United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 188-191 online

. (page 98 of 102)
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to the faucets above, where it is drawn for consumption. For this purix)se
the flask containing the liquid dioxide is connected with a reservoir which
is provided with a manometer and adjustable pii:>es to convey the gas into
the cask or casks in which the beer is kept on draft. These connections
being adjusted, a small quantity of acid is let into the reservoir, where it
expands at once into gas with development of cold. When the manometer
shows a pressure of 2 atmospheres, the supply of acid is shut off, and the
generated gas, passing through the pipe into the cask, acts as a steady, auto-
matic power to force the beer up to where ic is drawn for use. Air used in
this manner requires to be condensed by mechanical power, and moreover
ferments and otherwise injures the beer. Carbonic acid, on the other hand,
not only furnishes spontaneously any required degree of pressure, but adds
an important element to the beer itself, supplying any deficiency in effer-
vescence, preserves the beer fresh and sparkling, and enables the contents
of each cask to be used, unimpared in quality, down to the last half pint.

2. — ARTIFICIAL MINERAL WATERS.

For fortifying and recharging natural mineral waters which are deficient
in carbonic acid, the natural dioxide gas is usually employed directly at the
spring, without condensation to liquid form, and for this purpose it is
superior to gas prepared by any artificial method. But for the manufacture
of soda and other artificial waters that are made from ordinary or distilled
water, the liquid dioxide condensed from natural gas has one defect, viz,
it contains a small percentage of atmospheric air, which, when present,
prevents the perfect combination of the carbonic-acid gas with the water,
and inclines the gas to escape too readily when the bottle containing the
aerated water is opened. For this sole reason the principal maker of artifi-
cial soda and other sparkling waters in Frankfort uses carbonic-acid gas
made by treating magnesite with pure sulphuric acid. Magnesite is a natu-
ral carbonate of magnesia, which is found in Westphalia as well as among
the Apennines in Italy, whence it is exported to the United States and other
countries. It is rich in carbonic acid, and is generally pure and free from
deleterious elements. When used in the manufacture of mineral waters, the
magnesite is ground to a fine white meal and put into a strong copper gen-
erator, which can be securely closed, and contains a rotary fan, like the
** dasher" of a churn, by means of which the contents can be stirred and
thoroughly mixed. At the top of the generator is a leaden flask, ca))able of
containing a quantity of sulphuric acid, and connected with the receiver by
a tube and cock which, when opened, allows the acid to trickle slowly down



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CARBONIC ACID IN GERMANY. 76 1

and become thoroughly mingled by stirring with the magnesite. The evolu-
tion of carbonic-acid gas at once begins. It passes off by its own pressure
through a tank of water into the gasometer, which is allowed to fill until
the manometer indicates a pressure of 4 atmospheres. This is sufficient to
force it into close mechanical combination with the distilled water into which
it is injected in the manufacture of soda and other artificial effervescent
waters. Westphalian magnesite is so pure that, when treated with clean
sulphuric acid, which costs in Frankfort from $2 to 1^2.50 per 224 pounds,
the gas produced is sufficiently cleansed for any purpose by passing through
one washing with water between the generator and gasometer.

3. — ARTIFICIAL CARBONIC ACID.

Carbonic-acid gas is used largely in the manufacture of white lead, sugar,
bicarbonate of soda, etc., and as an antiseptic for the preservation of food
materials. It is heavier than atmospheric air, and when poured into a vessel,
replaces the air and thus expels the oxygen which principally causes fermen-
tation and decay. Fruits and eggs kept in casks or cases injected with
dioxide gas to the exclusion of air remain fresh and unchanged for a long
period.

For all such purposes a high standard of purity is not essential, and the
gas is therefore generally made of the most convenient material and by
the cheapest method. When limestone is used, it is roasted in a conical
stack or cupola with coke, which should be as nearly as possible free from
sulphur. For this purpose ovens of several forms are used, but they are all
simple and similar in principle. The ovens most used in Germany are those
of the Kindler and Walkhoff types, but improvements of more or less value
have been made in recent years and patented by Luhrmann, Knoup, and by
Messrs. Howard & Lane, of England. There is also a process invented by
Meschelink & Lionnet, for making carbon dioxide gas by passing steam
through heated limestone. In the manufacture of white lead at Clichy,
near Paris, the material used is chalk, in the form of Spanish whiting, mixed
with coke and burned in a Thenard oven, the working proportions being
I measure of coke to 2j4 measures of chalk. In all these processes, the car-
bonic acid is expelled by heat in the form of gas, leaving as a residue caustic
lime.

