having fallen off from 35,000,000 pounds in 1890 to 7,000,000
pounds in 1894. The decrease has taken place chiefly in the exports to
Elngland and France. The German Butchers' Journal, in commenting on
this, says :

From the above figures, it will be seen that nx>re than half of the meat imported comes
from the United States, a country where there is as good as no Government inspection of
meat. It will, however, also be seen that the exports, as compared with those of former
years, have fallen to a minimum. The commercial considerations called forth by this rap-
idly declining exportation are of no less importance than those from a sanitary point of
view, which are based on the fact that more than half of the imported meat is of doubtful
nature, since, according to German ideas, it b not in any way subjected to an official inspec-
tion.

What guaranty, we ask, is given that the millions of tins of corned beef, the countless
tons of raw salted beef, bacon, and lard, from a sanitary point of view, are wholesome and
nutritious ? Is it not well known that the horse-slaughterer * * * in Long Island City
for years worked up 6,000 unserviceable and diseased horses yearly into corned beef and for-
warded them to Antwerp ? Also the seal hams, trimmed after the manner of pig's hams and
specially prepared, come '* over here " in enormous quantities, and German money goes ** over
there,*' increasing from year to year in an alarming manner. It may be superfluous to say
another word about the adulteration of American lard, which is not controlled in any way at
all. The circumstance that Germany thus carelessly favors the importation of American meat
and lard also causes other countries to be less particular alx>ut importing these products, which
fact can only react unfavorably on the German exportation. Those in authority ought no
longer to shut their eyes to the fact that different measures must be adopted with regard to
these matters.

At the request of the Rhenish- Westphalian and the Hesse and Nassau
local societies, the German Butchers* Association has petitioned the Imperial
Diet not to increase the severity of the existing margarin law as far as it
concerns the manufacture of margarin with reference to the use of raw fat
produced from native animals slaughtered under strict control, as otherwise
the already very low price of fat would fall still further. A number of alter-
ations are further recommended for the protection of pure hog lard, as com-
pared with the so-called American hog lard and other mixtures of fat.

The Butchers* Journal further publishes a report by the imperial Ger-
man health bureau on the preparation and adulteration of hog lard in Amer-
ica, which, in all essential points, takes the part of the German butchers.
Some American lard manufacturers are reproached for using the fat of pigs
that have died from suffocation, cold, or other causes in the manufacture of
lard. It is claimed that in 1886, Chicago possessed only 237,000,000 pounds



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184 AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY.

of hog lard, while exporting 310,000,000 pounds, the excess exported being
thus 73,000,000 pounds. The Journal then says :

These 73,000,000 pounds of " hog lard " consist of ox tallow, sheep tallow, cotton-seed
oil, stearin, and other kinds of fat, especially vegetable oils, such as nut oil, sesame oil, palm-
nut oil and cocoanut fat. There were imported into Germany in 1894, 808,233 double hun-
dredweights of lard, lanolin, etc., worth $15,388,000, of which 735,936 double hundredweights,
worth $14,01 2,000, came from the United States, while the exports from Germany only amounted
to 4,127 double hundredweights, worth $147,560.

With all this tirade against American meat products, it is a wonder that
the German people even taste such food. It is also strange that in the press,
in agitating against the alleged unwholesomeness of these American products
and the money Germany sends to America for them, no mention is ever
made of the nearly $90,000,000 of German manufactures exported annually
to the United States. What would be said if the United States Government
were to question the purity of the large quantity of German wine imported ?

In a recent speech delivered in the Imperial German Diet by a National
Liberal on the complaints of the so-called Agrarians, the speaker said :

One word now on the restrictions against cattle importations. We have every interest to
combat all evil arising in this respect, but, on the other hand, we must maintain honorably
the obligations imposed upon us by our commercial treaties, and this lies not alone in the
interest of the industries, but most intensively in the interest of agriculture. When the demand
is made here fr6m a certain side to enforce stricter rules with respect to the importation of
cattle from the United States, the answer from the United States will be the prohibition
of the import of German sugar. (Hear, hear, from the Left.) Already the United States
Government has placed a direct extra tax on sugar, and agriculturists are realizing what it
means in this respect to proceed disloyally against a powerful country.

