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Up to the 23d instant, 4,560 Klondike miners' licenses to pros-
pectors (mostly from the United States) had been issued at the
custom-house in Victoria, at $10 each. The cash receipts for the same
were $45,600, and the cost being less than 3 per cent, the remainder
of this sum was turned over direct to the Dominion Government.
Just now there is a lull in the emigration to the north, caused perhaps
by the fact that the roads and passes are in an almost impassable
state. In view of this fact and the daily reports of disasters, it is
deemed inevitable that a large number of the prospectors who go
north will return sick, indigent, and penniless. The provincial legis-
lative assembly last week, at the suggestion of the secretary of the
Province, unanimously passed a resolution requesting the Dominion



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.



191



Government ** to take effective steps at the ports of embarkation and
debarkation to prevent sick and indigent persons, criminals, and
lunatics, who are not British subjects, from emigrating to British
Columbia," and to take care of similar persons who are subjects of
the Queen.

THE SALMON PACK.

The salmon pack of the canneries of this Province during 1897
was greater than ever before, reaching 1,015,477 cases, of a gross
value of $3,023,514, most of which was shipped direct to England,
around Cape Horn, in sailing vessels. The year was an exceptional
one, and it is not expected that the yield will be as large in 1898. In
1893, the total pack in the whole Province was 607,706 cases; in 1895,
600,889 cases; and in 1896, 616,482 cases. The shipments made
during the season were: To England — by sea, 733,704 cases; over-
land, 43,330 cases; to eastern Canada, 130,815 cases; to Australia,
2^»597 cases; and to other destinations, 226 cases.

PRODUCE OF MINES.

The annual report of the minister of mines of British Columbia
has been laid before the legislative assembly, and contains many
facts of interest as showing the development of the Province. Up
to 1898, British Columbia has produced in minerals no less than
$112,413,485, gold and coal being the two principal features, as the
table shows :

Production of minerals during the years i8g6 and /Sg7.



Minerals.



1896.



1897.



Total
production.



Gold:

Placer

Lode

Silver

Lead

Copper

Coal

Building stones, etc..
All other



15,000
Tota4 7f 507. 946



$544,026
1,244,180
2,100,689
721.384
190,936
2,691,741



I513.520
2,122,820
3,272,836
I. 390. 517
266,258
2 » 737. 713



151,600



159.3x7. 473

4,300,689

7,301,060

2,971,618

521,060

36,626,585

1,350,000

25.000



10.455.268



112,413.485



The following table shows the annual output of the provincial
mines from 1890 to 1897:



Year.



1890
1891
1893
1893



Amount.

$2,608,803
3.521,102
2,978.530
3.588,413



Year.



1894
1895
1896
1897



Amount.

$4,225,7x7
5,643,042
7.507.956

10,455,268



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192 COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.

There were 558,322 tons of coal and 2,573 tons of coke exported
and sold in California during the year 1897.

RAILWAY CHARTERS.

Two charters have already been granted for new railways in this
Province, each to be on the mainland. One is the Arrowhead and
Kootney Company, and the other the North Star and Arrow Lake
Company. Each is required to deposit $5,000 with the provincial
government within six months as a guaranty that it will spend
$10,000 on surveys, etc., by June 30, 1899, or forfeit said $5,000 and
also the charter.

farmers' institutes.

The provincial department of agriculture last year, for the first
time, attempted to establish a series of farmers* institutes through-
out the Province. The first annual report of the same has just been
published, and shows that they have been only moderately successful.
A distinguished student of the Ontario Agricultural College was
secured to deliver lectures at the institutes. It appears that twelve
institutes were organized with a total membership of 528, mostly
resident on the mainland. An experimental farm has also been
operated by the government, a few miles east of Vancouver. A
project is discussed for the government to loan to farmers amounts
not exceeding the estimated value of their lands, at i per cent, to be
expended in cultivating land ; said amount loaned to be payable in
installments within forty years from the time same is advanced.
But, thus far, the government has not adopted this plan, and it will
probably be one of the issues of the summer political campaign,
when members of the legislative assembly are all to be chosen.

finances.

The official statement of the finances of the Province shows the
debt to be $6,586,989.43; the balance of indebtedness over assets,
$4,284,014.78. The fiscal year closes June 30. The receipts from all
sources last year were $1,483,048, against $1, 156,078 for the previous
year. The expenditure for 1896-97 was $1,569,071, leaving a deficit
of $86,023.

