United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

. (page 18 of 92)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 18 of 92)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


(32) The bank can augment its capital when the assembly of shareholders resolve
to do so, with the concurrence of the Government of Paraguay, which will have
the right to subscribe half of the shares issued for this purpose.



CATTLE IN URUGUAY.

Cattle are an important part of the wealth of Uruguay. The fol-
lowing is a statement of the movement of the stock yards of Monte-
video for the year 1898:

The number brought into the stock yards was:

Head.

By railway (4,442 cars) 94> B79

In droves 281, 189

Total 376,068

Classification :

Steers 227, 193

Cows 129,070

Oxen II, 751

Calves 8,054

Total 376,068

Destination:

For slaughterhouses 219, 124

For local meat supply 88, 738

For interior 68, 206

Total 376,068

These cattle were brought from the following places, which cover
all the departments of the Republic.



From-



Florida

Durazuo .~

Paysandu

Miaas

Tacuaremb6 .-

Soriano

San Jos^

Ccrro Larga...
Maklonado ....

Colonia ,

Flores ,



Head.



64.559
28,36a
13.510
20,438

14.413
56.156
54,434
5.899
7,646
13.456
13.306



From—



Treinta y Trcs.

Canelones.

Rocha

Salto

Rio- Negro

Rivera

Montevideo

Artigas

Total



Head.



9.902

30,015

5.426

6.785

16,387

265.

14.568

540



376,068



Digitized by



Google



136



COTTON GOODS IN ECUADOR.



The killing on the River Plata, which includes Argentina and
Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), is officially given in this r6sum6:



Description.



1899.



1898.



1897.



Z896.



Arg^entine Republic:

Buenos Ayres.

Entre Rios

UrusruAy: .

Uruguay River.^

Montevideo

State of Rio Grande (Brazil).

Total

For extract of beef

For tasajo (jerked beef)



Head.

4Z,CXK>

5,500

38,500
131,900

xo.ooo



Head.
52,500
2,300

38,000
76,000
x8,ooo



Head.
219,100

2X,000

68,000
144,000
55,000



226,900



z86,8oo



407,100



3,600
223,300



1,500
185,300



Head.
74,300
5, zoo

73,700
zi3,8oo



266,900



27,000
239,900



Montevideo, January 21, iSpg.



Albert W. Swalm,

Consul,



COTTON GOODS IN ECUADOR.

The following information was sent by Consul-General De Leon,
of Guayaquil, under date of January 18, 1899, in answer to inquiries
by the Philadelphia Museums.* Mr. De Leon says:

I am pleased to find that our merchants are realizing the fact
that to develop a trade in any particular line in foreign countries
they must meet the requirements of the buyer and be prepared to
sell him what his custom requires, and not what we think he should
require. The information I have obtained comes from one of the
leading houses of this city. I trust that our merchants may secure a
fair share of the cotton-goods business of Ecuador, which at present
is controlled by Europe. I confess that I have little hope of seeing
United States manufactures sold to any great extent on this coast
until we have an isthmian canal. At present, business is handi-
capped by the excessive rates charged by the steamship line —
double, and in some cases treble, those from Europe. When the
railroad now in course of construction from San Jos6, Costa Rica, to
the Pacific is completed, the rates may be reduced.

* Advance Sheets of the report have been forwarded.



Digitized by



Google



COTTON GOODS IN ECUADOR.



^37



s

Ol



"is



O SOS



QQ



O



a .

o o o o o S o
Q Q Q Q Q .2 Q

V



aa




0005.5.^^0^0 5.^ o^ ^



000000



•^



t



6

s

I

i.



^ o



o >.
^4



o^oooSooo

5 M iS ^ ^



'Ui



o



9 9



i 9 C «



Is ll

S<< c S
2 2 '^



O O V o o o o
•^ -q ii "o -q -q "o



£•3



e4 a



(« e c S
9 2 2I



3



tS



2
o

II



Digitized by



Google



138



COTTON GOODS IN ECUADOR.