WM. D. WAMER,

Consul.
Cologne, February 8, i8g6.



AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY.

The rapid and successful development of the cotton-spinning industry in
the Southern States, during recent years, has made it evident that the time
must soon come when the spinners in the cotton-growing States will enter
into competition for the direct supply of weaving yarns to the European
manufacturing districts, which have hitherto drawn their supplies of such
material from England, Belgium, and Switzerland.

Cotton spinning, especially for the finer and higher grades of yarn, is
largely a question of climate, in which respect, the soft, humid atmosphere
oF Lancashire has given to the spinners of the Manchester district an impor-
tant advantage; but experience has proven that, with modern improvements
and methods, there are localities in the Southern States, within easy reach of
the cotton fields, where most grades of weaving yarns can be successfully
produced. It may therefore be of timely interest to examine briefly the



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AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY.



185



requirements of the cotton-yarn market in Germany and consider some of
the conditions upon which the successful introduction of American yarns in
this country will necessarily depend.

England exported, during the first eleven months of the present year,
234,561,900 pounds of cotton yarns, of which 41,737,100 pounds came to
Germany. A large part of this immense product was made from cotton
grown in the United States. The sizes and grades of these imported yarns
can not be definitely stated until the complete statistics are published at the
close of the year, but from the returns of 1894, a correct estimate of the re-
quirements of the German weavers may be obtained.

Germany imported in 1894, 611,227,760 pounds of raw cotton, of which
404,649,740 pounds came from the United States, 133,016,180 pounds from
the East Indies, and 26,230,820 pounds from Egypt.

The imports of raw cotton yarns during the same period were :



Singles:

o to 17

17 to 45

45 to 60

60 to 79

Above 79

Not specified..

Doubles :

o to 17..

»7 10 45

45 to 60

61 to 79

Above 79



Kinds.



Imported from —


England.


Switzerland.
Pounds.


Austria.


Pounds.

407,980

9» 539, 740

2,915,230

1.668,700

636, 160

561,000

71,380
9,181,360
3,113,830
1,765,730
3,564,100


Pounds.
39,600


3,079,560
973,280
3"4,38o
154.880
574,640









204,160








88,440









The above totals do not include the 1,324,180 pounds of bleached and
colored cotton yarns, both double and single, which were imported during
the same year, nine-tenths of which came from Great Britain and the remain-
der from Belgium and Switzerland.

The import duties on cotton yarns coming to Germany, the rates given
being per metric centner of 100 kilograms (220.46 pounds), are: Singles —
oto 17, I2.85; 17 to 45, I4.28; 45 to 60, $5.71; 60 to 79, $7.14; above
No. 79, 18.56. Doubles— under 17, I3.57; 17 to 45, ^4-995 45 to 60,
16.42; 60 to 79, ^7.85; above No. 79, J9.28.

The cotton- weaving industries of western Germany are concentrated
mainly in two regions — the Lower Rhine provinces and Westphalia, adja-
cent to Crefeld, Barmen, and Dusseldorf, and in southern Alsace and Baden,
which form the consular district of Freiburg. For the purposes of the pres-
ent report, there have been obtained, through the assistance of Mr. Charles
Jonas, United States consul at Crefeld, and Mr. J. H. Thieriot, United
Suites commercial agent at Freiburg, the following facts concerning the



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1 86 AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY.

numbers, quantity, marker values, etc., of yarns which are used in their re-
spective districts, together with a collection of samples of such yams in the
condition in which they are ordinarily imported. These samples are trans-
mitted as exhibits for the convenience of American spinners who may wish
to study more closely the yarns with which their own products will have to
compete in seeking a direct market in this country.*

CREFELD DISTRICT.

