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man, and must, unfortunately, again express our opinion that the elegance of design and col-
oring of English wall paper has not, as yet, been equaled in Germany. This is explained
by the fact that, in England, artists occupy themselves with the designing of patterns for wall
papers, which, unfortunately for our industry, is not the case in Germany. We have, with
few exceptions, only mechanically working designers, who, moreover, produce several similar
patterns from a single good idea. Thus, there is too little variety in the German assortments.
Strange to say, the artistic English desi^^ns have hitherto met with a better reception m Ger-
many than in England itself, where the wall papers designed from French patterns are still
preferred.

French wall paper has been almost entirely driven out of Germany. Scarcely any papers
of the better quality are now bought from France, and very few of the cheaper sort. France
has, of late years, introduced few novelties, and only these are purchased at present. Eng-
land has decidedly outstripped France, and this revolution must be welcomed as an improve-
ment of taste in general.

American wall paper has also made an expedition to Germany this year, and thb time,
with a success hitherto unexampled. The renewed attempt of the Americans to establish
themselves in Germany proceeds from th^ National Wall Paper Company, in New York, an



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LEAD-PENCIL MANUFACTURE IN GERMANY. I9I

association of the more important American wall-p>aper manufacturers, which has sent a rep-
resentative to Europe with a very large assortment. This assortment was well received, on
account of the existing liking for bright-colored and lightly designed articles and owing to the
moderate prices. Unfortunately, however, after delivery, signs appeared in many cases that
the papers were not freshly printed, and, in some instances, that they had even turned yellow.
The unfavorable impression made by these goods in Germany will not easily be forgotten
when offers are again made.

The Japanese leather wall paper has maintained the ground it has long held, and still
remains an unsurpassed article of decoration for the most elegant interiors.

The Lincrusta wall paper serves practical purposes and maintains its position, especially
as panel paper, beyond all others. The Anaglypta paper can not compete with it lo any great
extent. A new washable relief paper, which was to rival the Lincrusta iMiper, has proved to
be utterly useless, and can not be seriously taken into consideration.

To conclude, we will mention the patent duplex wall paper, a novelty worth speaking of
only in order to show what ])aUry means are employed to give wall paper a fine appearance.
The paper consists of two light papers, a colored and a half-white one, which are pressed
together. The pattern is then pressed upon the colored side, and a paper of this kind gives
even the connoisseur the impression, at first, of a first-class duplex paper. This illusion,
however, disappears when the paper is affixed.

THEODORE M. STEPHAN,

ConsuL
Annaberg, January ji, i8g6.



LEAD-PENCIL MANUFACTURE IN GERMANY.

In a lecture recently given before the Nuremberg Association for Railway
Matters, by Mr. Ernst Faber, of the Johann Faber I^ad Pencil Company,
Limited, the lecturer made some interesting statements regarding the Ger-
man lead-pencil trade, which deserve to be brought to the attention of
American manufacturers. According to Mr. Faber, there exist in Bavaria
twenty-six lead- pencil factories; in Nuremberg alone, twenty-three, large and
small, which produce at present, on an average, 30,000 gross, or 4,320,000,
lead pencils and crayons per week, employing from 9,000 to 10,000 work-
men. This does not include those employed in the auxiliary branches of
the industry — makers of fancy i)encils and boxes, turners, etc. The factory
of Johann Faber alone produces on an average 8,000 gross, or i ,520,000, lead
pencils and crayons per week. We must not conceal the fact that this branch
of industry has been maintained at the height it has reached with great dif-
ficulty.

The extraordinary customs duties which were laid on i)encils and similar
articles by foreign countries and which placed great difficulties in the way
of export, are greatly responsible for this. The import duty in the United
States still amounts to 50 per cent of the value; the import of cheap and
medium pencils has been made simply impossible. Behind this extraordinary
protective tariff, a very large lead-pencil industry was enabled to develop
itself, which is represented, at present, by several important factories, and
produces almost as many lead pencils as all Ihe Bavarian factories together.



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192 BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION IN GERMANY.

The valuable cedar wood, says Mr. Faber, is wasted in a barbarous man-
ner in the United States; whole districts of the finest forest land have been
cleared, but never replanted, so that we obtain always more rarely really good
cedar wood, and the blocks which we are now obliged to use supply only half
as many pencils as those formerly used. Not only does the cost of production
of the pencils rise considerably in consequence of the bad wood, but the
American industry pours upon the market its surplus produce of thousands
of gross below cost price, and so depresses the prices in countries which
impose only low duties or none at all.