"2



S! "
•5 «fi

>



.22 2 .22

c "S c

<c ^ «

I 1



s so o



§.1

o



<§ia<§^



•c



c

c
o
U

I



?2L



0; X



2 3






§S






5 a iSS



2,

I



i



'51

■ j 8,8



3

i



^ Oi



IS-R^f



« c ♦

. M « ^ N-*

« . • "O

tf) 3! M « N












o o 00



000



O M M tf> tf>
(V) C« « n (1



s s



^ ^ ^^8



%n **) pn w
■5 o



en <*>



) <o « « >o

2 s 2 ^
^ >o >o ^



a

a



':^



JH -^






■a



e



•c






U



"8



g

2
c

1

(/3






H -o U H



.22 V M JS



o « u o c4
•a U H "S W
o o






2 o.



2 a



8.5
t3



o

h
ill

s : 8



U

JS o

88

il



Digitized by



Google



COTTON GOODS IN ECUADOR.



139



w QQ



I i



S' 5' II



000



.S.S.



5i
8|



iL S. S. & S,



i 2i i



•^ o

1^'



. a



I I



§ s ^

^ a
.2.8



d d d X d d d



t» V U t» V V









•sg.oa^g'sar'g

5"S 8 g."g.2S.



I IS



(« 4 4



«. ^



a a a



% % "^






s.^%s>s> s>



^



s ^ s s

_ _ 0300

S> S» S> & S» r? ?



o o



& &&nn






c
3



o




a a

.S .2

a a

8 ?






S

"E

s



5 o o g o o o
2 V^ 2-^v^



1 i



a



6 6-a



Hi



n

^1



JB C

u



Digitized by



Google



140



IMPORTS OF EXPLOSIVES IN PERU.
Freights from European ports to Guayaquil,



Route.


From—


Articles.


Rate.


Via the Straits 0/ Magellan.
Lamport and Holt Gulf Line


Liverpool


Hardware...

Textiles

^0...


408, (I9.73H-5 per cent per ton.*
4SS. ($xa95H-5 per cent per ton.
35 francs (|6.76)+xo per cent per

cubic meter.
35 marks (I8.33H-S per cent per cubic

meter.
47s. 6d. ($11.56) net per cubic meter.

16s. od. (S8.o4)4->; per cent per ton.




Hambursr.... ...


xJo




Genoa


„^o


Via Panama.
Roval Mail '.


Southampton..
Havre


Hardware ...

Thread

Wool silk.....




45s. (I10.95H-5 per cent per ton.
70s. (|i7.o3)-|-5 per cent per ton.
75s. (I18.25H-5 per cent per ton.
so francs (I9.65H-5 per cent per ton.
55 francs (I10.62H-5 per cent per ton.
85 francs (I16.41H-5 per cent per ton.
40S- ($9-73) per net ton.
60s. ($14.60) per net ton.
aoos. ($486.60) per net ton.
85 francs ($i6.4i)-|-s per cent per
cubic meter.




Hardvrare...

Thread

Wool silk.....
Hardware ...

TexUles

C^ps


Hamburif- American


Hamburg.

G^noa




La Veloce.


Textiles


HamburflT-American.^


Havre


Compagnie G^n^rale Transat-
lantique.


St. Naxaire.....
Havre


Same as Royal Mail from Havre.


Marseilles

Bordeaux.^





* z ton= 1,000 Idlc^rams (2,204.6 pounds), or 40 cubic feet, at the option of the companies.



IMPORTS OF EXPLOSIVES IN PERU.