The cotton yarns consumed during the year 1894 m the manufactures of
Crefeld and the neighboring towns of Viersen, Siichteln, Diilken, and Lob-
berich, amounted to more than 3,000,000 pounds, most of which were im-
ported from England via Hull and Rotterdam, although Antwerp is also a
convenient port for the Lower Rhine region of Germany. The warp yarns
used there are two-ply (doubles), in most numbers from 40 to 200. Weft
yarns are either singles from No. 20 to 80, or doubles from 20 to 200.
English-spun yarns are received in bales of about 1,200 pounds, made up of
smaller packages or bundles of 10 pounds each, each bundle containing half
as many skeins as indicated by the size number of the yarn. For the short
transit between Manchester and Crefeld, waterproof coverings for the bales
are not required, though they might probably be essential for the long voyage
from the United States.

Freights from Hull via Rotterdam to Crefeld are about 60 cents per 100
kilograms (220.46 pounds) — a very low rate, which has been conceded in
deference to the large import and to favor as far as possible an important
German industry. The subjoined schedule shows the present market values
of raw cotton yarns at Crefeld, the prices given being per pound avoirdupois,
with I per cent to be added as commission, payment at ninety days from
date of invoice, free on board at Hull :

(i) Singles, carded — No. 40, 20 cents; No. 50, 22.5 cents; No. 60, 25
cents. Singles, combed — No. 40, 24 cents; No. 50, 26.05 cents; No. 60,
29 cents.

(2) Doubles, carded and gassed — No. 40, 24 cents; No. 50, 26 cents;
No. 60, 28 cents. Doubles, combed and gassed — No. 40, 31 cents; No. 50,
^^ cents; No. 60, 35.5 cents; No. 79, 45 cents; No. 100, 53 cents; No.
120, 61 cents.

These yarns are made principally from Egyptian cotton. The finer
doubles, made from sea-island cotton, cost as follows per pound: No. 120,
85 cents; No. 140, J1.09; and No. 160, J1.08 cents.

In general, the cotton yarns of lower numbers — from 20 to 30 — are spun
in Germany from American cotton, so that the principal yarn import- is of
the higher grades, for some of which Egyptian cotton is preferred as being
softer and of longer fiber than any except the sea-island cotton of the United
States.



*Sminples filed in Bureau of Statiitics, Depwtnieot of Stale.



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AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY. 1 87

FREIBURG DISTRICT.

The consular district of Freiburg comprises, as already stated, the south-
ern portions of Alsace and the Grand Duchy of Baden, wherein are concen-
trated, notably in the city and vicinity of Miilhausen, some of the most
important factories of Europe for the weaving of cr^tons and a great variety
of white and colored cotton fabrics. Formerly, Alsace imported large quan-
tities of weaving yarns, but during the past eight years the introduction of
improved machinery, which works with a waste of only 15 per cent, has
greatly increased the effectiveness of the local spinneries, which now supply
most of the warp yarns down to No. 17 and nearly all the wefts used in that
district, the coarser numbers being largely obtained from spinning mills in
other parts of Germany.

The yarns used in Alsace-Lorraine are numbered by the French metrical
system, which is based on the numl>er of thousand meters of thread contained
in a half kilogram. For example, half, a kilogram of No. 20 would contain
20,000 meters of yarn. The Alsatian factories spin and weave from Ameri-
can cotton warp yarns of all numbers from 10 to 40, No. 28 being the size
most extensively employed, with Nos. 33 and 34 next in demand. For those
from Nos. 36 to 40, Egyptian cotton has of late years replaced to a great
extent the American staple, and when prices in England are low, warp yarns
of Nos. 33 and 34 are occasionally imported in considerable quantities,
although, as already stated, the usual reliance of the Alsatian weavers is upon
neighboring spinners for their supplies of these numbers.

