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ing the subjects of Japan to engage in manufacturing in the open ports of
China, a privilege which inured to the citizens of all treaty powers, seemed
to open a wide and profitable field of investment to foreign capital. When
the commercial treaty between the above powers came up for discussion,
however, the value of the said privilege was considerably restricted by the
unexpected assertion by China of a right to levy discriminating taxes on
goods manufactured by Japanese at the ports, and also on such goods when
shipped inland. This subject was referred to in my dispatch of January
21 last, and the disagreement of the two powers thereon has not yet been
settled. The unrestricted right of foreigners to manufacture in China is
so fraught with momentous consequences to foreign manufacturing inter-
ests that the failure of Japan to secure immunity from taxation for the prod-
uct of her mills in China would excite little sympathy in manufacturing



•The average value of the Haikwaii lacl in 1895, according to the United States Treasury valuations,
was 79.1 cents.



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TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA. 3I9

communities abroad. It would seem, therefore, that dangers still confront
foreign manufacturing establishments in this country which no foreign gov-
ernment would find to its interest to remove and that Americans about to
embark in manufacturing enterprises here might be advised to lake notice
of them.

Intimately connected with the subject of manufacturing is the question
of exchange. The customs statistical secretary says, in the first paragraph of
his report :

Cheap labor and raw material are abundant, and with the continuance of the advantage
which the East enjoys by the fall in the gold price of silver, there is every prospect of China
becoming a most important manufacturing country, which will lead to a keen and formidable
competition in textiles between East and West.

It is safe to say that it will be many years before native manufactured
articles will drive foreign goods out of the market. The silver question
cuts both ways. The merchant in China buys for silver and sells in Europe
and America for gold ; thus he largely gains. On the other hand, he buys
in foreign countries for gold and sells in China for silver. Prices for foreign
goods are necessarily raised, but the volume of trade continues to increase.
Universal bimetallism would be welcomed by many foreign merchants resid-
ing in China, though the sentiment is by no means universal. It is safe to
gay that scarcely anyone favors **free silver'* for his own country alone.

CHARLES DENBY,

Minister,

Peking, April 6, iSgd.



[From the North China Daily News, Shanghai, March 93, 1896.]
THE CUSTOMS RETURNS FOR 1 895.

The very interesting series of tables issued by the statistical department of the customs in
the pamphlet entitled Returns of Trade and Trade Reports for the year 1895 ; Part I.— -Re-
port on the Trade of China and Abstract of Statistics, merits a much longer notice than we
are able to give it this morning, and we are obliged to confine ourselves to the able monograph
by Mr. Kopsch on the Foreign Trade of China for the year 1895. The first paragraph of this
contains a general survey, the gist of which b that, notwithstanding the war with Japan, the
loss of revenue from Niuchwang, and the partial loss from Formosa, the returns, both fiscal
and statistical, exhibit very satisfactory results. Trade was remarkably active and prosperous,
and the cheapness of silver, labor, and raw materials tend to make China more and more a
most important manufacturing country. As to the revenue, the gross receipts for the year
were 21 ,389,000 Haikwan taels, against 22,523,605 taels in 1 894. But if we deduct from both
years the ports of Niuchwang, Tamsui, and Tainan, a much more satisfactory result is shown,
the result being 20,951 ,141 taels in 1895, against 20,984,819 taels in 1894. This, taken alone,
would show a slight falling off in the foreign trade, which might fairly be attributed to the
war. There was, however, really a marked increase in the general trade, for there was a
decline of 946,100 taels in opium likin. Eliminating this likin in both years, we find a net
increase in 1895 o^^' *^94 *^f 912,500 taels. The decrease in opium likin was partly due to
the loss of Formosa and partly to the steady substitution of native for the Indian drug. It



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320



TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA.



may be noted that transit dues showed a gain in 1895 of 97,000 taels. The aggregate increase in
the value of foreign imjx)rts and exports for the year was 24,000,000 taels, and although a large
part of this increase is merely statistical, arising from the conversion of Formosa into a foreign
country, there has been a genuine improvement and expansion in trade with both western
and Asiatic countries. The actual net increase in the value of the import trade was over
2,500,000 taels, notwithstanding the serious decline in the import of foreign opium. The
deficit in the Indian and Persian drug was about 1 1 ,820 piculs ; and, against this, 1 1,780 piculs
of native drug were shipped from Chungking toward tide water, this quantity being only a
moiety of what leaves that westernmost port by other routes and conveyances. It is not sat-
isfactory to see that there was a large increase in the import of morphia. In spite of the ap-
preciation in the silver cost, the import of cotton goods increased, but Mr. Kopsch regards
this as an unsafe indication of the tendency of the trade, and adds a table showing the offtake
of the principal cloths during the first and second half of the decade:



Description.