In reply to an inquiry by the United States Export Association
of New York,* Consul Dickey writes from Callao, December 27,
1898:

The total amount of dynamite, powder, etc., imported into Peru
from July i, 1897, to June 30, 1898, was: Dynamite, 4,412 cases,
weighing 20,295 kilograms (44,742 pounds); blasting and mining
powder, 52 packages, each package containing 4 tins, with a total
weight of 2,911 kilograms (6,417 pounds); common black sporting
powder, 486 boxes, weighing 57 kilograms each, or, say, 2,770 kilo-
grams (6, 107-pounds) in all; triple dynamite fulminants, 1,435,000;
shotgun fulminants, 3,240,000; fus6 for dynamite fulminants, 164,900
rolls.

I have not been able to obtain values.

All explosives imported into Peru must be deposited in the vaults
of the Sociedad San Lorenzo, in the Island of San Lorenzo, about 7
miles from Callao, and pay 20 cents silver (about 10 cents gold) per
box.



^Advance Sheets of report have been sent to the association.



Digitized by



Google



OCEAN FREIGHT RATES AND ARGENTINE TRADE. I4I

With the exception of sporting powder imported in small tins,
which pays a duty of 50 cents silver a kilogram (about 25 cents in
United States money), all explosives are free of duty.

Explosives are principally imported from Germany, England, and
France, and a little from the United States. Among the principal
importers of explosives in Peru are W. R. Grace & Co., J. Nor-
mand, E. Haines & Co., J. Ludowieg & Co., Duncan Fox & Co.,
Enrique Ayulo & Co., C. M. Schroder & Co., and C. Weiss & Co., all
of Lima; and Milne & Co. and Sociedad San Lorenzo, of Callao.



OCEAN FREIGHT RATES AND ARGENTINE

TRADE.

The Department has received the following, dated Buenos Ayres,
January 18, 1899, from Minister Buchanan:

My observation leads me to feel sure that many low-priced staples
used in quantities here come from Great Britain and not from us
wholly because of the difference in freight rates between the two
countries and this.

It is to be remembered that there are numbers of ships sailing
between here and England and the Continent, and that the larger
part of the traffic is from this country outward. This being true, it
is easily seen that rates from England or the Continent to this coun-
try are more tractable and amenable to negotiation than are those
from New York, where there are few ships engaged in the trade,
and those owned and operated, with one exception, by companies
having the bulk of their fleets engaged in the traffic between this
country and England or the Continent.

Until this phase of the question is carefully studied, one fails to
realize the great influence on our staple trade of our dependence
upon foreign shipping interests.

For instance, a barrel of lubricating oil costs in New York $3. 12.
The freight hither is $2.64 and the duty $5.10 in Argentine gold.
Is it not remarkable, under such conditions, that we have as large a
trade here as we have? Again, a barrel of gas oil costs in New
York$2,62j4. The freight is $2. 64; the duty nothing. Under such
a freight rate, it is easily seen that a difference of only 5 or lo cents a
barrel would be sufficient to turn the trade from us to any country
where the cost price of the article is the same as our own.

I am convinced we should give this subject especial attention, as
I am sure that orders for staple goods, especially for machinery and
steel products, have gone, and will continue to go, to England and
Europe, not because the goods can be purchased cheaper there



Digitized by



Google



142 OCEAN FREIGHT RATES AND ARGENTINE TRADE.

than in the United States, but because the advantages our country
offers in the original cost of such goods are more than offset by the
difference existing against us in the freight rates from New York
to this city, and those from English or European ports.

For instance, I know of one shipment from England of an 11-
ton boiler in pieces. The freight thereon was ^11 10s., or, say,
$55 in United States gold, or $5 per ton. The same importing firm
received from the United States a 33-ton boiler of the same kind as
the other and in pieces. The freight thereon was $750 in United
States gold, or $23 per ton, a difference of $18 gold per ton in favor
of the English manufacture. The freight on the shipment from Eng-
land was calculated by weight, while that on the shipment from the
United States was computed by measurement.

These importers tell me they can buy such boilers and much
heavy machinery and steel products very much cheaper in the United
States than they can in England, but that they are obliged to buy
them in the latter market, because the difference against us in freight
is so great that it much more than offsets the difference in our favor
on their first cost.

