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Dr. Langerhans*s child, such as impure serum, an unsterilized syringe, bac-
teria poison, etc. These surmises have all since proved to be incorrect.
Professor Eulenberg pronounced it as his belief that the serum had entered
into a vein; this was disproved by the autopsy. The result of the autopsy
showed the child to have been perfectly sound physically, and that no fault
in the injection of the serum had been made. It is therefore believed that
death resulted from a physical shock caused by pain or terror and a sudden
violent excitement of the whole nervous system, which, paralyzing the heart,
caused immediate death.

A child younger even than Dr. Langerhans's received an injection of 15
cubic centimeters of the same serum without bad consequences; this is ten
times the quantity given the child of Dr. Langerhans. The carbol could
not have caused the death, since the child received in all i^ cubic centi-
meters of serum, containing 7^^ milligrams of carbol, a quantity too small
to cause death, even in so young a child, much less in such a rapid and
striking manner, death having occurred a few minutes after the injection was
made. Nor could bacteria poison have caused the death, since it is the



♦See dispatch from Ambassador Uhl, printed in Consular Reports No. x88 (May, 1896), p. 151.



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352 NOTES.

opinion of the most eminent bacteriologists that the slow effects of such
poisons are characteristic and notorious.

This unhappy accident is held to have proved that the injection of serum
in a healthy person for prevention is a dangerous practice. That the treat-
ment in real cases of diphtheria is one of the most wonderful discoveries in
modern medicine, can not be doubted ; the good resulting from it is unap-
proached by any other method of treatment. In this connection, the statis-
tics of death from infectious diseases in Paris bear eloquent testimony. The
average death rate from diphtheria in 1 890-1 894 was 1,341 ; in 1895, only
435, a decrease of 60 per cent. It would therefore seem that serum has
stripped the dread disease of half its terrors.



An Inscription on the Parthenon. — Consul Horton, of Athens, writes to
the Department March 5, 1896: I have to report an archaeological discovery
of extreme interest recently made by a student in the American School of
Classical Studies of this city. I refer to the deciphering of an inscription
on the architrave at the east end of the Parthenon. The face of the eastern
architrave is thickly dotted with small holes, and for many years, scholars
have been under the impression that these holes were the traces of nails
which had once held fast the letters of an inscription. It had also been
suggested from time to time that a study of the nail holes might give some
clew as to the letters themselves, which long ago were torn down, doubtless
for the sake of the metal which they contained.

The difficulty of such a task, which has defied the archaeologists until
now, is evident. The architrave is about 100 feet long, and the holes ex-
tend over 90 feet of its length. They dot thickly spaces from 3 to 4 feet
in length, between which are circular blanks, where shields about 4 feet in
diameter hung at intervals. Various attempts have been made, chiefly by
German archaeologists, to "read the nail holes.'* The most notable of the
methods employed have been photography and transcribing with the aid of
magnifying glasses.

No attempt met with any success until Mr. Eugene Plumb Andrews, of the
American School, hit upon a practical method. He threw a rope over
the eastern end of the ruined building, and pulled up a rope ladder. Then,
he susi>ended a swing in front of the architrave 37 feet from the marble step
below, and took what is known as a ''squeeze " of the holes. His method
was ingenious. Damp ** squeeze'* paper was first applied to the surface of
the stone, and i)atted well down with a brush. The paper broke through
over the holes. Mr. Andrews then forced extra strips into each of the
openings and lapped their ends down on the large sheet. When he had thus
treated all the holes, he laid another sheet over the first to hold the ends of
the strips in place, and pounded all together into one solid sheet, on which the^
exact position gf the ix^il holes was represented by protuberances.



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NOTES. 353

Mr. Andrews was about one and a half months making his squeezes,
twelve in all, representing the twelve spaces between the shields. Then, he
arranged them in order and began studying them. His greatest difficulty
occurred at the start. He did not know whether the inscription ran straight
across all the squeezes or whether the squeezes were to be read separately, as
the pages of a book.

Moreover, the ancient workman who had nailed up the letters had made
numerous mistakes, so that many of the holes were treacherous and con-
fusing.

Mr. Andrews, however, persisted, and light began to dawn. He found,
for instance that three holes placed thus o°o indicated either ai l\ or 3i /\,
the metal letter having been nailed at its three corners, and that three holes
placed thus o ° showed where an O had been nailed.

