United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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Countries.


Sundard.


Monetary unit.


Value in terms


of the United Sutes gold
on January i—


dollar




1874.


1875.


1878.


1880.


1883.

$0.40,1
.81,2


1884.


Atmria-Hungary*.
BoUvia

Cential America....
Cbina


Silver


Florin


|o.47,6
.96.S

.96,5
1.61

.96.5
.96.5


I0.45.3
.96.5

.91,8
i.6i
.96.5
.91.8


I0.4S.3
.96,5

.91.8


I0.41.3
.83.6

.83,6


|o.39,8
.80.6


-xio.....

«do...-

Silver


Dollar until
1890; bolivi-
ano there-
after.

Peso

Hailcwan Uel..

Peso


Colombia^


^o


.96.S

.91.8

4.97.4

.43.6
•99.7


.83,6

.83.6

4.97.4

•39.7
•99.7


.81,2
.81,2
4.90

.38.6


.80,6
.80,6
4.90

.38.3


Ecuador


„xio


Ao

Pound (loo

piasters).
Rupee...

Yen ]

Dollar


E«yiHt

India.


Gold


Silver


•45,8
.99,7


.43,6
.99.7


J*I»n- \


Gold

Silver f

.do


.87,6
.88,2


.86.9
.87.5


Mexico


1.04.7J
.40,5

.92.5
.77.17
.87.09


.99.8
.38.5

.91.8
.73.4
.82,9


.99.8
.38.5

.91.8
.73.4
.82,9


.90,9
.40,2

.83.6
.66,9
.74,8


Nciberlands$


Gold and

Silver.
Silver


Florin


Peru.-


Sol.


.81,2

.65

.73.3


.8u,6
.64.5
.7-«,7


Russia


jAo


Ruble


Tripoli


^o....


Mahbub of 20
piasters.



Countries.



Austria Hungary*.
Bolivia..^



Central America .

Colombia

Ecuador

E«ypit..



India

Japan

Mexico

Peru

Russia.^...
Tripoli



Sundard.



Silver

.do



.do .

.do..

.do..

Gold....



Silver

Gold I

Silver f

.do

Silver

......^o,...

do



Monetary unit.



Florin

Dollar until
1880; bolivi-
ano there-
after.

Peso

^o

do

Pound (100
piasters),

Rupee

Yen \



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar
on Janury 1—



Dollar

Sol

Ruble

Mahbub of 20
piasters.



1885.


1886.


1887.
$0.35.9


1888.
I0.34.5


1889.
I0.33.6


I0.39.3


I0.37.'


.79.5


•75. «


.7^.7


.69,9

.69.9
.69.9


.68
.68


.79.5


.75.1


•72.7


.68


79.5


.75.1


.72.7


.69,9


.68


4.90


4.90


4.94,3


4-94.3


4-94.3


.37.8


•35.7


.34.6


.32.2


.32.3






.99.7
.78,4


•99.7
.75.3


•99,7
.73.4


.85.8


.81


.86.4


.81,6


.79


.75.9


.73.9


.79.5


.75. «


•72.7


.69,9


.68


.63,6


.60.1


.58.2


.55.9


.54.4


.7».7


.67,7


.65.6


.63


.61,4



1890.
I0.42

.85



.85

.85

.85

4.94.3

.40.4
.99.7

•9', 7
.9-*. 3
.85
.68
.76.7



♦The silver standard prevailed in Austria- Hungary up to 1892. The law of August 2 of that year
(see Consular Reports, No. 147, p. 623) established the gold standard.
tThe Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887.
{The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year 1880, when it became fixed at 40.2 cents.



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XII



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.





C. — Quarterly valuations


of fluctuating


currencies.






Countries.


Moncury unit.


1896.


x897^


Jan. I.


April I.


July 1.


Oct. I.


Jan. X.


April I.


Juiyi^


Oct. I.


Bolivia...^

Central Amer-
ica.