Without citing, as I. could, other specific cases, let me say that
the statement has been made to me by many importers here that the
three lines operating ships between New York and the River Plata
maintain at New York a close freight-rate understanding; and that
the arbitrary and stiff rates thus held in force for River Plata freight
undoubtedly injures our trade with these countries in many instances,
and will continue to do so.

The reasons underlying this condition of things are, I think, ap-
parent to anyone who has given the subject any consideration.
Briefly, they appear to be the following:

First. That the great bulk of all River Plata products find their
market in Great Britain or Europe, and hence shipping from those
countries finds ** return cargo." When there are large quantities of
wheat, wool, and cattle to be moved, competition in rates to this
country is certain between companies engaged in operating ships be-
tween here and the Old World. On the other hand, when the crops
fail here, rates to this country advance, because of the consequent
lack of ** return cargo."

During the past two years, and largely as a result of our tariff on
wool, pur purchases here have notably decreased in volume, whereas
our shipments hither have increased ; so that now there is nothing
like sufficient return cargo for all the ships reaching here from New
York. As a result, such ships either load to Rio de Janeiro with
cattle, picking up here such through New York freight as they can
find, and then completing their load with cqffee, or they go in ballast



Digitized by



Google



MONAZITE CONCESSION IN BRAZIL. 1 43

to a Brazilian port, where they can find a cargo for New York or
Boston.

It is therefore plain why freight rates from New York are arbi-
trary, high, and unelastic, and why they will probably remain so.

Second. With possibly one exception, all the steamship com-
panies plying ships between the United States and this country
maintain the larger portion of their ships in the traffic existing
between England and here. They are therefore able not only to
maintain stiff outward rates from New York by means of such an
understanding as they are said to have, but also to manipulate their
ships as the demands of outgoing Argentine traffic may make neces-
sary, or as may seem desirable from their point of view.

The remedy for this state of things is not easy to point out. It
must, however, soon be found by our people, since it is not to be
supposed that we will allow our trade with these countries and with
others to be jeopardized and held in check by our lack of capacity
to grapple with and solve the chief difficulty in our path, as well as
one of the most important problems we have before us as a people —
the creation and rapid building up of a United States merchant
marine.



MONAZITE CONCESSION IN BRAZIL.

Since my report of November 4,* the contention therein men-
tioned relative to the extraction of monazite sand from lands in this
consular district has been settled.

To understand the matter, it is necessary to give a short history
of the case.^ Several years ago, the Federal Government gave to
Mr. John Gordon, an American citizen resident at Rio de Janeiro,
the right to extract any and all sand contained in the **marinhas,"
which is a strip of land along the coast, extending inward 33 meters
(io8JS^ feet) from a point midway between the highest and lowest tide,
reserved by the Government for defensive purposes. In addition to
this federal grant, Mr. Gordon obtained a municipal grant from the
town of Prado, which is in close proximity to the largest deposits of
sand. He also acquired by purchase considerable private property
bordering on the deposit. For some time, he had ships go to Prado
and load this sand under the name of ballast; but finally, the State
and Federal Government became aware of the value of the sand (at
that time it was worth about ;^8o=$389.32 per ton) and, after con-
siderable discussion, be was forced to pay as export tax on each ton
22 per cent of its estimated value for State, 2 per cent for what is
styled ** statistical purposes," 2j4 per cent federal, and a municipal
tax of about i per cent if it lands at Bahia.

* S«e Consular Rkports No. 221 (February, 1899), p. 331-

Digitized by VjOOQ IC



144 MONAZITE CONCESSION IN BRAZIL.

The trade was large until 1896, when the governor claimed in
the name of the State part of the deposit, and refused to allow any
sand to be removed therefrom, unless under State concession. He
claimed that the federal lands were not as extensive as had been
said. After much argument, the governor decided to force the con-
tention, and finally gave State concessions as follows: June 8, 1898,
to Rebeiro & Co., 5,000 tons; July 18, 1898, to S. S. Schindler, an
American resident here, 5,800 tons; and September 2, 1898, to
Manuel Duarte, 5,000 tons.