A statement made to the legislative assembly last month shows
that the expenses for the seven months from July i, 1897, to Febru-
ary I, 1898, were $1,078,261.32. This large portion of the expendi-
ture for the entire year is the result of the practice here of using
the appropriations, on all the branches of public works, during the
first six months of the fiscal year.

The premier has presented to the legislative assembly the esti-
mates of the revenues and receipts of the Province for the ensuing



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. I93

year. The total receipts are put at $1,453,389.45, the principal
sources being as follows: Dominion Government, $317,689.45;
timber and mining licenses, $385,000; taxes on real and personal
property, wild land, minerals, and income revenue, $434,000, The
estimated expenditures are $1,992,609.71. So the provincial gov-
ernment starts for the new year with an expected deficit of $539,-
220.36. The sum of $35,000 is set apart for additions to new school-
houses, $15,000 for surveys throughout the Province, and $483,700
for roads, wharves, and bridges. The last item includes new bridges
at the gorge in Victoria, at Nanaimo River, over Thompson River
at Kamloops; extensive repairs to bridges over the north arm of
Fraser River; construction of new wharves at Esquimalt, North
Saanieh, and Galiano Island ; repairs to wharves at Mague Island,
Sooke, Albemi, Harrison Lake, Nelson, and Mission City.

RAILROADS.

The present government of the Province has put itself on record
as desiring the Dominion to secure a railroad from Teslin Lake to
Port Simpson, or some other place on the coast of British Columbia,
but without any grant from the Province.

On the 23d instant, to the great satisfaction of the Canadian Pacific
Railroad, a resolution was passed in the provincial legislative assem-
bly urging the Government of the Dominion to oppose the granting
of a charter to the proposed Kettle River Valley Railway Company,
on the ground that such railway, when constructed, will have its
terminal in Northport, in the United States, and thus draw the ores
and traffic from British Columbia to the United States. This is the
Spokane Falls and Northern Railway Company, known as the Corbin
Road, which asked for a charter for the construction of an extension
of their line from near Northport, in the United States, to Cascade
City, just inside the international boundary on the Canadian side;
thence to Grand Forks, following the valley of the Kettle River on
to Greenwood City and into the Boundary Creek district.

PROVINCIAL POLICE.

The annual report of the provincial police of British Columbia
shows that the force consists of the superintendent, with headquarters
at Victoria, one sergeant, and ninety-eight constables, besides spe-
cial police, who are employed as required. The total cost of salaries
is $80,000. During last year, 1,888 convictions were secured, 39
more than the previous year. Owing to the increase of crime among
juvenile offenders, especially in the coast cities, a juvenile reforma-
tory has been opened at Victoria, which now has 12 occupants. In
various city lockups, which are maintained by the respective munici-
pal governments, there were confined during the year, in addition
No. 213 3.



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194 LEAD MINING IN CANADA.

to the above, the following prisoners sentenced to short terms for
drunkenness or nonpayment of fines: Victoria, 365; Vancouver,
704; New Westminster, 122; Nanaimo, 42; Wellington, 17 — making
the total number of persons arrested and imprisoned during the
year in the Province 3,138.

WOMAN SUFFRAGE.

In municipal affairs, the right of suffrage is determined by prop-
erty and business, and not by sex; but in the election of members
of the provincial and Dominion parliaments, universal manhood
suffrage is the law, except for Indians and Chinese. On Tuesday,
the 23d instant, a monster petition for an extension of suffrage,
on provincial matters, to women was presented to the legislative
assembly. The petition was signed by 2,500 British subjects, resi-
dents of British Columbia, and was 60 feet long. There was no
demonstration on its presentation. The experiment of woman suf-
frage as it works in the cities is not regarded as a success, although
the petition therefor, which is presented annually, is larger this year
than ever before.

DOMINION MINT. '

The legislative assembly has unanimously passed a resolution
requesting the Dominion Government to erect a mint in British
Columbia.

Abraham E. Smith,

Victoria, B. C, March 26, i8g8. Consul.



LEAD MINING IN CANADA.

I inclose a copy of a circular issued to all the lead miners and
mining men in Canada ; also, a copy of a petition to Parliament, which
was the outcome of this circular. It is understood that the petition
is to be signed unanimously and presented to Parliament.