The consequence of this is that the German manufacturers can only
compete at a loss, and that the trade in cheap markets, such as India, Mexico,
Japan, Australia, etc., is as good as lost. The English market has been
literally swamped of late years with cheap American pencils at ridiculously
low prices. The conditions in other countries are almost as unfavorable to
the German export trade as in the United States. In Italy, the duty amounts
to 100 lire per 100 kilograms (J19.30 per 220.46 pounds). France and
Russia, especially, impose immense duties ; for instance, pencils for France
pay 180 and 300 francs (J34.74 and I57.90) per 100 kilograms (220.46
pounds); for Russia, 35 kopecks (27 cents) in gold, per pound. Naturally,
protected by these duties, a number of pencil factories have been established
with success in Russia. In France, the use of German pencils is forbidden
for all schools, public boards, authorities, railways, etc. If we further con-
sider the unfavorable condition of trade in Spain, Italy, Greece, and the
serious state of things in South America, we must confess that the position
of the German pencil industry is not too brilliant. By means of the new
commercial treaty with Russia, a slight ray of light has fallen upon the con-
dition of the trade; for the market of that large Empire, whose trade
connections extend to Persia, China, and the East Indies, completely closed
during the tariff war of 1893, has been again opened.

THEODORE M. STEPHAN,

Consul.

Annaberg, September 2jy i8gs.



BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION IN GERMANY.
PROVINCE OF SILESIA.

The province of Silesia, being one of the districts in Germany where the
sugar beet is grown and sugar manufactured therefrom, it may prove inter-
esting to learn particulars as to the state of the sugar market, the quantities
produced and consumed, and other details relating to that important in-
dustry.

The Silesian soil is in some jwirts particularly well adapted to the growth
of the beet, and large tracts of land are consequently under cultivation.



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BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION IN GERMANY. 1 93

There are fifty-seven sugar mills at work in this district, employing a vast
number of laborers, male and female, who are to be had for little money, as
country labor is very cheap in Germany.

Steam engines to the number of 717, of 12,913 horse^jower, are at the
service of the millers, and 161,945 tons of beets were cultivated by the mill
owners themselves and 1,029,201 tons were delivered to the mills by the
shareholders or other growers with whom contracts had been made.

The duty paid on sugar amounted to 13,537,511 marks (J3, 22 1,928).

Last year's season was not a satisfactory one for the millers and others
who set their hopes upon a rise in the price of sugar, as, excepting for one
or two short intervals, prices declined throughout the year, the first product
losing from 4.20 to 4.45 marks and later products from 3.80 to 3.85 marks,
this being the lowest level it had reached for years, and many of the millers
had to sell their product at a heavy loss, in order to dispose of their stock.
In January, February, and March, the decline was not felt very much on
account of the inland refineries buying largely to cover their demand. In
April, however, the fact of the large increase of the sugar-beet cultivation
caused a fall in price of 1.25 marks. This low quotation was taken advan-
tage of by foreign and inland buyers, but as large quantities were available
and the millers had to sell, the price did not improve. The month of June
brought a rise of i mark, due to the negotiations taking place with the
Government of the United States In regard to the sugar tariff. Large orders
were given and great hopes were entertained, but still the market remained
dull to the end of the season.

The new sugar came out toward the middle of September and was quoted
at 12.30 marks per 50 kilograms (J 2. 93 per 110.23 pounds), basis 88 per cent.
This figure was not maintained very long, however, on account of the supply
increasing daily.

It soon became apparent that the sugar production of Europe was far
ahead of that of the preceding year, and inland buyers retired from the
market after buying what they required for immediate wants, while foreign
agents bought only moderate quantities.

The price went steadily back up to the closj of the year. At the end of
December, the first product, basis 88 per cent, sold at 8.65 to 8.75 marks
($2.06 to |2.o8), and later products could be had for from 5.80 to 6.55
marks (I1.38 to I1.56) per 50 kilograms (110.23 pounds).

BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION IN GERMANY.

The total beet-sugar production of Germany amounted, in 1894-95, to
37,400,000 cwts. ; in 1893-94, to 27,600,000 cwts. ; and in 1892-93, to 24,-
500,000 cwts. During the season of 1893-94, the consumption of sugar
beets in Germany increased from 196,000,000 cwts. to 213,000,000 cwts.,
whereas in this district a falling off from 26,700,000 cwts. to 23,800,000
cwts. was noticed.

No. 189 3.



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194



BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION IN GERMANY.



The following figures show the amount of sugar beets consumed in the
German Empire and in the province of Silesia during the term 1884-1894:



Year.



Empire.