In the latter part of December, Mr. Gordon made the following
contract, which has recently been signed and published in the official
paper. The governor, on behalf of the State, granted to him for
twenty years the exclusive right to remove monazite sand from the
lands of the State and the districts of Alcoba^o and Porto Seguro,
Gordon binding himself to pay the State j£i ($4.8665) at the exchange
of the day for each ton removed, in addition to the State and other
export taxes.

All concessions already granted — /. e., for 15,000 tons — were trans-
ferred to him by the concessionnaires, Gordon binding himself to pay
them pro rata ^£2 ($9,733) for each ton until the 15,000 tons are
removed. The concessionnaires also agree to stop all suits, etc.,
relative to the title of the land and the right to remove the sand, re-
linquishing all claims except that above stated. Gordon now has
the exclusive right for the extraction of monazite sand in Brazil, the
largest and richest deposit ever discovered.

This sand deposit is on the coast of Bahia, near the little town
of Prado. The town is reached after four or five days* slow travel
by coastwise steamers ; but, on account of the bar before the town,
steamers frequently have to wait for more than ten days before
they can enter. The sand occurs in great cliffs along the seashore,
and is most frequently collected from what is washed down by storms
and tides. Great quantities are under tide water, while a practically
unlimited quantity is always high and dry in the cliff.

No attempt is made to purify the sand before shipment, the only
expense other than the tribute already mentioned being the cost of
collecting it and loading the ships.

According to the analysis made under State direction, the sand
contains: Thorium, 1.5 to 3 per cent; yttrium, i to 3 per cent; ce-
rium, 62 to 70 per cent; aluminium, 3 per cent; iron, 2.5 to 5 per
cent; lanthanium, 2.5 per cent. On account of the high per cent of
thorium, it is in greater demand, than other sands, as the cost of ex-
tracting the thorium from sands of lower percentage is much greater
than the proportion of thorium might lead one to believe.

During the year 1898, there were exported 2,338 sacks and 220



Digitized by



Google



JEWELRY IN GUATEMALA. I45

barrels of this sand to Hamburg and 1,300 sacks to Southampton.
The sacks were of heavy cotton, holding 45 kilograms (99 pounds) ;
22 sacks make a ton. The barrels contain about as much as two
sacks.

I inclose a small sample of this sand taken from the last ship-
ment.*

H. W. FURNISS,

Bahia, February 2, i8gg. Consul.



JEWELRY IN GUATEMALA.

In reply to inquiries from a trade association! in Chicago, Consul-
General Beaupr6 writes from Guatemala, February 16, 1899:

During the years of Guatemala's phenomenal prosperity, this
was a splendid market for precious stones and jewelry of all kinds.
The trade was centered largely in the two cities of Guatemala
and Quezaltenango. The enormous profits of the coffee planters
created sudden and large wealth, which was lavishly expended in
luxuries. This ended, however, some two years ago, since which
time the trade has ebbed, until now it is practically nothing. The
fall in the price of coffee, the depreciation of silver, and the revolu-
tionary troubles created a panic, and great depression in business
followed. With exchange at 250 per cent premium on New York
and very high customs duties, it is almost useless to attempt to sell
jewelry in this country at present. There were magnificent jewelry
stores in this city, and some of them remain ; but their business is
very small. They are endeavoring to sell their old stock and im-
port but little. There are no wholesale dealers, the merchants
importing direct.

Most of the jewelry comes from Europe ; but, for some reason,
the Waltham watch holds the market and is used almost exclusively.
This is probably due to the fact that it has been well advertised and
pushed, and the peculiarity of this people is that they are averse to
change, and prefer to buy that with which they are perfectly familiar.