Charles E. Turner,

Ottawa, March 21 18^8. Consul-General,



A SOLUTION TO THE SMELTING PROBLEM.

[Extracts from circular to lead miners.]

The lead mining and smelting industry of Canada, which at this time is central-
ized in British Columbia, is battling against tremendous odds by reason of being
forced into the United States market with its product — ore and bullion — a market
hostile because of its high protective tariff. This tariff, which is designed by the
United States to foster and build up the mining and smelting industry of that
country, is, to the Canadian miner who ships his ore direct, burdensome in the ex-
treme, as he must perforce seek that market; and it is absolutely prohibitive when



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LEAD MINING IN CANADA. I95

applied to the bullion product of such ores smelted in Canada. There is a discrimi-
nation in the duty between lead in ore and lead in bullion, the object being to force
the smelting of foreign ores in that country. It is absolutely impossible, because
of this tariff discrimination between lead in ore and lead in bullion, to carry on at
a profit the industry of mining and smelting Canada's lower grade ores, or the
smelting of ores of any grade, inasmuch as under present conditions our lead must
go to United States markets. It is a fact that the lead miners of the United States
are, under a protective tariff on lead, successfully and profitably operating mines
that range in grade from 15 to 30 per cent lower than those which under present
conditions we can not think of operating in British Columbia. Kootenai has the
highest grade lead mines in the world; yet the lead product of her ores, because of
being forced into a hostile market, fall short of paying the freight, treatment, and
duty charges. And, were it not for the association with the lead, they could not be
worked at all. The reason we are forced into that market lies in the utter absence
of an available home market. It is not available, because of a low Canadian import
duty on lead and lead products which admits foreign lead and foreign lead manu-
factures comparatively free. The United States tariff on lead in bullion, pig, and
the principal lead products averages four times more than that of Canada. Canada
draws her lead supply principally from the United States and Mexico, and she will
never consume the product of her own lead mines until she has placed her lead
miners and her lead smelters on an equal footing with those of the United States;
until she has, by a similar tariff act, shut out the cheap leads of Mexico and placed
herself beyond the control and influence of the United States lead trust. The lead
miners of the United States are enjoying great prosperity to-day because they are
protected by their tariff. Canada, then, need only take the United States as an
example.

Some three years ago the Dominion Government sought to foster the smelting
industry by offering a bonus of |i5o,ooo, to be paid at the rate of $30,000 per year,
with a maximum of 50 cents per ton on all ores smelted in Canada. This was
wholly ineffective. ♦ * * An export duty as a means of forcing the smelting of
lead ores in Canada is not to be thought of, as it would completely prostrate lead
mining without opening the Canadian market to Canadian lead. * ♦ * The prob-
lem of lead smelting in Canada can only be solved through a prohibitive tariff on
lead in pig or bars, white lead (dry or mixed), bullion, lead manufactures, and all
articles in the composition of which lead figures to any considerable extent.

Canada will never be in a position to manufacture lead until she has the lead
smelters. She will never have a lead smelter until she has shut out foreign leads
and made the home market available to the home smelter.

The question naturally follows. Can Canada consume the product of her lead
mines ? The oflScial statistics given out by the Department of Trade and Commerce
show the consumption of the lead in bar, sheet, white lead, and lead manufactures
to be about 25,000 tons per annum. The lead output of Canada for the year 1897
was approximately 18,000 tons — 7,000 tons short of the consumption. It is true that
the establishment of factories to supply the demand for lead products would require
time; but there is already a Canadian market for 8,000 tons of pig lead, none of
which is now supplied by Canadian mines, and the comparatively easy establish-
ment of corroding works would make a market for 6,000 tons more for the manu-
facture of lead paints. In case of immediate or future surplus, we would be at no
greater disadvantage, so far as the United States market is concerned, than we are
at the present time. Eighty per cent of the output could be almost immediately
utilized in Canada.

The effect of such a measure would be, of course, to greatly stimulate lead min-
ing in Canada, as it would make it possible to work at a profit mines so low in



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196 LEAD MINING IN CANADA.

grade as to be now worthless, and so greatly increase the output. But great smelt-
ing and manufacturing concerns would then have been established, and they, being
in a better position than the individual miner with his ores, or a lone and unpro-
tected smelter with its bullion, could seek the Orient or Europe as a market for this
surplus.