I Cwts.^
■^3-94 1 212,867,756

1891-93 ' 189,760,044



1890-91

1889-90

1888-89

1887-88

J886-87

i88s-8«u...



313,466,388
»96»45».yH

"»,a79,2o6

166,133,434
141,406,336
208,053,766



Silesia.


Silesia's share
in toial.


Cwis*


Per cent.


23,816,544


11.19


26,709,420


136.


21,657,382


M.4»


28»»»^l^


t3.^


a6»3»3»«»


13- 4


»,493,Mo


"■93


16,111,158


13. 61


2a, > 53. 750


'3- 33


17,834,624


12.61


37,103,512


13 02



* 110.23 pounds.



Quantity of sugar produced and quantity of beets required for each cwt.



Year.



1893-94..
1899-93^.
1891-93...
1890-91..,
1889-90...
1888-89..,
1887-88..,
1886-87...
1885-86...
1884-85..





Beets re-


Susar pro-
duced.


quired for


each cwi. of




sugar.


Cxvts.


Crvts.


27,633,018


7.72


24,514,690


8.01


23,878,674


7.91


26,639,300


7-95


25,292,140


7.78


19,812,080


7-97


19,166,060


7.25


20, 259, 360


8.31


16,762,620


8.43


23,096,320


9.01



Beet-sugar production of Europe,



Countries.



Germany.

Austria

France

Russia

Belgium.

Holland

Other countries...



Toul..



Germany's share in European production..



1893-94.

Tons.
1,381,603
841,809

579,»"
660,000
235,000
75,015
zii,ooo



3,883,538



Per cent.
35.6



1892-93.

Tons.
',225,331
803, 577
588,838
455,000
180,000
68,070
97,000



1891-93.



Tons.
1,198,156
786,566
650,377
550,994
>8o,377
46,815
88,635

3,416,816 ' 3,501,920



Per ant. i
35.9



P^r cent.
34.2



1890-91.



Tons.
1, 33 », 965
778,473
694,037
54*, 162
205,623

76,635
80,000



3,7*0,895

Per cent.
35-9



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GERMAN BEET-SUGAR RETURNS.

Europetin consumption of beet sugar.



Year.



» 893-94"-
1892-93..
1891-93....



Quantity.



Tons.
3*227,734
3»o^»635
3.240,357



Year.



1890-91.
1889-90,



195



Quantity.

Tons.
3,«58,4>8
3.095,834
2,720,849



The consumption by countries in 1894 was: Germany, 623,296 tons;
Austria, 325,002 tons; France, 487,847 tons; Holland, 52,715 tons; Great
Britain, 1,483,874 tons; other countries, 255,000 tons.

Consumption of beet sugar per capita.



Germany
Austria...
France....
Holland ..
England..



1893-94-


1892-93.


Z891-92.


Kilograms.


Kilograms.' Kilograms


za. 13


ZO.39


ZO.69


7-52


7.81


7.a8


Z2.6z


Z2.64


Z3.82


11.59


10.39


ZZ.92


38.46


35-"


36.62



Average price for sugar ^ basis 88 per centy per cwt. {iio.2j pounds).



Year.



»893-94.-
1893-93...
189Z-92...



Price.



Year.



1890-9Z.

Kilograms.
10.85
6.80
13.08
«2-57
35- 7«



Price.



Marks.
12-75
14.35
»3-77



Z890-9Z... I 12.97



Breslau, December 14, ^^95-



1889-90.
Z888-89.

z 88 7-88.
ZS86-87.



Marks.
1Z.82
Z4.87
zS.22
15.67



FREDERICK OPP,

Consul,



GERMAN BEET-SUGAR RETURNS.

The "campaign** year 1894-95 has been a disastrous one for the German
beet-sugar industry, although the crop was enormous. In consequence of
the low prices of grain, all available ground had been turned into beet fields,
and this fact, in connection with an enormous crop both in Germany and
all other European sugar-producing countries, caused overproduction, which
seriously threatened the very existence of the industry. Those farmers who
were not stockholders in the various raw-sugar factories, and had made con-
tracts for their crop, escaped the disaster, but the factories, which had to
take large quantities of beets at comparatively high figures stipulated in ad-
vance, suffered immensely when the crash in sugar came ; and the fact that
each factory represents a combination of so many stockholders, or farmers,
thus dividing the loss, accounts for the small number of factories which had
to succumb.