The weft yarns range from No. 6 to 50, those principally in demand
being Nos. 17, 20, 24, 30, 40, 50, and, especially, No. 37. For the numbers
above 37, Egyptian cotton is preferred to American, and weft yarns of Nos.
33t 34» ^^^ 44 are also imported when the state of the market there favors
such transactions. But the regular and principal importations to this dis-
trict are the finer numbers, from 40 to 120, both singles and doubles, and
made usually from Egyptian cotton.

Yarns for use in Alsace are put up, not in skeins, but wound on spools
(cops), which are light tubes that fit into the looms, and, when exhausted, are
returned to the spinner to be refilled. P2nglish warps arrive in large casks,
containing 600 to 650 pounds each ; wefts come in cases of about 220 pounds
net, no waterproof covering being required. Antwerp is the most conven-
ient port of first arrival for Alsace-Lorraine and Baden, although Rotterdam
offers at most times water transportation as far as Mannheim, and Bremen
and Hamburg would have certain advantages for imports from the United
States by reason of their regular and excellent connections with several lead-
ing ports of the United States. In either case, American exporters would
have to follow the English practice, which is to employ a shipping agent at
the port of entry to receive the goods, ship them to the interior, and pay
duties at the German frontier. Such imports are delivered in Alsace-Lor-
vaine free of all charges and on payments of forty-five days from date of in-
voice. Payments are in German currency, and settlements are made by a



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1 88 AMERICAN COTTON YARNS FOR GERMANY.

commission merchant through a local bank, usually the Bank of Mlllhausen.
Freight on yarns from Antwerp to Miilhausen is about 6 francs (J1.16) per
220 pounds, and the duties hereinbefore specified are paid at whatever point
on the frontier the goods enter Germany.

The present outlook for the cotton-weaving industry in the Freiburg dis-
trict is highly promising, most of the factories having contracts that will
keep them employed until March, and some even as late as June. At Chem-
nitz, Barmen, Aix la Chapelle, and in the Kingdom of Wiirtemberg, there
are also extensive cotton-weaving interests, which, in addition to those in
the Crefeld and Freiburg districts, consume the immense imoort of English-
spun yarns that are received from year to year.

HOW TO WIN THE TRADE.

Such, in general terms, is the field which is open to the enterprise and
energy of American cotton spinners. To enter it successfully, will be no
easy task, for European manufacturers are, as a class, conservative and prone
to continue in paths that they have long and successfully followed. Germany
is an ambitious and aggressive manufacturing nation, and, upon principle,
imports as little as possible of anything that can be made at home. But
Germany grows no cotton, and in the present condition of her spinning in-
dustry, must continue to import most of her supply of the finer grades of
weaving yarns. The real competition in this market is, therefore, with
Great Britain, which has the advantages not only of long experience- and
an ideal climate for such purposes, but cheap labor and highly improved
machinery.

But it would seem that in a branch of manufacture which involves to so
great a degree as cotton spinning the use of automatic machinery, American
ingenuity and capacity for effective organization ought to count for some-
thing, particularly when, as in the present case, the spinning frame is set up
almost within sight of the fields in which the raw material is grown. Whether
the spinning industry of our Southern States has yet reached a point of de-
velopment sufficiently advanced to enter the lists successfully in competition
with Lancashire and Switzerland, may possibly be open to question, but it
will assuredly soon reach such a stage, and when it does, the work of open-
ing a direct outlet for its surplus product should be undertaken by the delib-
erate, persistent methods which the German exporters have found so effective
in other lines of trade.

Capable and experienced agents, familiar with the German language,
should be sent with samples of the best spinning yarns that can be produced
in the United States to visit the cotton-weaving districts of Germany, study
the wants of each factory, submit their samples to trial, master the existing
conditions of purchase and payment, and secure at each manufacturing center
an energetic, trustworthy commission merchant who will undertake the sale
and delivery of American yarns. In every such district, will be found a
United States consular officer ready and willing to go about with the travel-



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THE GERMAN CARPET TRADE. 1 89

ing agent, introduce him to merchants, manufacturers, and boards of trade,
and to assist him in obtaining any desired information.

