United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 188-191 online

. (page 67 of 102)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 67 of 102)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Church gooik

Cheese

Condensed milk...
Silk:

Piece goods...

Spun

Ribbons

Wine and spirits..
Miscellaneous



Articles.



1894.

^19.860

18,313
77.865

1,050,054
23, 325



1895.


Increase.


Decrease.


l34.9<M

•0,038

63.835

924.544

36,>9»

24.577

".498

14,917


#»5.042
>.7'5




>i4.<»3o
125,510




12,866

24.577

",498

2,807









Toial I 1,201,527 ] 1,120,492 '



81,035



The figures under ''miscellaneous ** comprise, for the most part, articles
of art, antiques, and furniture, bought during the summer season at Lucerne.
That the main article of this district — silk goods — shows a decline, is, of
course, owing to general uncertainty regarding the silk market, to which
the manufacturers here have to submit.

' A great many articles of ordinary use and consumption are still unex-
changed between the United States and Switzerland. A list of them was
elaborately compiled by this office and transmitted to the Department of
State under date of October 31, 1894.*

As an explanation of the fact that the exportation of silk goods from
Switzerland to the United States is so much inferior in quantity to that of
the previous year (1894), I would state that the silk factories had plenty
to do to fill orders from England and Germany, etc., even from France,
and that, consequently, they saw no reason to press for orders from the
United States, where the market was so low at the time.

BERNE.

In reply to your request of the 14th instant, I am sorry to say that I can
not give you much information concerning the business and trade of this
consular district during the calendar year 1895.

As is well known, agriculture is the chief interest in the Canton of Berne
and cheese is the principal article of export. Silk goods (umbrella stuffs) and
underwear are not greatly to be taken into consideration. Thanks to the
business change in the United States, the exportation of this consular district
shows, at the end of the year, a slight increase.

The imports from the United States consist of agricultural implements,
conserved meat, some wine, petroleum, pianos, and organs. As the year
1895 proved a success to the farmers, the demand for implements of every
kind was great, and even plows and mowing machines in small number found
sale here. A few years ago such machines could not be seen in use by any
farmer. Direct importation is practiced in only a few cases. Importation
is mostly made through houses in London and Hamburg.



* Printed in Commrkcial Relations for 1894 and 1895, vol. 2, p. 432.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



UNITED STATES TRADE WITH SWITZERLAND. 52 1

ST. GALL.

The city of St. Gall and immediate vicinity is devoted almost exclu-
sively to the business of manufacturing embroideries. During the past few
years, various articles (handkerchiefs, curtains, and schiffli lace goods) have
assumed great importance. The total value of the embroideries, etc.,
shi])ped from this consular district to the United States during the year 1895
was ^7*303, 01 3. These figures show an increase in the value of the expor-
lations to the United States of ^2,007,876 over the year 1894. They also
show an increase over every year since the existence of this office, except-
ing the year 1890. The year 1890 was the year of the McKinley Tariff Act
and the immense exportation by which it was characterized was due to efforts
on the part of St. Gall manufacturers to get as many goods as possible into
the United States before the taking effect of the increased duty. The very
heavy exportation (in value) of the year 1895 is due not altogether to large
shipments, but to the fact of the prevalence here of higher stitch rates.
Still, the quantity of goods sent has been very great. In spite of business
embarrassments in the United States, this heavy exportation has been main-
tained, and there seems to be every prospect that it will be rhaintained dur-
ing the year 1896. The only thing likely to cause serious disturbance in
the embroidery trade would be further uncertainty regarding the customs
duties.

ZURICH.

In view of the absence in the United States, on leave, of Consul Eugene
(iermain, of Zurich, r»o formal report from the Zurich district has been solic-
ited by me. I am, however, able to insert below a few letters received at the
Zurich consulate during the year 1895, which speak for themselves.* Through
the efforts of Mr. Germain, a decided opening for American goods has been
established in the Zurich market. Direct importation into Switzerland of
goods from the United States has heretofore been very slight. Through Mr.
Germain's efforts, direct importation is now being made of horses, lumber, .
leather belting for machinery, top-roller desks, paper, carpets, wall paper,
seeds, dried fruits, honey, machinery, wood-working machinery, tools of all
descriptions, unfinished furniture, etc.

I wish to express to Mr. Gifford, consul at Basle; Mr. Ridgely, consul at
Geneva; Mr. Streuli, vice-consul at Horgen ; and Mr. Hinnen, vice-consu
at Berne, my appreciation of their prompt compliance with my request fo.
the submission of the above rei)orts.