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196 GERMAN BEET-SUGAR RETURNS

Sowing was begun very early, but drought and high winds affected the
growth of the young plants unfavorably during April and May. Copious
rains from June to October, however, repaired all damage done, and ripened
one of the biggest croj^s ever known. The price of raw sugar dropped to
8.50 marks ($2.02) per cwt., and reached an average of 9.55 marks ($2.27),*
a figure at which sugar can not be raised profitably even in Germany, where
this industry is better develo|)ed and more skillfully managed than in any
other country.

The following figures are taken from the publications of the imperial sta-
tistical bureau and Licht*s reports :

The area under cultivation was 441,441 hectares (1,090,801 acres),
against 386,481 hectares (954,995 acres) in 1893-94, an increase of 14.22
l)er cent, yielding 32.9 tons (each of 2,204.6 pounds) per hectare, against
27.5 tons in 1893-94. Of the beets, 41,64 i>er cent were grown by the fac-
tories and 58.36 per cent bought, against 45.58 per cent grown and 54.42
per cent bought in 1893-94. The number of factories remained 405, five
factories having been closed, but the same number of new ones started. The
beet crop was 3,876,678 tons in excess of 1893-94, or about 36.42 i)er cent,
being 14,521,029 tons, against 10,644,351 tons in 1893-94. The average
time to work up the crop was ninety-nine days, against seventy-eight days in
1893-94. The percentage of sugar was 12.2, against 12.41 in 1893-94;
it therefore required 8.2 cwts. of beets to manufacture i cwt. of raw sugar,
against 8.06 cwts. in 1893-94. One hectare yielded 4.16 tons of raw
sugar, against 3.56 tons in 1893-94. The total yield of raw sugar in Ger-
many was 1,844,586 tons, against 1,381,603 tons in 1893-94, an increase of
33.51 per cent. The export increased to 1,073,590 tons, from 748,447 tons
in 1893-94. The home consumption increased but slightly — from 603,828
tons in 1893-94 to 623,874 tons. The tax on sugar, less export bounty,
yielded to the Government 85,714,000 marks ($20,399,932), against 82,231,-
000 marks ($19,570,978) in 1893-94, and was 1.65 marks (39.27 cents) per
head of population, against 1.60 marks (38.08 cents) in 1893-94. The aver-
age consumption of sugar \^r head of population was 10.7 kilograms (23.59
pounds), against 10. i kilograms (22.26 pounds) in 1S93-94. The total
raw-sugar production of Europe was 4,792,530 tons, against 3,883,538 tons

in 1893-94.

JULIUS MUTH,

Consu/.
Magdeburg, Januaty 10, i8g6.



The Deutsche Zuckerindustrie (German Sugar Industry), in a special
supplement, deals with the results of the beet-sugar ** campaign" which
closed on the 31st of July. Although the official figures, which were pub-
lished on the 24th of August, are not final, and may be subject to slight



•Against ia.75 marks (^3.03^) in 1893-94 per cwt. of 1x0.23 pounds.

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GERMAN BEET-SUGAR RETURNS. 1 97

corrections, they are near enough to permit a practical consideration of the
subject, and as no other country is even approximately equal in importance
as regards influence on the world's sugar market, it will be useful to make a
few extracts.

First, the production of the campaign year (August, 1894, to July, 1895)
is given at 1,844,586 metric tons, against 1,381,603 metric tons in the previ-
ous season. The figures represent raw-sugar equivalent, and it will be seen
that the excess of the season just closed over the preceding one is 462,983
tons, or about half the estimated excess of the whole European beet-sugar
crop over the last campaign.

The excess, in the case of Germany, is due to the increased area under
cultivation, viz, 441,441 hectares (1,090,801 acres), against 386,481 hectares
(954,995 acres), and also to the greater cultural yields of beets, viz, about ^^
metric tons, against 27^ metric tons, per hectare, the two factors resulting
in an excess in the quantity of beets worked up amounting to 3,881,208
metric tons, or 36.57 per cent. The increase of production was, however,
not proportionately so great, owing to the yield of 1894-95 being only about
12.22 j)er cent, against 12.36 per cent in 1893-94, and, again, a less quantity
of molasses was converted into sugar.

The production of 1894-95 was the largest yet attained in Germany, and
if great and rapid development could be taken of itself as a token of pros-
perity, this would be something to boast of, but it is only too well known
that it is not so, for the large production was an overproduction, which took
place at the same time in almost all beet-sugar-producing countries, and has
brought about a crisis, with regard to which we can not yet see the results.