I believe that Canada is now in a position to cut away from the United States
in the matter and take up a course looking towards supplying her own lead markets
from her own lead mines.

If Canada is ever to have commercial independence — a hope that burns ever in the
breast of loyal Canadians — there can never be a more opportune time than the pres-
ent to begin the working out of that end. Notwithstanding the friendly overtures
of the present Canadian Government, and in the face of our low and friendly tariff,
the United States is treating us, to say the least, ruthlessly in many particulars,
most notably in the matter of an import duty on lead. A retaliatory measure that
would show to that country our independence, and at the same time greatly stimu-
late and foster our mining, smelting, and manufacturing interests, appears to me
to be eminently the right thing.

The object of this circular letter is to start an agitation that must end in action
of some kind on the part of the General Government, since the question is one of
vital importance to the lead miners of Canada, and will no doubt be taken up by
them and pushed. I respectfully request that you give this matter your immediate
consideration, and, further, if you are favorably impressed with the idea and plan,
that you convey to paper such approval, together with your own ideas and sugges-
tions on the subject, and mail the same to my address for use in the campaign
which is about to be opened in the interest of the lead mining and smelting
industry of Canada.

Very respectfully,

David W. King,

Kaslo, B. C, February 28, J8g8, Editor Kootenaian,



PETITION TO THE GOVERNMENT AND PARLIAMENT OF THE DOMINION OF CANADA BY
THE FEDERATED CANADIAN MINING INSTITUTE.

Whereas the following resolution was carried in full session at the annual meet-
ing of the Federated Canadian Mining Institute, held at Montreal, Quebec, March
2, 3, and 4, 1898:

Resolved, That a committee be appointed to draft and present to the Dominion
Parliament and other proper channels a petition, setting forth as it being the sense
of this institute (representing, as it does, the mining and kindred industries of
Canada) the desirability that an efficient import duty should be placed on lead and
lead manufactures by the Canadian Government.

Therefore, the said Canadian Mining Institute hereby petitions the Dominion
Government, Parliament, and all others interested in the industrial advancement
of Canada to use every honorable means and energy to at once place an import
tariff on lead and lead manufactures equal to that tariff levied on similar products
by the United States. Believing, as we do, that such action would be the means
of fostering the mining and smelting and refining and manufacturing industries in
Canada, we ask that such far-reaching industries be earnestly supported by all
means and every party, irrespective of politics, for the general weal.



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MINERAL PRODUCTION OF CANADA.



197



MINERAL PRODUCTION OF CANADA, 1897.

I transmit statistics showing the mineral production for the year
1897, as given by the geological survey of Canada.

* Summary of the mineral production of Canada in 18^7,



Product.



Quantity.*



Value.*



Meialiic.

Copper (6nc, in ore, etc.H pounds..

Gold.-



'3.3«>»8o2



Iron ore tons..

Lead (fine, in ore, etc.)t pounds..

Mercury do



Nickel (fine, in ore, etc.)$ do

Platinum...

Silver (fine, in ore, etc.)| ounces..



71.451

39,0x8,219

638

3»997.647

5.558,446



|i, 501,660

6,190,000

178,716

1,396.853

324

I. 399.176

6,600

3,322,905



ToUl metallic.



13.996,234



Nonmetallic.

Asbestos and asbestic tons..

Chromite do.....

Coal do

CokeT- do

Felspar do

Fireclay do

Grindstones **.« do

Gypsum do

Limestone for flux** .do

Mica **



25,262

a. 637

3,876,201

78,811

1.275

1,923



239,691



324.700

32.474

7,286,257

209,920

3.506

5.759

40,000

244. 53«
40,000
75. 000



57«
3.90s



5.485

709.857

908

38,910



Mineral pigments:

Baryta tons...

Ochres.^ , do

Mineral water** gallons...

Molding sand tons...

Natural gastt

PetroleumJt barrels...

Phosphate (apatite) tons...

Pyrites do

Salt** do

Sundry minerals, partly estimated (including actinolite, graphite, manga
nese, soapstone, and tripolite)

Structural material* and clay products.
Cement:

Natural... barrels.

Portland do....

Flagstones

Granite**

Pottery**

* Quantity or value of product marketed. The ton used is that of 2,000 pounds.

t Copper contents of ore, matte, etc., at 11.29 cents per pound.

X Lead contents of ores, etc., at 3.58 cents per pound.