The acid processes are equally simple and well known. The material
required is any mineral carbonate that is free from bitumen or sulphur.
This material may be magnesite, dolomite, marble, chalk, limestone, or
calcareous spar. Chalk and magnesite work best with sulphuric acid, but
marble, limestone, and dolomite may be more advantageously treated with
muriatic acid, which is about half as costly as sulphuric. Pure marble
contains 44 per cent of carbonic acid, and requires for its decomposition
2.28 units of muriatic acid at 28° Baum6 strength to each unit of marble.'
One pound of marble, thoroughly decomposed, yields about 26 gallons of
carbonic-aciji gas at normal density and leaves as a residue chloride of lime,
No. 191 II.



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762 TARIFF OF BERMUDA.

the transformation being as follows : CaC03 + 2HCl=CaCl2-f H jO-fCOj.
When chalk is decomposed with sulphuric acid, the process is CaCO,4-
H2S04=CaS04 + H20H-C02, the residue being sulphate of lime. In all
these processes, it is simply required that the mineral carbonate shall be pul-
verized and mixed thoroughly in a closed generator with the acid, which, in
order to facilitate the mixing, is diluted with several volumes of water.

The condensation of carbonic-acid gas to liquid form is a mechanical
process, and involves no technical difficulties. At a temperature of 5° C.
below freezing, carbonic-acid gas condenses to fluid under a pressure of 30.84
atmospheres. When the temperature is raised to 15° C. above freezing, a
pressure of 52 atmospheres is required, and at 25°, 66 atmospheres pressure
is necessary to produce the same result. The limit, or ** critical point,"
above which carbon dioxide gas can not be condensed by any pressure, is
30.32** Celsius.

The condensation plant ordinarily employed is a series of graduated
force pumps, worked by steam or other motive power, and placed, tandem,
between a corresponding series of receivers, which, like the pumps, diminish
in size in proportion to the decreasing volume of the gas after each succes-
sive compression. In practice, the temperature is maintained at about freez-
ing, and at this point the gas, compressed by passing successively through
the series of pumps and reservoirs, condenses to fluid under a pressure of
about 36 atmospheres, and thus, having been reduced in bulk four hundred
and thirty fold from its gaseous form, it is bottled in steel and becomes a
cheap, safe, and easily manageable article of merchandise.

FRANK H. MASON,

Frankfort, April 20, i8g6. Consul- General,



TARIFF OF BERMUDA.*

JULY I, 1896, TO JUNE 30, 1897, INCLUSIVE.

Arrowroot: £ %. A.

Unmanufactured per 100 pounds... o 10 o

Manufactured per j)ouDd... 006

Alcohol, arrack, brandy, cordials, gin, pepjiermint water, shrub, whisky, and rum,

jier gallon 050

Wines of all kinds 20 per cent ad valorem.

Malt liquor, cider, and perry per hogshead... I 00

In bottles, commonly called quart bottles per dozen... 010

Cigars per thousand... o 15 o

Or, at the option of the importer per pound... 016

Cigarettes do 016

Tobacco (other than cigars and cigarettes) and snuff. do 006

Cows, calves, heifers, and oxen per head... 040

Bicycles (with wheels of not less than 18 inches in diameter) each... o 10 o

Horses ....per head... i 00



*Traiisiniticd (June 35, 1896) by Commercial Agent Willctt, of St. Gcof^'t.



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TARIFF OF BERMUDA. 763

And in all cases where such duties are imposed according to any specific quantity, the
same shall be deemed to apply in the same proportion to any greater or less quantity.

Irrespective of the foregoing duty on spirits, there shall be levied and paid into the public
treasury, on each and every cask or other package landed within these islands containing
alcohol, arrack, brandy, cordial, gin, peppermint water, nma, shrub, or whisky, in bulk, on the
landing thereof in these islands, the sum of 3d., and on the spirits herein enumerated no
drawback of the tax hereby imposed on the package shall be allowed.