He made a transcript of the squeezes on a long strip of paper, marking
the locality of the protuberances with dots, and then attempted to form the
ancient letters by drawing lines from dot to dot. Finally, he deciphered
the word ** Autokratora,** which proved that the inscription had been Roman,
and not, as formerly supposed, of an earlier date. The word ' * Nerona, ' '
threw further light on the matter.

Here was evidently the dedication of a statue to the Emperor Nero, and
the reading was simplified by a study of other similar inscriptions, as the
same phraseology is used in all. The inscription, as Mr. Andrews reads it, is
translated substantially as follows :

The council of the Areopagus and the council of the 600 and the people of the Athenians
erect this statue of the Very Great Emperor Nero Csesar Claudius Sevastos Germanicus, the
Son of God, during the generalship over the hoplites for the eighth time of Claudius Novius,
the overseer and lawgiver, son of Philinos, during the priestess-ship of * * *, daughter
of * * *.

It appears, therefore, that the inscription recorded the erection of a statue
to Nero, probably in the Parthenon.

As it is known from another inscription that Claudius Novius was general
for the eight time in the year A. D. 61, we have the exact date of this in-
scription.

Mr. Andrews graduated at Cornell in 1895, and holds the university
fellowship for one year. There are at present twelve students in the Ameri-
can School.

Manganese Ore in Nova Scotia. — Consul Young, of Windsor, N. S., re-
ports to the Department, May 15, 1896: The Tenny Cape manganese mines,
situated at Tenny Cape, Hants County, N. S., about i mile from good ship-
ping, produce manganese ore of the best quality, and the quantity seems in-
exhaustible. The ore is noted for its crystals, and is specially suited for
use in the manufacture of glass. The mines have been worked to a limited
extent, with but little intermission, for about thirty years. About two years
ago a new company was formed, with a large capital, for the purpose of
No. 189 13.



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354 NOTES.

mining and selling the ore. Heretofore, not more than 75 tons was the
average output, but with improved appliances a much larger output is ex-
l)ected. The following is an average analysis:

Per cent.

Dioxide 89

Ferro oxide 0-75

Soluble baryta 0.52

Insoluble baryta 1. 72

Moisture 3.75

Organic matter 1.4

Silica 0.75

Undetermined 2. II

Total 100

At one time this ore sold in New York as high as 1 140 p)er net ton, and
has sold as low as $75 per ton. The quality of the Tenny Cape ore is said
to be unsurpassed, and therefore it is sought for by dealers who require
manganese of a high grade.



Removal of Interstate Taxes in Mexico.* — Consul-General Crittenden
writes from Mexico, May 2, 1896: I have the honor to call your attention
to the fact presented in this extract, taken from one of our morning papers:

All the Stales and Territories having approved the. amendment to the constitution prohib-
iting any interstate tax on commerce (alcabalas), Congress has passed the bill, the President
has signed it, the Diario Oficial has published it, and it will soon be promulgated by ** bando,'*
as the Vice-Presidency was the other day. ITie law takes effect July I.

This tax has been in existence for many years in Mexico, and has been a
source of much embarrassment to internal and external trade. Its repeal
meets with general approval, although some of the States will be compelled
to seek other modes of taxation to replace the money heretofore obtained
by this interstate tax.



Legislation in Honduras. — Consul Little, in a dispatch dated Tegucigalpa,
April 16, 1896, says: This year's session of the Congress of Honduras closed
on the 9th instant. Among the acts of interest which it p)assed are the fol-
lowing :

(1) A concession granted to New York capitalists for the building of an interoceanic rail-
road from l\ierto Cortes to Amapala. Before carrying out their concession, the company have
to consolidate the foreign debt and make an arrangement with the holders of the former
concession for the same road. If this is done, I shall make a fuller report in regard to the
concession.

(2) Confirmation of the treaty of union, celebrated last June, between Honduras, Nica-
ragua, and Salvador.



* For description of these taxes, sec Consular Rek>Hts No. 183 (December, 1895), pp. 490-49^.



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NOTES. 355

(3) ConBrmation of treaty of friendship, etc., ceiebraled September 28, 1895, between
Honduras and Costa Rica.