The duty on each gold or gold-plated watch is 7 pesos, and on
each of silver or other material i peso. This is in Guatemalan cur-
rency, with exchange fixed at 200 per cent at present. J However, a
recent decree provides that 30 per cent of the import duty shall be
paid in gold or its equivalent, which adds to the schedule rate given.

Diamonds can be bought here for less than the cost of importing

♦Filed for reference in Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Department of State,
t Advance Sheets have been sent the correspondent.

$The United States Director of the Mint, January i, i8<y9, estimates the Guatemalan peso at 43.9
cents.

No. 224 10.



Digitized by



Google



146 JEWELRY IN GUATEMALA.

them. They were brought in during the flush times in large quan-
tities, and the conditions have forced many into the market. A very
good white 3-carat stone can be bought for about 500 pesos ($219),
and, with exchange at 250 per cent premium, it could not be deemed
profitable to import them. This will hold good in jewelry of all
kinds, and, while the present distressingly hard times continue, it
will be of little avail to attempt to do any business in this line in
Guatemala. Watches can hardly be classed among the luxuries, and
it is quite possible that small sales could be made.

But these hard times will not continue ; the causes which led to
them are being remedied, and the resources of the country are such
thart prosperity must come again within a reasonable period. The
building of the Northern Railroad, which is in part constructed and
which will connect this capital with Puerto Barrios, on the Gulf of
Honduras, but four days* sail from New Orleans, is now practically
assured, and will doubtless be completed by United States capital
within the next two years. When this is done, American merchants
can well expect that this Republic will be a profitable field for
business.

There is nowhere in Central America a commercial agency sim-
ilar to Dun's, and the Only way to obtain information as to the
responsibility of dealers is by inquiry of individuals or the banks,
and this method is quite unsatisfactory. For this reason, much of
the business is transacted through commission houses at New York
or San Francisco, who send representatives here.

The customs duties on jewelry are as follows:

Gold or platina, any kind of alloy, with pearls or precious stones,
net weight, 150 pesos per kilogram (2.2046 pounds).

Silver or gold, silver or steel, any kind of alloy, with pearls or
precious stones, net weight, 50 pesos per kilogram.

Gold or platina, any kind of alloy, without pearls or precious
stones, net weight, s^ pesos per kilogram.

Silver or gold, silver or steel, without pearls or precious stones,
net weight, 10 pesos per kilogram.

Thirty per cent of the duties are payable in gold or its equiva-
lent, the balance in Guatemalan currency.

The packing must be as light as possible, and yet secure and
strong enough to withstand a long, hard journey and not too care-
ful handling. The port of San Jos6 de Guatemala, whither all
goods must be shipped, is an open roadstead, and to drop pack-
ages from the steamer into launches when a heavy swell is running,
and then hoist them onto the pier, is a severe test upon the pack-
ing, and this can not be too secure. Should the goods be destined for
Quezaltenango or any of the interior towns, they experience in addi-



Digitized by



Google



RUBBER IN GUATEMALA. 1 47

tion the vicissitudes of a pack-mule journey over precipitous moun-
tain trails, being bumped at intervals against overhanging rocks
and trunks of trees. When the Northern Railroad is finished, these
difficulties will be lessened, for Puerto Barrios has a harbor, and
vessels can come up to the pier and unload.

Among the fine jewelry stores, I mention the following: F. Wid-
mer, 9 Calle Oriente, bajos del Gran Hotel; Carlos Juvet, 6 Ave.
Sur y 9 Calle Poniente; German Porcher, **La Perla," 8 Ave. Sur y
9 Calle Poniente; joyeria **La Maisonnette,'* Cohn y Dreyfus;
Simon Block, **La Esmeralda," 6 Ave. Sur fte. al I.

Prominent banking institutions in this city are: El Banco Amer-
icano, El Banco Agricola-Hipotecario, El Banco Intemacional, and



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 18 of 92)