On all goods imported, except articles subject to specific duties and those enumerated in
the following table of exemptions and such books as, under the act entitled "an act to regu-
late the importation of books and to protect the British author," are subject to an import duty
of 15 per cent, 5 per cent ad valorem.

Tabu of exempt iims.

Animals and goods imix)rted on account of the public of these islands by any public offi-
cer or committee, being the property of the public or purchased at the public expense; bag-
gage, consisting of apparel and professional apparatus of passengers; books, not reprints of
British publications; bullion, coals, coin, electric cable and electric-cable machinery and ap-
paratus imported in these island (by any company or person or persons under contract with
Her Majesty's Government) with the view of establishing and maintaining telegraphic com-
munications with places beyond the sea; horses and other beasts and provisions and stores
of every description imported for the use of Her Majesty's land and sea forces, being the
property of Her Majesty, on satisfactory proof of their being the property of Her Majesty,
and horses of military officers brought into these islands as a necessary part of their military
equipment, subject to all conditions, provisions, and regulations contained in any act passed
or to be passed by the legislature of these islands; provided that no military officer, during
the whole term of his service in these islands, shall be allowed to import free of import duty
more horses than shall be shown by the certificate of the officer commanding Her Majesty's
troops or other proper officer to be required by such officer importing such horses under Her
Majesty's military regulations as a necessary part of his military equipment; ice; official sup-
plies imported for the use of the consulates of any foreign countries which admit similar
supplies for the use of Her Majesty's consulates free of duty; paintings, engravings, photo-
graphs, and sculpture (whether monumental or otherwise) ; personal effects of inhabitants of
these islands dying abroad and not intended for sale; specimens of natural history, trees,
plants, bulbs, and shrubs for planting.

Uniforms, naval and military, that is to say, the s[)ecial dress of naval and military officers,
indicating their ra»k and profession and by which they are distinguished from civilians, in-
cluding the necessary arms, badges, decorations, and ornaments proper thereto, and imported
by naval and military officers for their own personal use.

Vessels, dredgers, boats, machinery, tools, plant and materials imported into these islands
by any contractor or other person for surveying or improving any of the ship channels under
any contract or agreement with the Government of these islands.

One fifth, or 20 per cent, of all import duties payable at one and the same lime, by one
and the same importer or consignee, on any goods arriving by one and the same vessel, or
payable by any person on any goods taken out of any bonded warehouse at one and the same
time shall be paid in lawful gold coin, provided that such duties amount to £$ or any multi-
ple of that sum; but such gold payments shall not be recjuired except on amounts of £^ or
multiples thereof.

Personal property sold by auclibn (property sold under process of any court or under the
order of any judge as such, or belonging to estates of deceased persons, or farm products of
this colony only excepted), subject to a duty of 2^ per cent, less 2^ per cent on such duty
to auctioneers for collecting and paying the same.

Persons exporting goods are entitled, on certain conditions, to the whole of the duty paid
on the importation thereof when the duty on the said goods amounts to £2,



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764 DUBLIN ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS.

Drawbacks of duties are allowed for goods sold to and becoming the property of Her
Majesty's Government.

The auctioneers' bonds expfre on the 30lh of June, and must then be renewed; auaioneers
to make their returns quarterly, within ten days after the last days of March, June, September,
and December, respectively.

Schedule of light tolls.

{a) On every vessel carrying Her Majesty*s mails under any contract with the ImperuJ
or Colonial Government, 3 farlhings i)er ton net register measurement.

{b) On every vessel exclusively employed under any contract with Her Majesty's Govern-
ment in laying, repairing, t>r maintaining any electric cable, or on any service connected there-
with, 3 farthings per ton net register measurement.

(<-) On every vessel calling at the islands for orders only, or for coals and provisions for
the ship's use only, and not taking on board or discharging any cargo, or landing or taking on
board any i>assenger, except when compelled to do so under any quarantine act or the im-
perial merchant shipping act, or by reason of sickness on board, I halfpenny per ton net reg-
ister measurement.