Silver boliviano.
Silver peso

Amoy tael


$o.49,x
•49,1


|o^49.3
.49,3


|o.49.7

.49,7


|o


49
49

79,3

79

75.8

77 ,H

73,3

80,6

74,2

76.2

74.3

72,4

73,2

79,8

76,8

49

49

23,3

52.8

53,2

09

49

39,2

44,2


|o


47,4
47,4

76,7

76,5

73,3

74,9

70,9

78

71,7

73,7

71,9

70

70,8

77,2

74.3

47.4

47.4

22,5

51. 1

51.5

08,7

47.4

37.9


10.46,8
.46,5

•75,7

•75,5

.72,4

.73,9

.70

•77

.70,8

.72,8

•71

.69,1

•69,9

.76,2

.73,4

.46,8

•46.8

.22,2

•50,5

.50,8

.08,6

•46,8

•37,4


|o^44,3
.44,3

•71,7

.71,5

.68,6

.70

.66,3

•73,1

•67,1

.68,9

•67,2

.65,5

.66,2

.72,2

.69,5

•44.3

•44,3

.21,1


$0.41,2
.41,2

•66.4
.66.4
.63,7
.65.1
6f 6




Canton tael..










Chefoo tael

Chinkiang tael ..


•75,9


.76,3


.76,9




Fuchau tael








China... -


Haikwan tael....
Hankau tael


.80,8


.8f,2


.81.9


.67,8

•62,3

.64

.62.5

.60.8

.61.5

.67

.64,6

.41,2

.41,2

.19,6




NinsfDo tael










Niuchwangtacl.
Shanghai tael....
Swatow tael










•72.5


.72,9


•73,5




Takao tael








Colombia


Tientsin ucl

Silver pesa

Ao

Silver rupee

Silver yen..


.76,9

•49,1

.49.1

•23,3

•52,9

•53,3

.09

•49,1

•39,3

•44,3


.77,3
•49,3
.49.3
•23,4
•53.2
•53,6
.09,1
•49,3
.39,5
.44,5


.78

•49,7

.49,7

• 23.6

•53,3

.54

.09,2

.49,7

•39,8

.44,9


Ecuador

India


Japan


Mexico


Silver dollar

Silver kran.

Silver sol


.48.2
.08,2

.44.3


.44,6
.07,6
.41,2


Persia


Peru


Russia


Silver ruble

Silver mahbub...


Tripoli



















Countries.



Monetary unit.



1898.



Jan. I. April i. July i. Oct. r



1899.



Jan. I. April i.



Bolivia

Central America-



China..



Colombia .
Ecuador ..

India*

Mexica....

Persia

Peru



Silver boliviano.

Silver peso

Amoy tael

Canton tael

Chefoo tael

Chinkiang tael..

Fuchau tael

Haikwan tael....

Hankau tael

Ningpo tael

Niuchwang tael.
Shanghai tael....

Swatow tael

Takao tael

Tientsin Uel

Silver peso.