IRVING B. RICHMAN,

Consul- General.

St. Gall, January 20y i8g6.

*'i"hc letters referred to are from a firearms company of Connecticut, a paper-maniifaciunng comp>any of
New York, and a machine-manufacturing company of Ohio, thanking Consul (Jermain for his efforts toward
introducing their goods into Switzerland.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



522



AMERICAN HORSES IN IRELAND.



AMERICAN HORSES IN IRELAND.

For several months past, my attention has been attracted to the large
influx of horses for this market from the United States and Canada, the
majority coming from the latter country. The stock is usually bought up
with avidity and fair prices are received.

They usually arrive via Liverpool or Glasgow in consignments of from 20
to 60 head by steamer from New York or Montreal, principally by the latter
route. After arriving in Belfast they are turned over to a horse bazaar to
be sold by auction. The auction is well advertised several days in advance
of the sale, and the bidders, consisting of country and town folk, are quite
numerous.

At a recent sale at the Messrs. Robson's Royal Victoria Horse Bazaar,
there were offered twenty-three horses consisting of matched pairs, brough-
ams, trappers, cobs and ponies, and two trotters. The lot was consigned to
Messrs. Robson by a Chicago firm and arrived per steamship Pomeranian
at Glasgow from Montreal, and from thence direct to Belfast. The attend-
ance was exceptionally large and bidding brisk, although no unusual prices
were offered. Appended is a complete list of the consignment, all of which,
with one exception, were sold.



No.



Dcscripiion.



Dark -bay gelding

Bay gelding

do

Brown gelding

do

Dark-bay gelding

Bay gelding

do

do

Brown gelding

Ray gelding ,

Dark-luiy gelding

I.ivcr-chcstnui gelding..

Chestnut gelding

Riy trotting gelding

Bay gelding

Dark-bay gelding

Brown gelding

Bay gelding

do

Brown mare

Bay gelding

do



Age.



Years.
6

6
9
5
5
6
6

6
6
6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5



Height.



Hands. Jn.

XS 3

16 t

16 o

16 o

16 Q

15 2

»5 3

»5 3

16 1
16 1
16 o
16 o
16 o
16 o



«5
t6

«5
X5

»5



Price
received.



117.52
123.65
13a. 85

"'7. 73
132.85

i3«.85
»37-95
132.85

«'7.73
»53»9
132.85

(•)
ai4-85
«55.96
137.05
138.85

97- "8
117. 5»
180. at

155.96
"7- 73
107.06



♦Not sold.



All property sold at public auction is subject to 5 per cent auction fees,
payable by the purchaser.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



PRICES OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN IRELAND. 523

The consensus of opinion was that the trotters brought very good prices,
especially No. 14, whose marking and general appearance were good. No.

15 lacked the uniformity in marking that charcterized No. 14, but through
his trotting qualities he was knocked down at a satisfactory price.

Bay, light-brown, or chestnut geldings of from 5 to 7 years and about

16 hands can usually find purchasers in this market at the prices quoted, for
the above are favorite colors among local buyers. Marking is also essential,
and unless an animal is gifted with a pair of white feet or lacks patches or
spots on his body, his chances for a good price are poor. No. 18 was, in my
mind, as good a horse as the one which preceded him, but, unfortunately,
was poorly marked and brought I35 less.

I learn from the Messrs. Robson that the entire cost for transportation,
feeding, and care for each animal from Chicago to Belfast is ^37.

MALCOLM T. BRICE,

Vice and Deputy Consul.
Belfast, June p, i8g6.



PRICES or AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN IRELAND.

The Irish land commissioners have made a return to the House of Com-
mons showing the average prices of agricultural products in Ireland for each
year from 1881 to 1895, inclusive. The prices relate to agricultural prod-,
ucts of Irish origin only. The prices from 1881 to 1886, inclusive, are
from the returns of prices collected by the Irish land commission in 1887;
the prices from 1887 to 1895, inclusive, are compiled from the weekly return
of prices supplied to the Irish land commissioners by the inland revenue
officers at eight of the principal market towns in Ireland. The Farmers' Ga-
zette, published at Dublin, commenting on these prices, compares them with
the returns given in Purdon's Almanack and reaches the conclusion, from
this basis of comparison, that the returns are very accurate. In almost every
instance, Purdon's returns are higher than those of the land commissioners,
but Purdon's returns are made up from the Dublin markets alone, where prices
are higher than in other portions of Ireland.