1886-1890. 1891-1895.



Shirtings :

Gray

White

T-cloths ,

Drills :

English...,

American.
Sheetings :

English...

American,

Total...



Pieces.


Pieces.


29,836,000


26,973,000


11,930,000


11,213,000


10,851,000


8,709,000


1,743,000



1,117,000


3,803,000


3,156,000


3,093,000


3,440,000


6,359.«»


6,376,000


66,613,000


60,884,000



'*The increased cost of cotton goods," he says, "is accountable for this annual shrinkage
of over a million pieces," and he quotes a calculation made by Mr. Noel, which has already
appeared in our columns, showing that an assorted parcel of cotton goods purchasable here
in 1886, with exchange at 4s. 6l2d., for 31. S5 taels, would cost in 1895, with exchange at
2s. lid., 40.71 taels, an advance of over 27 per cent. In woolens, the trade remained stag-
nant, but this is easily accounted for by the fact that an assortment bought in 1886 for 24.54
taels would cost 33.92 taels in 1895, an advance of 38 per cent, making them nearly as ex-
pensive for clothes as silk and satin. Metals have suffered very seriously from the fall in
silver; but several other articles have risen to the dignity of a separate line in the table and
are no longer Jumped together in the sundries, such as bags, llama braid, candles, cement,
cigars and cigarettes, palm-leaf fans, lamps, leather, Japanese matches and umbrellas, med-
icines, Sumatra kerosene oil, and refined sugar. The province of Kuangtung paid over
25,000,000 taels for food products from San Francisco, the Indo-Chinese peninsula, and the
Yangtze ports, without any unusual distress or scarcity being heard of. A temporary suspen-
sion of shipments from America caused a marked advance in the import of kerosene oil from
Russia and Sumatra.

In the value of exports, there was an actual net gain of 9,000,000 taels, caused, undoubt-
edly, by the low price of silver in which the goods are bought that are sold for gold. There
was a splendid demand for silk, including filatures, cocoons, and silk piece goods. In tea,
the gain was insignificant, for while the Russian demand continually increases, the demand for
the United Kingdom declines as steadily. In 1885, the direct shipments of tea to Great Britain
aggregated 133,300,000 jwunds; in 1895, they were 38,300,000 pounds. The export of raw
cotton increased, notwithstanding a rise in the price; there was an extraordinary develop-
ment of the trade in skins, the tanned and untanned pelts of dogs, goats, sheep, and lambs.
The value of the expofts in the past five years was : In 1891, 881 ,000 Ilaikwan taels; in 1892,



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TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA.



321



1,315,000 taels; in 1893, 1,299,000 taels; in 1894, 1,681,000 taels; and in 1895, 2,649,000
taels. ** A no less remarkable expansion is observable in the demand for nankeens, which
are required by Chinese laborers abroad, who now find it as cheap to buy this more durabU
homespun cloth as the flimsy European fabrics so enhanced in price by the appreciation of
gold." Mr. Kopsch also draws attention to the exportation of 483,400 rolls of matting from
South China. He mentions the slight falling off in certain staples, such as straw braid, sugar,
hair, and hides, and enumerates '* several new products which so-called cheap silver makes it
profitable to send to the west." lliey are bristles, sesamum seed, tallow (both animal and
vegetable), and white wax, which, however, can hardly be called new products.

There is little to quote about reexports. As to shipping, there was a slight increase in the
total entries and clearances, while ** freight was abundant and profitable." In treasure, there
was a net export of gold to the value of 6,624,000 Haikwan taels, and a net import of silver
to the value of 36,685,000 taels. These, of course, are the amounts that came under the
cognizance of the imperial maritime customs.



[From ihc North China Dally News, Shanghai, March a8, 1896.]
THE CUSTOMS RETURNS FOR 1895. — II.

There is so much of interest in the statistics attached to Mr. Kopsch's report, that it is
difficult to notice all the salient points in the limits at our disposal. The first table gives the
annual value of the foreign trade of China, carried 'in vessels of foreign type, for the past
thirteen years. The expansion of the trade has gone on steadily, with occasional temporary
interruptions, until it is more than twice as large now as it was in 1883. The figures for the
first and last years of the series are, in Haikwan taels:



Description.