(^) On every steamer calling at these islands periodically and not less often than once a
month, or belong to lines of steamers calling here periodically and not less often than once
a month, to land or take on board passengers and freight, 2d. per ton net register measure-
ment.

{e) On all other vessels not exempted by law, 3d. per ton net register measurement.

The light tolls on any one vessel shall not, on any arrival in these islands, exceed £1^.
Transports and storeships actually and wholly employed both on the voyage inward and on the
voyage outward, without interruption, in Her Majesty's service:, are exempted from this duty.

JAMES TUCKER,

Receiver-General's OF¥icv.y June 22^ j8g6. Receiver- General,



DUBLIN ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS.

The first tramway line in Ireland operated by modern methods of electric
traction was opened to the public May 9, 1896, at Dublin. The event has
an importance of more than passing interest for both Ireland and the United
States — for Ireland, as marking the introduction of electricity as the motor
power for street railways; for the United States, as promising a market of
more or less magnitude for electric-railway supplies. Previous to the inaugu-
ration of the Dublin Electric Tramways Line, there were no electric railways
in Ireland, except one or two of early construction upon methods now anti-
quated, and these have served to rather deepen a prejudice, already strong,
among the people of Ireland against electric traction.

The Dublin Southern District Tramways Company obtained from Parlia-
ment, in 1893, after overcoming much opposition, privilege to substitute
electric for horse power upon their suburban line extending from Hadding-
ton Road, Dublin, to Dalkey, a southern suburb. The work of reequipment
was begun in February, 1895, ^"^» ^"^ ^^ disputes which arose, was soon
after suspended until the latter i^art of May, 1895, ^^^y ^^^ ^^ delays of
various kinds, was not opened for the conveyance of the public until May 9,
1896. Under the horse-car system, the line was divided into three sections,
and a i>assenger in going from Haddington Road to Dalkey, a distance of 8



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DUBLIN ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS. 765

miles, was compelled to change cars three times and pay a fare of 8d. Under
the present electric system, the journey is continuous and unbroken, and the
fare is 4d. The new line is also divided into four sections of nearly equal
lengths, the fare for each of which is id., thus giving a street-car fare on
an average of about i cent per mile.

The equipment is first class throughout the entire line. It is double
tracked throughout the entire length, except for short distances in one of the
more narrow thoroughfares. The gauge is 5 feet 3 inches. The rails, of
the girder type, weigh 75 pounds per yard, and are joined by fish plates,
weighing 25 J^ pounds per pair, and bound together by steel ties at distances
of 7 feet, and resting upon a bed of concrete 6 inches thick, which extends
over the entire width of the street. The street is then paved with granite
sets bedded in sand. The overhead construction is the span trolley system,
the supporting standards being of hollow steel tubes in three sections of
different diameters. They were furnished by a Philadelphia house. The
trolley wires, double throughout the entire line, are of hard, drawn copper,
0.325 inch in diameter, and divided into half-mile sections by insulators,
where the two ends are brought into switch boxes, and thereby joined to
feeders, by which the power is evenly distributed throughout the line. Junc-
tion boxes with switches are provided for cutting out section or trolley line,
or feeder, the feeder being constructed upon what is known as the ** three-
phase " system.

The generators consist of the central pdwer station, situated near the
Haddington Road terminus, and two substations, or supply stations, the one
at the Dalkey terminus and the other at Blackrock, about midway of the
system. The substations were necessitated by economical reasons because
of the location of the principal generating station at the one terminus in-
stead of in the center of the system. The location of the central station
was not only determined by the company's possession of property at that
point available for use, but also from the fact that the company hoped to
greatly extend their system from this point as a center. The distribution of
power is described by the company as follows: A continuous current of 500
volts for working the lines adjacent to the principal power station, and a
current of 2,500 volts carried on the ** three-phase*' system to the two sub-
stations, where the electrical power is transformed into a continuous 500-
volt current, each substation delivering energy to the line in proportion to
the number of cars in operation upon any section. A board of trade regu-
lation makes it incumbent upon the company that in the return current the
difference in the potential shall not be greater than 7 volts between the ex-
treme ends of the line. This regulation is to protect gas and water pipes
from electrolysis as far as possible.