It will be understood at the outset that, in the effort to establish such a
trade, the usual American condition of immediate payment on shipment of
goods, which has been found so advantageous in domestic commerce, will
have to be abandoned, and that all transactions must be conducted on the
terms and stipulations that have long been established here. If the attempt
shall be made to compete with English spinners in a field which they now so
largely control, it will be necessary not only to offer yarns equal in all respects
to theirs, but at the same prices and under similar conditions of delivery and
payment.

To do all this successfully, will require energetic and persistent effort, but
the result, if successful, will more than justify any sacrifice that such effort
may involve.

CONCLUSION.

This topic has been suggested by inquiries which I have received from
cotton spinners in the Southern States.

As additional information of presumable interest to American spinners,
I add the following names of commission merchants who are prepared to
open correspondence with American exporters and undertake the presenta-
tion and sale of spinning yarns under conditions to be mutually agreed upon :
Camille Perrin, Dornach, in Alsace; Edward Kauffman-Fehr, Freiburg,
Baden; P. Kniiffermann, J. Clauss, and W. Bruning, Crefeld.

FRANK H. MASON,

Frankfort, December ig, i8gj. Consul- General.



THE GERMAN CARPET TRADE.

According to the report of the directors of the Berlin Board of Trade,
simultaneously with an excessive increase of carpet factories there occurred
last year a further fall of prices, which are now, especially for inferior sorts,
as low as would seem possible. The qualities have been reduced in the same
degree, and the cheap Axminster carpet now offered to the public is so poor
that one can only console himself with the hope that the lowest limit has
been reached and that the time for better goods will soon return.

The consumption in carpets is unmistakably increasing. The old warp-
printing factories, whose products have been long widely known as of good
quality, have had, as far as can be seen, a normal business year. Changes
in prices for this class of carpets have not been necessary, and only through
the very unfortunate habit of selling goods in stock as "job lots" have these
factories also suffered.

The branch of hand-knitted carpets has experienced, in the last year, a
considerable alteration, through the establishment of a joint-stock company,
embracing the three most important manufactories. From this union, a sav-
ing of expense on sales and samples is expected, as well as advantages from



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igO WALL PAPER IN GERMANY.

referring orders for the various qualities to those departments of the business
best equipped to meet the wants of the customer.

The sale of the better kinds of knitted carpets is slowly increasing, and
the products of the factories are generally good. Inferior qualities are not,
by any means, so well received as is the case with the cheap chenille carpets,
which come into competition with the better Brussels and warp-printed car-
pets. The manufactories engaged in hand-knitting work are greatly benefited
by this.

The business in oriental carpets has become quite extensive. Larger
quantities are coming continually from Persia. The dealers, who now know
the German market, supply sizes and patterns to suit the German taste.
Prices have fallen so low that competition with German work must become
more and more perceptible, which would be the case still more, if the organ-
ization of this trade could be made more reliable. The trade is carried on
mostly via Constantinople, where, at times, very large and valuable quanti-
ties of carpets are stored* Siinre the United States has given its attention
to oriental carpets, very considerable quantities, chiefly of the better sort,
have gone to that country.

THEODORE M. STEPHAN,

ConsuL

Annaberg, November ./, i8gS'



WALL PAPER IN GERMANY.

The last report of the directors of the Berlin Chamber of Commerce
contains the following statements :

The German wall-paper manufacture has suffered severely from the constantly increasing
use of English wall paper. It is not to be denied that we have at present a decided prefer-
ence for the English taste, not only in wall papers, but also in all branches of decoration.
We have repeatedly called attention to the superiority of the English wall paper to the Ger-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 27 of 102)