Net imports,
Exports

Total.



1883.



TaeU.



M3. 765. 395



1895.



Taels.
171,696,7x5
143. 293.311
314,989.926



The customs revenue has grown* in the same thirteen years from 13,286,757 Haikwan
taels to 21,385,389 Haikwan taels. But there was no opium likin in 1883, and the total rev-
enue in 1891 was 23,518,021 Haikwan taels. This last amount does not show any decline
in the general trade, for the opium likin amounted to 6,197,906 Haikwan taels in 1 891 and
to only 4,104,145 Haikwan taels in 1895, and there was a corresponding decline in the opium
duty last year. Of the total foreign trade, amounting, as shown above, to nearly 315,000,000
taels, the British Empire did something over 215,000,000 taels, Japan coming next with 32,-
000,000 taek, the continent of Europe, Russia excepted, doing about 29,000,000 taels, the
United States 20,500,000 taels, and the Russian Empire something over 17,000,000 taels.



• The writer for the North China News takes no note of the depreciation of the tael, which was worth ^1.36
iu 1883, against 79.1 cents in 1895. Estimated at these values, the customs receipts in 1883 amounted to $18,-
069,990, against $16,915,843 in 1895, a large decrease, instead of the large increase shown in the News's figures.
Even including the receipts from opium in 1895— there being none in 188 3 — the total customs receipts amounted
to only $18,602,913, or a little over half a million more than those of 1883. In like manner, the foreign trade
of China, estimated on the same basis, shows the following results in American currency, as/^r contra to the
sliowing by the News writer: In 1883, 143,765,395 tacls=$i95,52o,o94 ; 1895, 314,898,926 taels=$249,o85,o5o,
an increase during the thirteen years of only $53,534,956, insteac^ of bein^ more thstu twice as large, as show((
J>y the News.

No. 189 n.



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322



TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA.



The table showing ihc net import of foreign goods occupies three pages. We extract a few
leading staples of trade to show how the imports last year compared with those of 1894:



Articles.



Opium piculs,

Shirtings :

Gray pieces.

White do....

Japanese do....

T-cloths ^ do....

Indian do....

Japanese... do....

DrilU : •

English do....

American^ do....

Japanese... do....

Sheetings :

Englbh.. do....

American.. do...,

Japanese.^ do....

Yam:

English , piculs

Indian do....

Japanese do....



1894.



63,051

1,839.445

r, 527,088

10,826

996,211

249. 535

a, 154

»o8,455

705,031

11,741

399,837

1,275,744

10,471

67,950

1,060,542

3i.«04



1895.



51,525

5,387,489

',843,645

856

1,414,303

369,628

11,837

149,018
518,403
10,425

506,239

762,095

3,091

56,007

1,057,046

19,148



Woolens showed a slight advance in 1895, metals a decline, and sundries a considerable
advance.

From the table of export of native goods we make the following extract :



Articles.



Bristles picub..

Raw cotton^ do

Feathers do



Rush hats.. pieces..

Hemp.. piculs..

Hides do

Rhubarb do

Raw silk do

Steam filature do



Cocoons .



..do..



Silk refuse do..

Tallow :

Animal do..

Vegetable do..

Tea:

Black do..

Green do..

Brick-
Black do..

Green do..

Tablet do..

Tobacco do..

Wool:

Sheep do..

Camel do..



1894.



18,378

747,23'
43,268

,9", 375

96,661

119,090

8.556

95,>oi

4,344

9.631

66.475

59,025
63,271

,317,315
233,465

356, 264
39,242
«2,953

113,886

226,189
27,>47



1895.



27,142

896,096

65,245

2,354,762

97,936

115,408

7,4»2

83,565

27,056

34,060

56.744

34.804
68.548

«. "3,95a
344,203

424, 49«
56,901
15,814

112,014

316,633
«9,«44



The value of unenumerated sundries — goods whose export has been promoted by the fall
in silver, but the quantities of which do not yet entitle them to the dignity of separate lines ii^
the tabic— was 8,288,837 Haikwaa tacU in 1894 and 9,779,324 llaikwan taels in 1895.



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TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA.