\ Nickel contents of ore, matte, etc., at 35 cents per pound.

I Silver contents of ore at 59.79 cents per ounce.

^ Oven coke, all the production of Nova Scotia and British Columbia.

** Partly estimated.

tt Gross return from sale of gas.

XX Calculated from inspection returns at 100 gallons crude to 42 refined oil and computed at $1.43^
per barrel of 35 imperial gallons. The barrel of refined oil Is assumed to contain 42 imperial gallons.



85.450
"9.763



3 .060

«3.s6o

140,000

10,931

325,873

1,011,546

3.984
"6,730
190,000



65.893

209,380

7.190

75.000
125,000



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1 98 MINERAL PRODUCTION OF CANADA.

Summary of the mineral production of Canada in i8qrj — Continued.



Product.



Quantity.



Structural materials and clay products — Continued. 1

Sewer pipe.

Slate

Terra cotta !..

Building material (including bricks, building stone, lime, sands and gravels, |
and tiles), estimated as for previous year i..



Total structural materials and clay products...
All other nonmetallic



Total nonmetallic

Toul metallic

Estimated value of mineral products not returned..



1896.
1895.
1894.

1893-
1892 .
189Z .
1890.
1889.
1888.
1887.
1886.



Value.



$164,350
42,800
J55.595

3,600,000



4,445. »o8
10,097,831



I4,S42>939

13.996,234

250,000



Total in 1897.- 1 28,789,173



,609,825
.7»5.3J9
.933.857
,035,082
,628,417
,976,616
.763.353
013,913
.479.550
365.705
221,355



REMARKS.

The figures given in the preceding general table bring out in a
marked degree the gratifying results of the greatly increased activity
in the mining industry during 1897.

The following table shows the principal changes in production
and values for the calendar year 1897, as compared with the figures
given in the revised summary for 1896:



Copper..
Gold



Iron ore..

Lead

Nickel ...
Silver



Product.



Metallic.



Nonmetallic.

Asbestos and asbestic

Coal

Gypsum

Natural gas.

Petroleum

Cement



Quantity.



Per cent.
41.6



Per cent.



61.2
17.7
73-4

106.2
3-5
15.8



Value.



37-6



Increase.


Decrease.


Per cent.
46.9


Per cent.






6.7


93-7
17.7
54.6






24.5


0.8


37-3
17.9






I2-S


36.5



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MINERAL PRODUCTION OF CANADA. 1 99

The increase in the items silver and lead is practically all to be
credited to British Columbia, to which Province is also largely due
the increase in the production of copper. The largest increase in
this latter metal is, however, due to the increased shipments of
nickel-copper mattes from the Sudbury mines in Ontario. The third
copper-producing Province — Quebec — also contributed a fair amount
to the increase shown. The silver, copper, and lead increases, as far
as British Columbia is concerned, represent the largely extended
activities in the South Kootenai districts of Slocan, Nelson, and
Trail Creek.

The most significant item, however, is to be found in the in-
crease of nearly 123 per cent in the gold. All the gold-producing
districts of the Dominion show gratifying increases, although by far
the largest part is due to the discoveries of rich placer mines in the
Yukon country, and to the increased output of Trail Creek and other
districts in British Columbia. The former increase amounted to
about $2,250,000 and the latter to nearly $1,000,000.

The remaining metal of importance is nickel, which is seen to
have shown an increase of nearly 18 per cent. As in the past, this
is all from the Sudbury district.

Thus, the aggregate result of the increase in the metallic products
is nearly $6,000,000, or a proportion of about 74 per cent.

An interesting result of the mining developments and discovery
of 1897 is shown in the increase in the proportion of the value of the
total mineral production to be credited to the metals. In 1896 this
proportion constituted about 36 per cent, while in 1897 it was
increased to nearly 49 per cent.

Turning to the nonmetallic products, we find that as far as the
data at present available permit of a conclusion being arrived at,
the total value shows under 2 percent of an increase over that of the
previous year. The only considerable change to be noted is that
given under the heading asbestos, where the quantity has more than
doubled, while the value has fallen off almost 25 per cent. This is due
to the fact that the output of the new by-product asbestic is included.
This constitutes over half the weight of the whole, but, being a
low-priced article, brings down the price per unit very much. The
returns, however, show also a falling off in the prices of the usual



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 212-215 → online text (page 26 of 83)