(4) Ratification of the convention celebrated March I, 1895, between Honduras and
Guatemala, under which a joint commission is to be appointed to determine more definitely
the boundaries between the two Republics.



Chilean Competition with California Flour. — From Guayaquil, April 25,
1896, Consul-General Dillard reports : I have the honor to inform the Depart-
ment that our flour. trade from San Francisco to Guayaquil is suffering now very
seriously from the Chilean competition. The merchants explain this state of
things by saying that since the Pacific Mail Line has now no competition, it
has put up the freights so high that purchasers can not afford to order from
San Francisco. This will continue until the consumers begin to complain
of the bad quality of the bread made of Chilean flour. But it will not do
for our exporters to wait for that event, for it is also true that the Chileans
are so improving their methods that there is little, except the quality of the
wheat, in favor of our product; and if the people here once become recon-
ciled to bread made of Chilean flour, our exports of flour to this market will
almost entirely cease. Some years ago, the Chilean flour was largely con-
sumed in this market, but the California flour, by the enterprise mainly of
the Stockton Milling Company, I believe, almost entirely drove out the
Chilean. It would seem that our exporters ought to hold the ground they
have captured, at least. A short while ago, it was rare for a steamer from
the South to bring a cargo of flour; now, nearly every Chilean steamer has
a good lot of flour to discharge at this port. No Eastern flour comes as far
south as Guayaquil, and no California flour reaches the coast between here
and Panama. New York supplies the Colombian and Ecuadorian ports
north of Guayaquil.



Removal of Duty on Ether of Sulphur. — In a dispatch from the Hague,
dated March 26, 1896, Minister Quinby says: I have the honor to state
that by royal order appearing in the Official Gazette of the 25 th of March
last, it is decreed that ether of sulphur destined for the preparation of gold
polish required for the adornment of porcelain or earthenware may, under
certain restrictions, which are set forth in the order, be imported into the
Netherlands free of duty. Subsequent to an application from the person
requiring the ether of sulphur, the Minister of Finance is authorized to
sanction the importation of such a quantity as he shall deem fit; that the
same shall be conveyed under seal to the factory at which it is required, the
Government officials superintending the admission thereof to the factory;
that a guaranty shall be given for the customs duty thereon, and that in case
of an importation exceeding the sanctioned quantity, the duty on the excess
shall be withheld from the guaranty given; that the manufacturer shall
acquaint the collector of taxes with the quantity of ether of sulphur on



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356 NOTES.

hand at the close of the year, which quantity shall be entered in the new
year's account as a fresh importation; that no distilling apparatus shall be
found in the factory; and, finally, that, on evidence of an abuse of the
privilege, the Minister of Finance is authorized to deny the person trans-
gressing any further enjoyment thereof.



New Tariff on Tobacco in Belgium. — Under date of April 22, 1896, Con-
sul Roosevelt, of Brussels, says: On the 31st of March, 1896, a bill was
passed by the Belgian Senate and signed by the King April 18, 1896, to go
into effect April 20, 1896, increasing the customs duty on tobacco as fol-
lows:

Cigars and cigarettes, from 300 francs ($57.90) to 600 francs ($115.80) per 100 kilograms
(220.46 pounds); other, including extract of tobacco (praiss), 120 francs (523.16) \ier 100
kilograms; stripped tobacco, 75 francs ($14.47) l^*" 'oo kilograms; other, including stems
and succedaneum of tobacco, 55 francs ($10.61) j)er 100 kilograms.

Besides the above-mentioned duties, there is an excise tax of 15 francs
(J 2. 89) per 100 kilograms, paid by retail dealers.



Pig Iron Made Free in Sweden. — Minister Ferguson, in a dispatch from
Stockholm, April 24, 1896, says: I have the honor to report that the Riks-
dag has passed an act removing the duty on pig iron, kentledge, and old
broken iron. The joint vote of the two chambers was a very close one — 186
yeas to 185 nays. The Second Chamber had, voting separately, passed the
resolution, but the First Chamber had rejected it. As is the custom when
the chambers disagree, the joint vote was taken, with the above result.

This was the only positive victory of the antiprotection party, although
in two other contests which were of interest to our commerce they were neg-
atively successful.

The proposition of the First Chamber for the increased duties on leather
was defeated and a proposition for the increase of the duty on shoes to 2
kronor (26.8 cents) per kilogram was rejected by a vote of 191 to 176, so
the duties on leather and shoes remain the same.