323



The chief interest of the opium tables to the general reader is the exhibition of the fluctu-
ations to which this trade has been subject in the last ten years, fluctuations which have re-
cently taken the shape of a steady decline. The import in 1886 was 67,801 piculs; it rose
in 1888 to 82,612 piculs, fell off in 1889 to 76,052 piculs, recovered in 1891 to 77445 piculs,
and has since steadily fallen, the figures being, in 1892, 70,782 piculs; 1893, 6^>lo8 piculs;
1894, 63,125 piculs; and 1895, 5 1,306 piculs. It should be added that the import into Hong-
kong in 1895 ^^ 5^)555 piculs, the difference being unaccounted for by the foreign customs.

From the tables giving the particulars of the exportation of tea direct to foreign countries
last year, we learn that the Russian Empire took of all kinds 917,160 piculs, the British Em-
pire 474,114 piculs, the United States 311,120 piculs, and the continent of Europe, Russia
excepted, 30,066 piculs. There was an additional export of 76,170 piculs from Kowloon to
Hongkong, and 33,288 piculs from Lappa to Macao, by junk, and of 13497 piculs of leaf and
40,370 piculs of brick tea to Siberia and Mongolia from Hankow up the Han River and over-
land. The total amount of shipping entered and cleared was 31,133 vessels of nearly 25,-
000,000 tons in 1890, and 37,132 vessels of nearly 30,000,000 tons in 1895. Of this total in
1895, 19,579 vessels of 20,500,00a tons were British, 6,822 (junks being excluded) of about
5,000,000 tons Chinese, and 2,684 vessels of nearly 2,500,000 tons German. Over 28,500,-
000 tons were steamers.

In the table showing the total annual revenue from each port for the last nine years, we
note an almost steady rise at Chungking, Ichang, Chinkiang, Wenchow, Lui^chow, and
MSngtze, and a considerable decline at Foochow, Canton, Kiungchow, and Pakhoi. From
the table showing the direct foreign trade of each port, we learn that the only ports which did
not show an improvement (excluding those whose revenue was directly interfered with by the
Japanese) were Wuhu, Wenchow, Kiungchow, Pakhoi, and Lungchow. The gross and net
value of the trade of Shanghai for five years is given in a separate table, from which we ex-
tract the following comparison, in Haikwan taels:



Description.



189Z.



'895.



Total foreign imporu

Native produce imported

Exports of local origin..

Gross value of the trade....

Net foreign imports........ „

Net native imports

Exports of local origin to foreign countries.
Exports of local origin to Chinese ports......

Net value of the trade„ .-...



TaeU,
77*336, "5
47, 374,027
40,833, 7«>
»65,543»863



TaeU.
98,833,897
58,267,974
61,632,483



3»8,733,283



»7,9a8»346

7,213,957

so, 733*949

ao,09^,77>



65,975,033



33,864,285
9.493,575
39,703,266
21,930,316

94,990,34a



It will be noticed that the percentage of increase of the net value is much larger than of
the gross value of the trade of Shanghai.

In the carrying trade from and to foreign countries there are certain interesting points,
which may be stated as follows :



Nationality.


Entries.


Value of im-
ports.


Import du<


Vessels.


Tonnage.


ries paid.


Toul


4,a65


4,a9a.334


TaeU,
179,946,960


TaeU,
5,468,389




British


3,7x6
5«9


3.05a, 33a
X57,a85
478,187


x»5,7oa,439
30.465,464
18,768,533


3,634,784
757,518
571.307


Chinese.


Gernum





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324



TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN CHINA.



Nationality.


Clearances.
Vessels. Tonnage.


Value of ex-
ports.

TaeU.
100,407,152


Export du-
ties paid.


Total


4,209

2,657
396


4,214.773


TaeU.
3,406,345




British


2,964,830
159.589


48,098,636

26,858,396

9.841,984

7,064,040


2,176,147
184,219
388,340
264,268
342,089


Chinese


French ,




541


50a, X95


Russian











Carrying trade between the treaty ports of China.



Nationality.



Total..



Entered.



Vessels. I Tonnage.



British....
Chinese...
German..



14,018

7,075

5.833

811



10,560,806

7,213,718

2,433,709

739,983



Cleared.
Vessels. Tonnage.
14,640 I 10,669,169



7,131 7,294,918

6.396 ' 2,469,538

803 721,820



The last tables in the returns give the percentages of each nation under the following
headings :



Nationality.



British

Chinese

German

All others....

Toul



Tonnage
employed.



Per cent,
69.02

>7-55
8.21

5-22



Total trade.



Per cent,
59-74
26.46

7-3'
6.49



Transit
trade.



Total duties.



Per cent.


Per cent.


40.67


64.81


33.76


19.62


2.49


7.17


23.08


8.4


100


100



The total number of foreign firms in China is 603, and of foreign residents 10,091 :



Nationality.