As regards the disposal of the production of 1894-95, there have been
1,044,963 metric tons exported, against 727,056 metric tons in the preceding
year, an increase of 317,797 metric tons, which may be considered as a com-
paratively favorable result. But in this respect, also, '*all is not gold that
glitters,'* for it is well known that a large f)ortion of this increase remains
at Hamburg, the immense deposit lying there forming an incubus upon the
market. On the 31st of July, this stock, comjiared with that of the corre-
sponding period of 1894, was, although somewhat decreased, still 120,000
tons in excess.

The consumption, as compared with that of the preceding year, has in-
creased, having reached (in raw-sugar equivalent) 618,656 metric tons, /. <?.,
44,623 tons over 1893-94, or an increase of 7.77 per cent, while the pro-
duction has increased by 33.85 per cent. The average prices for 92 per
cent sugar were, in 1893-94, 24.98 marks (^5.94}^), and, in 1894-95, 20.88
marks (I4.97) per metric centner of 22o}4 pounds. Stocks at the end of
July were: In 1895, 321,040 metric tons; 1894, 148,035 metric tons; differ-
ence, 173,005 metric tons.

The surplus over necessary requirements was, at the end of 1893-94, con-
sidered to be 50,000 tons, so that the excess over requirements, that is, over
the normal stock considered necessary, had, at the end of the campaign



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igS INTERNATIONAL CONFEREKCJE ON SUGAR feOUNTlfiS.

now closed, reached the high figure of about 223,300 tons. Adding the
excess stock in Hamburg (120,000 tons), we find that Germany entered on
the new season, beginning the ist of August, 1895, with a total surplus stock
of about 340,000 tons — a quantity more than sufficient to meet any deficiency
from diminished sowings, even if we were to assume that the crop will be
equal in quality to that of the season just closed, which is very unlikely.

AUSTRIAN SUGAR.

As regards the Austrian production, the excess over the preceding cam-
paign is given by the Deutsche Zuckerindustrie as 210,539 metric tons, equal
to 25 per cent. The export in 1894-95 was, however, less than in 1893-94,
many of the manufacturers preferring t(5 store their sugar rather than accept
the low prices lately prevailing. The decrease was about 39,000 tons in
raw-sugar equivalent. The total consumption during the season just closed
was 51,698 tons greater than in 1893-94. The stocks in the hands of mer-
chants are believed, however, to be relatively larger than usual. The Aus-
trian stock at the commencement of the new campaign of 1895-96 is, like
the German, a heavy one, amounting on the 1st of August last, exclusive of
Austrian sugar lying at Hamburg, to 336,525 metric tons, against 109,275
metric tons in 1894, an excess difference of 227,250 metric tons.

H. F. MERRITT,

ConsuL

Barmen, Noi^ember 2j, iSgs-



INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SUGAR BOUNTIES.

The present low price of sugar, which has not been reached without dis-
astrous consequences to the cane-sugar producers of the West Indies and
Brazil, is the result of the adoption of the bounty system by European na-
tions that were ambitious to establish a domestic sugar industry. Having
begun by paying a bounty, the different governments had to keep the thing
going, as, although the industry grew to enormous proportions, the benefi-
ciaries of the bounty declared that ruin awaited them if it were withdrawn.

It is announced, as a consequence of the recent conferences at Vienna
between Germany and Austria, that those two powers are about to invite
France to summon an international conference on the subject of sugar boun-
ties, to meet at Paris. The French special press is inclined to op|X)se this
proposal in the fancied interests of its constituents. The Germans say that
the present system is, however, of a most pernicious nature, for no govern-
ment in its senses and however bad an administrative system may be, can
afford to pay such a monstrous bounty as Ji to $1.50 per cwt. to an industry
that (as the action of Germany shows) requires no bounty at all. The only
effect of the continuance of such a system will be so to increase competition
in the production of sugar for export as ultimately to reduce the manufac-
turers to ruin. The argument mainly relied on in France is that the yield



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TOBACCO PLANTING IN GERMANY. 1 99

of sugar in Germany is still far greater per acre and per ton of roots than it
is in France. This, however, can only be due to the neglect or carelessness
of the farmers and manufacturers, for the soil and climate of France are, if
anything, superior to those of Germany. So long as the industry relies on
making the taxpayers pay for its negligence, it is likely enough that any im-
provement will be slow ; but the French people are only now beginning, by
bitter experience and by a dwindling trade, to find out that the protection
of the few means the robbery of the many. In the meantime, and until a
keenly intellectual nation realizes the position, the Germans, as practical
negotiators, may see their way to meeting this difficulty. For instance, for
a given number of years, a bounty might be arranged to be given by France
just sufficient to compensate for the difference between the average yield in
that country and in Germany.

Supposing, for instance, the average yield in France to be 10 per cent



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