Publications BeneGcial to American Trade. — Consul Wamer, of Cologne,
reports to the Department under date of April 2, 1896: I am glad to rejwrt
that the publication by me in the Cologne Gazette of April 3, 1896, regard-
ing the official insi)ection of live stock and their i)roducts by the United
States Government has, as 1 am informed by a large importing house here
of American meat products, already had a great effect. One of the part-
ners of this firm says his business has considerably recovered in consequence
of this publication. Many of the importers have printed the whole publica-
tion in their price lists.



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NOTES. 357

In conversing with the importers here, they expressed the belief that it
would be advisable for the United States Government to have a certain sum of
money appropriated, to be used in making just such publications whenever
false reports have been spread regarding the unwholesomeness of American
products. But as this is directly in the interest of the exporting merchants
in the United States, it appears to me that they would willingly subscribe
funds to be placed in the hands of the Secretary of Agriculture for the pur-
poses mentioned.

Exports of Sulphur from Sicily. — Consul Seymour, of Palermo, reports
April 23, 1896: During the nine months ending March 31, 1896, and during
the nine months ending March 31, 1895, the exports of Sicilian sulphur,
amounted to 277,649 tons and 235,633 tons, respectively. During the re-
spective periods, the exports to the United States alone amounted to 114,592
tons and 77,624 tons. During the three months ending March 31, 1896,
41,335 tons were exported to the United States, against 18,940 tons during the
corresponding period of the preceding year. The sulphur imported by the
United States is used principally in the manufacture of chemical fertilizers.



Falling Off in Fruit Exports from Sicily. — Under date of April 24, 1896,
Consul Seymour, of Palermo, reports : In consequence of the withdrawal of
many letters of credit that had been given fruit exporters by American im-
porters, and notwithstanding lemons are now bringing very fair prices in
New York, exports have fallen off very perceptibly. The lemon crop is a large
one, but recent rains, wind, and hail have destroyed much fruit and injured
the keeping quality of much more. Good lemons, in the field, sell for from
I1.50 to $2 per 1,080. Very few oranges remain.



Method of Pruning Fruit Trees in Italy. — Consul Seymour writes from
Palermo, April 18, 1896: The disadvantages arising from the failure of
fruit trees to produce in successive years a uniform quantity of fruit are
well known to all engaged in fruit culture, and information regarding any
system of cultivation that has for its object the equalization of successive
crops, especially when it is said that such system has been successful, must
be of interest to them. According to the Agrarian Review, with the view
of equalizing the crops in the Sorrentine peninsula, it has been shown
that good results are obtained from the following method of pruning : Prune
considerably after the scarce year, cutting some fruit-bearing branches, and
little after the full year. This system, though the opposite of the old, seems
to be, in theory, the proper one; for it is due to the fact that during the
loaded year the tree is deprived of nourishment that might be used by it
the next year in the formation of fruit, and by depriving the tree of the
branches, which is only depriving it of fruit, there will be less nourishment



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358 NOTES.

required by the fruit in the following year, and the tree will have more for
the formation of fruit.



Railroad Concession to Americans in Korea. — Consul-General Sill, in a
dispatch from Seoul, April i6, 1896, says: A concession to build, operate,
and maintain a railroad between this capital and its port — Chemulpo —
has been granted to James R. Morse for an American syndicate. Che-
mulpo is distant about 26 miles by cart road from Seoul, and is the most
important port in Korea. Seoul has a population of upwards of, perhaps,
350,000, inclusive of the extensive river suburbs, 3 miles distant. A bridge
will be built across the river. At present, the communication is by clumsy
carts, pack animals, and chairs, overland, at most exorbitant rates. Junks
and small steamers ply on the river. The river route is 56 miles in length, and
offers great obstacles to successful navigation, so much so that the steamers
scarcely count in the matter of transportation, while all navigation is closed
by ice for three or four months in the busiest season and by floods for a
month in the summer. The intermediate country is rolling, but it is thought
that a suitable grade may be found for a line of, perhaps, 40 miles in length.