The figures are remarkable as indicating the great fall in agricultural
prices in 1895 as compared with 1881. Potatoes are the only product which
shows an increase, and that by only 2 cents per cwt. of 112 pounds. Wheat
has dropped from J2.29 to ^1.39 per cwt. ; oats, from $\.^y/2 to Ji.i6i^
per cwt. ; barley, from $i.8oJ^ to $1.63 per cwt. ; hay, from 61 1^ cents to
58 cents per cwt. ; butter, from $26.35 to $21.27 per cwt. ; pork, from $12.71
to $9.47 per cwt.; flax, from $1.68 to $1.33 per 14 pounds; wool, from
22 cents to 18 cents per pound; eggs, from $1.76 to $1.70 per 120; beef,
from $15.58^ to $13.29 per cwt. ; mutton, from $17.25 to $16.04 per cwt.
Yearling cattle declined from $30.29 per head to $29.34; two-year-olds,
from $47.93 ^^ $42.39; and lambs, from $6.47 to $6.06 i>er head.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



524 AMERICAN MACHINERY IN IRELAND.

The figures indicate that in the great cereals, the tendency toward decline

in prices has been steady in wheat and oats since 1881, and in barley, since

1882. The same may be said of flax and wool. In beef, mutton, cattle,

and lambs, the maximum price seems to have been reached in 1883, since

which time, the tendency has been for a decline in prices, while in butter

and pork, the decline seems to have been steady since 1881. I speak in the

above of general tendencies only, as the figures will show various fluctuations

from year to year.

NEWTON B. ASHBY,

DiTHLiN, May 26, i8g6. Consul.



AMERICAN MACHINERY IN IRELAND.

The Royal Dublin Agricultural Society held its spring show in the soci-
ety's grounds at Ballsbridge, Dublin, in April. The shows of this society
partake in their nature of a State fair, and are open to competitors from all
parts of the United Kingdom. The spring show is especially devoted to
agriculture, specialty being made of breeding-stock exhibits, farm machin-
ery and implements, and seeds.

The exhibits in the sections devoted to farm machinery, implements, and
tools were very numerous and ranged through an almost complete list of all
kinds finding a market in Ireland. I was especially interested in noting the
machinery of American make and comparing it with its competitors of Irish
and English manufacture. As a rule, the English and Irish manufactures
are much heavier in make and more clumsy in appearance than the same
sorts of American machinery. I was told by some of the exhibitors that
this was due to the fact that the iron and steel of American manufacture
were tougher than that of English, and that a bar of American steel would
stand a much heavier strain than a bar of English steel of the same weight
and thickness. Whether such statements are true, I have no means of know-
ing; but, although it may be true, I am of the opinion that the lighter
make of American machinery discourages its sale in this country, and that,
should our American manufacturers study the prejudices of farmers in Ire-
land and follow the more clumsy fashion of the homemade machinery, they
would improve their sales thereby. In harvesters, there is also required a
greater width of canvas and of binder platform than is common in the Amer-
ican manufacture. This is required both because of the length of straw and
the habit of taking as much of the straw as possible from the field.

Thomas McKenzie & Son, of 211 Great Brunswick street, Dublin, ex-
hibited, in American machinery, the Osborn mower, the Gem and Haliday
windmills and force pumj^s, Leffel's double turbines, the Empire corn drill,
rotary-disc pulverizer, the Ajax horse hoe, the Mudgett haymaker, the Os-
born steel rake, the Champion hay press for both steam and horse power,
portable scales, winnower, lawn mowers, the Remington typewriter, and the
Champion incubator; Messrs. A. & J. Moin, of 11 Leinster street, Dublin,



Digitized by VjOOQIC



FRENCH VS. UNITED STATES TRADE IN WEST AFRICA. 525

exhibited the Deering harvesters, mowers, and hay tools ; Messrs. Lancaster
& Co., of II Southwark street, London, exhibited McCormick harvesting
and haymaking machinery of various styles and for various purposes; Messrs.
Scott & Co., of Ix)wer Abbey street, Dublin, exhibited the harvesting ma-
chinery of Adriance, Piatt & Co., of New York; Messrs. Blackstone & Co.,
of Stamford, England, exhibited harvesting and haymaking machinery and
tools both of their own and of American make; Messrs. Kennin & Sons, of
Fishamble street, Dublin, exhibited lawn mowers of American manufacture
and also American axes, shovels, etc.