In summing up the advantages of the plans adopted, the coftipany says:
The number of cars may be largely increased and operated without exceeding
board of trade regulations; for the "three-phase" transmission, only three-
fourths the weight of copper wire is required, compared with that required



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766 DUBLIN ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS.

for a simple alternating-current system of the same voltage over the whole
line. Motor generators may be started from either the 500 volts contin-
uous or the 2,500 volt "three-phase** mains, and the power delivered to
each substation can be maintained at the maximum efficiency. A further
advantage lies in the comparative small amount of copper required in the
feeders supplying current to the trolley wires. Restriction of voltage drop
in the earth results in the current returning to the generating source through
the rails. With a single point of distribution only, all the earth currents
would be toward the power station ; but with several points of distribution,
the return currents, at any point along the line, may be in opposite direc-
tions at different times, according to the distribution of the load; hence,
with the same difference of potential in the earth return as in the first case,
the possibility of trouble or damage from electrolysis is greatly diminished.

The fish plates joining the ends of the rails are supposed to be noncon-
ductors, and the rails are brought into contact by what is known as the
/* Chicago rail bond," and here again the current density per square inch of
contact between the bond and the rail has been made low to prevent any
electrolytic action.

The central power house is equipped with two 500-volt continuous rail-
way generators, driven by four engines, each capable of giving continuously
150 B. horsepower. The carrying equipment consists of a motor car with
a capacity to seat fifty-three passengers, drawing a trailer having a seating
capacity of forty-six. The motors are the "G. E. 800," as supplied by the
G. E. Company, of Schenectady, N. Y. The service is now every five min-
utes, and it is expected to shortly increase the service to every two minutes.

As pointed out in the first paragraph, the importance of this line to the
United States lies in the fact that its introduction is likely, in the near future,
to result in extension of electric traction to the tramways in general in Ire-
land. The construction of the Dublin Electric Tramways Line was carried
out by the British Thomson-Houston Company, but the electric supplies
were, I believe, drawn in the chief part from the United States, though I
believe this company owns the American patents for the United Kingdom,
and are endeavoring to reach a position to manufacture supplies sufficient
for their own contracts. The Dublin Electric Tramways Company are now
before Parliament with a bill to enable them to continue their line from Had-
dington Road, in the southern boundary of the city, to 0*Conneirs Bridge,
Sackville Street, the tram center of the city, and to construct two extensive
suburban lines starting from the central power station. This bill will prob-
ably be granted despite a powerful opposition. Also, the Dublin United
Tramways Company, which has a monopoly of the street-railway traffic in
Dublin, made an effort to secure from the Dublin municipal corporation con-
sent to proceed in Parliament with a bill to substitute electric traction for
horse power upon their many miles of street railway. At the same time, the
Electric Tram Company endeavored to secure from the corporation a fran-
chise for extensive development of their system in the city proper; but



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DUBLIN ELECTRIC TRAMWAYS. 767

neither company was successful for the present, except that the corporation
gave consent for the Electric Company to proceed with a bill to enable it to
extend its line from Haddington Road to the tram center of the city. The
action of the corporation in refusing assent to general electric franchise can
not be regarded as final, as the consideration of the question was postponed
for a few months only. This action was doubtless due to consideration on
the part of the municipal corporation for the very strong antielectric-tram
agitation stirred up in the city by various interests.

It would be hard for one who was not present to conceive the great oppo-
sition which was developed by the proposition brought before the municipal
corporation to allow electricity to be introduced upon the tramways of the
city. Workingmen's clubs were organized against the measure, and many
meetings were held to protest against the proposed progress. "Sandwich
men*' appeared in the streets bearing huge placards predicting ruin for Dub-
lin if electricity was introduced. This placard asserted that in the event
of the introduction of electric traction into the city the trades of *' cab and
car men, coach builders, carriage smiths, carriage painters, horseshoers, har-
ness makers, wagon makers, brush makers, coachmen, grooms, coal porters,
corn porters, van drivers, carriers, corporation employees, tram stablemen,
horse clippers, horse breeders, farmers, and all farm produce'* would utterly
disappear. One could imagine he was transported to the first half of the



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 188-191 → online text (page 98 of 102)