Windmills in Nicaragua. — In a dispatch from Managua, dated April 20,
1896, Minister Baker says : During the dry season in Nicaragua, which lasts
on this (the Pacific) side of the country from November to May, the sea-
son of coffee picking and cleaning, the winds blow almost every day with
more or less force. Notwithstanding the scarcity of fuel, there being no
coal, no one had the enterprise to harness the wind and turn its energy to
the uses of man until the past year. A young American first tried to in-
duce planters and others to erect windmills for pumping water, which, during
this half of the year, is a scarce and precious article, and I believe one or
two were contracted for, when Mr. H. E. Low, an European citizen and
acting American vice-consul here, conceived the idea of making the experi-
ment of using wind power in running his coffee-cleaning machinery. He
ordered from Chicago a windmill, erected it on his farm in the mountains,
attached his hulling and other machinery to it, and put it in motion. Both
Mr. Low and his coffee-raising neighbors are delighted with the performance.
He cleaned his coffee, he informs me, in as satisfactory a manner as he could
have done with steam. Many planters come to his farm to observe for
themselves, and a number of orders for American windmills will probably
result.

British Imports of Eggs. — Consul MacBride forwards to the Department
an extract from the Edinburgh Evening Dispatch of May 6, 1896, which
says :

Mr. James V. R. Swann, of 85 Percy Road, Shepherd Bush, London, \V., has issued a
circular on the foreign egg trade with Great Britain, in which he says: During 1895 the



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NOTES. 359

United Kingdom imported from twenty foreign countries and British possessions 1,526,000,-
000 eggs (80,551 tons), valued at /■4,003,440, or an import exceeding 4,000,000 eggs (209
tons), valued at ;f 10,941 daily. Forty per cent of the eggs consumed in the United King-
dom come from abroad, and fully 90 i>er cent of the eggs handled in the towns of England
and Germany are of foreign origin. During 1894 the consumption of imported eggs per head
of population in the German Empire was 30, and in the United Kingdom 37, and this con-
sumption of imported eggs per head of population in the United Kingdom has risen from
4 in 1853 to 39 in 1895. From official quotations published in the Grocer, it may be learned
that imported eggs are from 35 to 60 per cent cheaper in summer than in winter, depreciate
in quality from 25 to 45 per cent in transit, and lose on an average from 17 to 50 per cent in
value before they can be marketed.



Interest in United States Consular Reports in Saxony. — Consul Mona-
ghan writes from Chemnitz, Saxony, May 9, 1896: I have the pleasure of
informing the Department that the United States Consular Reports, issued
monthly, are much sought after in Saxony, and that copies coming to the
chambers of commerce of the Kingdom are placed at the disposal of the pub-
lic for six or eight days. The public are made aware of their arrival by an-
nouncement in the press. I understand they are eagerly read by those
interested in matters of commerce and manufacture.



Egyptian Cotton Forecast for 1896-97. — Under date of May 13, 1896,
Consul-General Penfield writes from Cairo; Inspired by the high prices
realized by the cotton crop of 1895-96, Egyptian planters have this spring
increased the area to the maximum limit permitted by the country*s irriga-
tion facilities. Exact figures are not procurable, but it is estimated that the
increase of acreage is from 5 to 8 per cent, and that this season's area ap-
proximates 1,150,000 acres. The greatest percentage of increase is in the
provinces south of Cairo. Conservative forecasters believe the crop will
yield 750,000 bales of 750 pounds each, being the equivalent of i^ 125,000
American bales, and the largest ever raised in the Nile Valley. Predicated
on the yearly increase of shipments to America, it is probable that the United
States will buy 65,000 bales (equal to about 100,000 bales of American
weight) of the next Egyptian crop.



Egyptian Sugar for tlie United States. — Under date of May 14, 1896,
Consul-General Penfield writes from Cairo: As a result of the Cuban war,
an active demand has been created in the United States for Egyptian unre-
fined sugar, and since the beginning of 1896 there have been thirteen cargoes
dispatched from Alexandria direct to America. The opinion obtains that
the demand for Egyptian sugar must continue for several months. The
shipments to date aggregate 39,000 tons, valued at J 2, 400,000, exclusive of
freight costs, which are J2.50 per ton. British steamers carry the sugar to
the United States and bring no return cargo to Egypt.



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360



KOTKS.



Exemption from Duties on Corn in Mexico. — Minister Ransom informs the
Department of State, under date of May 25, 1896, that the President of



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 46 of 102)