Ao

Silver rupee

Silver dollar

Silver kran

Silver sol



$0.42,4
•41,4
.68,5
.68,3
.65.5
.66,9
.63,4
.69,7
•64,1
•64,3
.65,9
.62,6

.63,3
.66
.66,4
.42,4
.42,4
■ .20,1
•46
.07,8
•42,4



$0.40,9
.40,9
.66,2
.66

.63,3
.64,6
.61,2

•67.3

.61,9

.63

.62

.60,4

.61,1

.66,6

.64,1

.40,9

.40,9

.19,1

•44,4

•07,5

.40,9



$0.41,8
.41,8
.67,6
•67,4
.64,6
.66
.62,5
.68,8

• 63,2
•65
.63,4
.61,7
.62,4
.68
•65,5

• 41,8
.41,8
.19,9
.45,4
•07,7
.41,8



$0.43,6
.43,6
.70,6
•70,4
.67,5
.69

.65,3
.71,8
.66

•67,9
.66,2

.64.5

•65,2

.71

.68,4

•43.6

.43.6

.20,7

•47.4

.08

•43.6



$0.43,9
•43,9
•71
.70,8
.67,9
•69,3
.65,6

• 72,2
.66,4
.68,2
.66,5
.64.8
•65,5

• 71,4
.68,8

•43,9
.43,9
.20,8

.47,7
.08,1

•43,9



$043.4
•43,4
.70,2
.70
.67,2
.68,6
.65
.71.4
•65.7
.67.5
.65.9

• 64.1
•64.9
.70,7
.68
.43,4

• 43,4
.20.6
•47.2
.08
•43,4



♦The commercial value of the rupee to be determined by consular certificate.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



The following table embraces only such weights and measures as
are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commer-
cial Relations:

Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents.



Denominations.



Almnde

Ardcb

Are

Arobe

Arratel or libra

Arroba (dry)...

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Arroba Oiquid)

Arshine

Arshine (square)...

Artel.-

Baril.-

BarrcL

Do

Berkovcts

Boogkal

Boaw

Bu..-

Bntt (wine)-.

Caffiso.

Candy

Do

Cantar-

Do

Do

Cantaro (cantar)...

Car^

Catty

Do*

Do

Do

Centaro

Centner

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Chih~



*More frequently called
ayoirdupoift.



Where used.



Portugal...

Egypt

Metric

Paraguay

Portugal ,

Argentine Republic

Braiil

Cuba

Portugal...

Spain

Venezuela

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela

Russia

Ao

Morocco

Argentine Republic and Mexico..

Malta (customs)

Spain (raisins)

Russia..

India.-

Sumatra

Japan

Spain

Malta

India (Bombay)..

India (Madras)

Morocco

Syria (Damascus).

Turkey

Malta

Mexico and Salvador

China

Japan

Java, Siam, and Malacca..

Sumatra

Central America

Bremen and Brunswick

Darmstadt.

Denmark and Norway

Nurenlberg

Prussia

Sweden

Vienna

Zdllvcrein

Double or metric

China



American equivalents.



4.422 gallons.
7.6907 bushels.
0.02471 acre.
25 pounds.

1. 01 1 pounds.
25.3»75 pounds.
32.38 pounds.
25.3664 pounds.
32.38 pounds.
25.36 pounds.
25.4024 pounds.
4.263 gallons.
28 inches.

5.44 square feet.

1. 12 pounds.
20.0787 gallons,
u. 4 gallons.
100 pounds.

361 . 12 pounds.

832 grains.

7,096.5 square meters.

0.1 inch.

X40 gallons.

5.4 gallons.

529 pounds.

500 pounds.

113 pounds.

575 pounds.

124.7036 pounds.

175 pounds.

300 pounds.

i.333J^(i>i) pounds

1. 31 pounds.

X.35 pounds.

2.12 pounds.

4.2631 gallons.

1 17.5 pounds.

110.24 pounds.

no. II pounds.

112. 4) pounds.

113.44 pounds.

93.7 pounds.

123.5 pounds.

110.24 pounds.

220.46 pounds.

14 inches.



*kin." Among merchants in the treaty pons it equals 1.33M pounds



xni



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XIV



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



Foreign weights and vieasures^ with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Coyan...

Do

Cuadra

Da

Do

^ Do

Cubic meter

Cwt. (hundredweight)

Dessiatine

Do

Drachme

Egyptian weights and measures...
Fanega (dry)

Do

Do

Do

Do



Do

Do

Do

Fanega (liquid)..

Feddan

Frail (raisins)

Frasca

Do

Fuder

Garnice

Gram

Hectare

Hectoliter:

Dry

Liquid

Joch

Ken

Kilogram (kilo)...

Kilometer

Klafler

Koku

Korree

Last

Do

Do



Do

Do

Do

League (land)..

Li

Libra (pound)..

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Liter

Livre (pound)..

P9 ••



Where used.



Sarawak.