The above is only a partial list of the more important machinery ex-
hibited. But it serves to indicate the important place American machinery
is gaining for itself, and I believe that in harvesting machinery and hay
tools, American manufactures are steadily growing in favor. I can not
emphasize too strongly the importance of American manufacturers of agri-
cultural machinery and tools being represented at the principal agricultural
shows. It would also, undoubtedly, be to their advantage could they send
a representative to visit the various exhibits of agricultural machinery, to
study their manufactures in comparison with their foreign competitors, so as
to be able to suggest changes for the foreign trade which would help to
overcome prejudices in the matter of form.

NEWTON B. ASHBY,

Dublin, May 28 y i8g6. CansuL



FRENCH VS. UNITED STATES TRADE IN WEST AFRICA.

I have the honor to bring to the notice of the Department the fact that
Timboo, the principal place in the Fouta-Djallon country, a district larger,
probably, than the State of Pennsylvania, and said to be quite fertile, has
been taken possession of by French troops.

This is important to Americans, in view of the fact that the commerce
of the Fouta-Djallon country, which formerly found a principal outlet
through the English settlement at Sierra Leone, will now probably be
diverted to the French ports on the coast immediately north of Sierra
Leone, and will not be practicable to anything like the extent it has been for
foreigners to engage in. The produce of the Fouta-Djallon region has here-
tofore largely consisted of valuable hides, which, in exchange for articles of
American manufacture, have been shipi:)ed from Sierra Leone by sail direct
to Boston, Mass., thus always affording the nucleus for a more extended
commerce. But in the French shipping ports there is always to be met the
discriminating duty of 7 per cent against all goods not of French manufac-
ture, which must soon have the effect of sending all the produce of this
newly acquired district to France, in payment for goods of French manu-
facture. There seems to be no hope that Americans, with a discriminating
duty of 7 per cent against their goods, can look for a serious commercial
footing in very extensive districts of the African continent.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



526 FRENCH VS. UNITED STATES TRADE IN WEST AFRICA.

Space forbids that I shall here discuss many of the causes which have
actually decreased American commerce in parts of Africa which have lately
attained to a great development, nor could I well do so without trenching
on grounds which have been supposed to lie beyond consular jurisdiction.
But every maii this way makes it evident that the needs of American manu-
facturers for wider markets are great. Manufactories appear to have been
stimulated into existence beyond the capacity of our own country steadily
to support them; and the question, How and where are the surplus goods to
be disposed of so that the people at present engaged in manufacturing may
not be i)eriodically thrown out of employment, and become, in many in-
stances, a burden to the public, seems to be a growing one. The European
nations, having possessed themselves of all the coasts of Africa, now claim
to regulate the trade of the whole continent, not only at the points where
they have civil governments established, but with the natives of the far in-
terior, who, as yet, scarcely recognize their pretensions. The process has
begun of fortifying perhaps the whole continent against us by protective
tariffs, for if one nation can even now do it with effect, the rest will, in
time, have to do it in order to equalize things between them.

Manchester is already beginning to loosen its hold on this colony, because
of the 7 per cent duty, but so long as England herself has immense portions
of the continent she can easily keep even with her enterprising rival, and
has but little cause for alarm. It is American trade only which is doomed
to suffer, and the question seems to be, How can the suffering best be
prevented?

There is another view to be taken of this matter, which apj^ears to de-
serve attention. Many of what are called *'raw materials** are now im-
ported by us free of duty for the benefit of manufacturers, but it would
seem that unless our manufacturers can put themselves into a position to
afford large prices in gold they can not in future be expected to benefit much
by this concession in their favor. Hides and india rubber are raw materials
produced in this country, and both were formerly, to some extent, exported
direct to America in payment for goods manufactured from the same mate-
rials, but they are now exported in French vessels direct to France, partly
in payment for goods manufactured there of the same materials. Labor is
cheaper in France than it has been in America, and with the extended out-
lets which French manufacturers now have, it is evident that when raw
materials which 'have been clieaply purchased by their own manufactured
goods are once in their hands they are not going to part with them without
securing the largest profit possible, either from fabrics of their own manu-
facture or by selling them to those who are willing to pay fancy prices in
gold. Formerly, American boots and shoes were exported this way and were
liked, but the new conditions have effectually put a stop to all such shipments.

PETER STRICKLAND.

Consul.
GoRfeE Dakak, A/ay g, iSgO.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



NEW TARIFF OF BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA. 527



NEW TARIFF OF BRITISH CENTRAL AFRICA.

I transmit herewith a copy of the new customs tariff of British Central
Africa.