British

American....

French

German

Portuguese..
Japanese



'■|



Finns.

361

31
92
9
34



Residents.



4,084
1,325
875
812
805
669



finally, the to^l Chinese population in the treaty ports is estimated at 6,220,000,



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AMERICAN BICYCLES IN GERMANY. 325



AMERICAN BICYCLES IN GERMANY.

One year ago, the American-built bicycle was practically unknown in
Germany. Cycling, which became a popular sport and recreation here some
years later than in England and the United States, was, until quite recently,
confined exclusively to men, who rode either English-built wheels or those
of German manufacture modeled more or less closely after English types.

But during the summer of 1895, there appeared at Homburg, Baden-
Baden, and other German watering places numerous American cyclists of
both sexes, equipped with American bicycles, of which the lightness, grace-
fulness of model, and easy running qualities were a revelation to native ob-
servers, accustomed as they generally were to road machines ranging from 30
to 40 pounds in weight. Particularly noticeable was the high seat of the
American ladies' bicycles, set well forward over the pedals, which, combined
with the narrow tread and light, neatly formed cranks and pedals, averted
the laborious, ungraceful movement of the lower limbs, unavoidable to riders
of machines of most European models, and which had previously done much
to prevent the general adoption of the wheel by ladies in Germany.

During the same season, there passed through this country to and from
Switzerland, Italy, and the Tyrol an unusual number of American tourists
riding bicycles weighing from 20 to 24 pounds each, and when, in Septem-
ber, an important professional race was won by a visitor on an ordinary road
machine built at Hartford, Conn., the public in this vicinity began to rec-
ognize the fact that high-grade American bicycles embodied qualities which
those of European manufacture had not yet generally attained. Out of this
conviction has grown a demand which, although at first limited, has now
reached proportions which indicate that, with proper effort, Germany may
become a promising and profitable field for the enterprise of American
makers.

For the proper development of the opportunity thus offered, a correct
understanding of the nature and requirements of popular demand in this
country and the usual methods of German import trade will be essential.
It must not be supix)sed that the large and rapidly growing multitudees millions of trade when enforced
with foreigners who are accustomed in legitimate business dealings to pay-
ments thirty or sixty days from date of invoice. German exporters readily
grant such terms to foreign buyers, and, as importers, they naturally expect
a similar concession to their established business methods.

The bicycle traffic is a new, and, in many respects, a peculiar business,
but the machine itself has become closely identified with the habits, inter-
ests, and amusements of the public, and its trade will in the end follow the
established principle that the manufacturer who studies most carefully the



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CYCLE-TUBE TRADE OF BIRMINGHAM. 329

tastes of his customers, whether at home or abroad, and supplies most nearly
what they want in the way by which they have been accustomed to obtain
it will be the ultimate winner and reap the profits of his success.

FRANK H. MASON,

Consul- General.
Frankfort, April 21 y i8q6.



CYCLE-TUBE TRADE OF BIRMINGHAM.

I send herewith an article clipped from the Daily Post of this city, which
shows the remarkable development here of the business of making steel tubes.

The cycle industry has had a very rapid and unlooked-for growth during
the past year, though mainly for domestic sale and use. Instead of import-
ing complete machines, as was done up to 1894, the manufacturers of the
United States have made long contracts for taking practically the whole
steel-tube product of many factories. The amount of these exported from
this district in 1894 was ;?85,899.55. In 1895, ^^^ shipments amounted to
1507,041.29, and for the first quarter of this year the amount had risen
to ^23 1, 200. 36. As showing the decline of one industry while another is
rising, the exportation of bicycles from this district fell from ^470,890. 73
during the first six months of the year 1893 ^^ ;?9o,968.6i during the last six
months of the year 1895.

Almost without notice, tubes and all the component parts that enter into
the structure of bicycles became the features of the market for speculative
or investment purposes. There is a general feeling that this condition of
affairs can not long continue. Some tube-making machinery has gone to
the United States, although the movement was carried on very quietly for
several months after the process began, but the largest part has been made
from designs procured here. The general impression is that our people will
be able to supply their own wants by the end of the year 1897 and that, as
a consequence, the manufacturers in this district can not count upon an
American demand beyond that time. It is known in the trade here, that
our home manufacturers, foreseeing the demand, have made large purchases
of Swedish iron needed for the successful making of tubes and that the price of
that product has been much enhanced.

It is interesting as a business and commercial development, and shows,



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