Siam (Koyan)

Argentine Republic

Paraguay

Paraguay (square)

Uruguay

Metric

British

Russia

Spain

Greece

{See Consular Reports No. J44 )

Central America ,

Chile

Cuba

Mexico

Morocco ,



Uruguay (double)

Uruguay (single)

Venezuela

Spain

Egypt

Spain

Argentine Republic-

Mexico

Luxemburg

Russian Poland

Metric

Ao



do

.do

Austria-Hungary

Japan

Metric

.do

Russia ,

Japan

Russia

Belgium and Holland..

England (dry malt)

Germany



Prussia

Russian Poland

Spain (sail).

Paraguay ,

China

Castilian

Argentine Republic.

Central America

Chile

Cuba

Mexica

Peru

Portugal

Uruguay

Venezuela

Metric

Greece

Guiana



American equivalents.



3,098 pounds.
2,667 pounds.

4.2 acres.
78.9 yards.
8.077 square feet
Nearly 2 acres.
35 3 cubic leet.

1 1 2 pounds.
2.6997 acres.
1.599 bushels.
Half ounce.

1.5745 bushels.
2.57s bushels.
1.599 bushels.
1.54728 bushels.
Strike fanega. 70 lbs.;
full fanega, 118 lbs.
7.776 bushels.
3.888 bushels.
1.599 bushels
16 gallons.

1.03 acres.
50 pounds.
2.5096 quarts.
2.5 quarts.
264.17 gal tons,
o. 38 gallon.
15.432 grains.
2.471 acres.

2.838 bushels.

26.417 gallons.

1.422 acres.

6 feet.

2.2046 pounds.

0.621376 mile.

216 cubic feet.

4 9^)29 bushels.

3.5 bushels.

85.134 bushels.

82.52 bushels.

2 metric tons (4,480

pounds).
112.29 bushels.
1 1 ^ bushels.
4,760 pounds.
4,633 acres.
2,115 feet.
7, 1 00 grains (troy).
1 0127 pounds.
1.043 pounds.
1.014 pounds.
1.0161 pounds.
1.01465 pounds.
1.0143 pounds.
1.311 pounds.
1.0143 pounds.
1.0161 pounds.
1.0567 quarts.
1.1 pounds.
1.0791 pounds.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



XV



Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Load..



Manzana...

Do.-..

Marc

Maund

Meter

Mil

Do......

Milla.-

Morgen ....
Okc

Do.-...

Do

Do.-...

Do.-...



Where used.



England (timber)...



Pic

PIcul

Do..
Do..
Do-
Do..



Pic

Do

Pik..^.

Pood

Pnnd (pound)..
Quarter

Do

^intal

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do -

Rotile

Do

Sagen

Salm



Seer

Shaioj

Sha

Standard (St Petersburg)..

Stone ,

Sucrte



Sun

TacL

Tan

Ta

Too

Toode (cereals)..

TondeUnd

Tsubo

Tsun

Tunna.-

Tunnland ••



CosuRica ,

Nicaragua and Salvador

Bolivia

India

Metric

Denmark.

Denmark (gec^raphical)

Nicaragua and Honduras

Prussia

Egypt

Greece

Hungary ,

Turkey

Hungary and Wallacliia

Egypt

Borneo and Celebes ,

China, Japan, and Sumatra

Java

Philippine Islands (hemp)

Philippine Islands (sugar)

Argentine Republic

Castile ,

Turkey

Russia ,

Denmark and Sweden

Great Britain

London (coal)

Argentine Republic

Brazil

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru..

Greece

Newfoundland (fish)

Paraguay ,

Syria

Metric

Palestine ,

Syria ,

Russia

Malta

japan

India

Japan

.do

Lumber measure

British

Uruguay



Japan

Cochin China-...

Japan ,

Ao

Space measure..

Denmark

Ao

Japan

China

Sweden

.do



American equivalents.