W. STANLEY HOLLIS,

Consul,
Mozambique, April 24^ i8g6.



SCHEDULE OK CUSTOMS DUTIES LEVIAHLK IN nRITlSH CENTRAL AFRICA.

Import duties.

(i) A duly of 5 per cent ad valorem on all goods except guns, gunpowder and ammuni-
tion (which are subject to a duty of 10 per cent), and machinery, agricultural implements,
and materials for making railways, tramways, or roads, materials to be used as coffee manures
(as defined below), vehicles (as defined below), and live stock (as defined below), which are
allowed to be imported free of duty.

The substances defined as coffee manures, which are allowed to be imported free of duty,
are the following: Sulphate of ammonia, sulphate of potash, nitrate of soda, nitrate of ]x>tash
(saltpeter), carbonate of potash, guano, dissolved guanos, fish guanos, fray bentos guano, som-
brero, bone ash, dissolved bones, burnt bones, raw and bruised bones, phosphatic manures
(embracing the different forms in which this mineral may be obtained as a marketable com-
modity, such as superphosphates), coprolites, gypsum, dried blood, horn dust, shoddy, poonac,
sulphuric acid, insecticides, with appliances for using the same.

Vehicles which are allowed to be imported free of duty include any wheeled carriages or
wheels or other parts of such carriages.

Live stock which is allowed to be imported free of duty includes horses, mules, asses,
oxen, sheep, goats, swine, and poultry.

(2) A duty of 10 per cent ad valorem on guns, gunpowder, and ammunition.

(3) The following duties on alcohol or liquids containing alcohol: On wine, ale, ix)rter,
and beer of every sort, per case of I dozen old wine bottles or part thereof, 5 per cent ad
valorem; on brandy, whisky, rum, gin, liqueurs, and miscellaneous spirits or strong waters
not being sweetened or mixed with any article so that the degree of strength can not be ascer-
tained by Sykes's hydrometer, where the degree of strength dues not exceed proof, for each
imperial gallon or part thereof, I2s., and for every degree or part of a degree overproof, an
additional duty, jjer imperial gallon or pat thereof, of is.; on brandy, whisky, gin, rum, and
miscellaneous spirits or ii^rong waters, these being sweetened or so mixed that the degree
of strength can not be ascertained, per each imperial gallon or part thereof, Z2s.

Export duties.

(4) Two shillings per |K)und on ivory (elephant) for entire tusks not exceeding 15 pounds
in weight. (Pieces of ivory or tusks weighing, when entire, over 15 pounds, which have
been cut up to reduce them to weights below 15 pounds will be charged at the rate of 9d.
per pound.)

(5) Nine pence per pound on ivory (elephant) for entire tusks over 15 pounds in weight.

(6) One penny per ix)und on hippopotamus teelh and rhinoceros horns.

(7) One shilling an ounce on gold.



Digitized by VjOOQIC



528 JAPANESE LAWS IN FORMOSA.



JAPANESE LAWS IN FORMOSA.

I have the honor to inclose herewith a clipping from the Japan Mail, of
the 29th ultimo, giving copies of the laws and ordinances relating to the
government of Formosa.

JOSEPH R. HEROD,

Secretary of Legation.
Tokyo, May 2, i8g6.



[From the Japan Daily Mail, Yukohatna, April 29, 1896.]

Law and Ordinances Kelatinc; to Formosa.

The following law and ordinances have been issued over the great seal and the counter-
signatures of Count Kuroda, president of the privy council and acting Premier, and other
ministers.

I^\W NO. 63, — ENKORCKMKNT OF DECREES IN FORMOSA.

Article I. The governor general of Formosa may proclaim in the districts within his
jurisdiction orders that i>osscss the same validity as law.

Art. II. F'or all orders si^ecified in the preceding article the approbation of the council
of the governor-generars office must be obtained and the sanction of His Imperial Majesty
must next be applied for through the colonization department. The organization of the
council of the governor-general's office will be .specially determined by imperial ordinance.

Art. III. In cases of emergency, the governor-general may proclaim an order without
immediately applying for the sanction si)ecified in Article I of this law.

Art. IV. When an emergency order has been issued, the sanction of His Imperial Maj-
esty must be applied for as scon after its issue as jy>ssible, and, at the same time, notice of the
issue of such order must l>e conveyed to the council. Should the imperial sanction not be
given to such order, the governor general must publicly notify the fact that the order is thence-
forth null and void.

Art. V. Of the laws now in force or that may lie proclaimed hereafter, those whose com-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 67 of 102)