Square, 50 cubic feet;
unhewn, 40 cubic feet;
i nch planks, 600 super-
ficial feet.

1 1 acres.

1.727 acres.

0.507 pound.

82! pounds.

39.37 inches.

4.68 miles.

4.61 miles.

1.1493 miles.

0.63 acre.

2.7225 pounds.

2.84 pounds.

3.0817 pounds.

2.85418 pounds.

2.5 pints.
aiK inches.
135.64 pounds.
133M pounds.

135.1 pounds.

» 39-45 pounds.
140 pounds.
0.9478 foot.
0.91407 foot.
27.9 inches.
36.112 pounds.
1.102 pounds.
8.252 bushels.
36 bushels.
101.42 pounds.
1J0.06 pounds.
101.61 pounds.

123.2 pounds.
112 pounds.
100 pounds.
125 pounds.
220.46 pounds.

6 pounds.
5^ pounds.

7 feet.

490 pounds.
0.02451 acres.

1 pound 13 ounces.
11.9305 inches.

1.6 quarts.
165 cubic feet.
14 pounds.

2,700 cuadras (see cua-

dra).
1.193 inches.
590-75 grains (trov),
0.25 acre.

2 pecks.

40 cubic feet.
3.94783 bushels.
1.36 acres.
6 feet square.
1.41 inches.
4.5 bushels.
1.22 acres,



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XVI



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



Forei,^ iveights and measures, with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.


Where used.


American equivalents.


Vara


Argentine Republic


34.1208 inches.
0.9141 17 yard.
32.87 inches.
33.367 inches.
33.384 inches.
33.375 inches.

33 inches.

34 inches.
33.384 inches.
2.707 gallons.
71.1 square rods.
0.663 mile.
41.98 acres.


Do


Castile


Do


Central America «...


Do


Chile and Peru


Do


Cuba


Do


Curacao


Do


Mexico


Do.^


Parasruav......


Do


Venezuela . . .


Vedro


Russia.....


Vergces


Isle of Fersev


Verst


Russia


Vlocka


Russian Poland







METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Metric weights.

Milligram (j^ gram) equals 0.0154 grain.

Centigram (y^^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain.

Decigram (-1^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains.

Gram equals 15.432 grains.

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces.

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds.

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds.

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds.

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds.

Metric dry measures.

Milliliter (j^^ liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch.-
Centiliter (yjjy liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter (-^ liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.83S bushels.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards.

Metric liquid measures.

Milliliter (xVffir liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.

Centiliter (j^o liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.

Deciliter (^ liter) equals 0.845 giU.

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts.

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons.

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.417 gallons.

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

Metric measures, of length.

Millimeter (xriW meter) equals 0.0394 inch.

Centimeter (yj^y meter) equals 0.3937 inch.

Decimeter (-^^ meter) equals 3.937 inches.

Meter equals 39-37 inches.

Decameter (to meters) equals 393.7 inches.

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch.

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3.280 feet 10 inches).

Myriameter (lo.ooo meters) equals 6.2137 miles.

Metric surface measures.

Centare (i square meter) equals i,55o square inches.
Are (100 square meters) equals 1x9. 6 square yards.
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres.



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•^MY 1.0 1899

CONSUI^AR RBPORXS.



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC.



Vol. LX. MAY, 1899. No. 224.



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.

Mr. Henry White, secretary of the embassy at London, sends,
under date of February i8, 1899, copies of a report by Mr. Worth-
ington, commissioner of the Board of Trade to South America, on
trade conditions in Brazil.* Extracts from the report follow:

Rio de Janeiro, the federal capital of the United States of Brazil, with a popula-
tion, according to the last census (1890), of 522,651, is not only by far the largest
town in Brazil, but is the most important commercial center and largest port of
entry in the whole country. It is naturally the chief center of the import trade for
southern tropical Brazil, although Sflo Paulo, with the port of Santos, seems to be
rapidly taking an increased share of the business.

In proceeding to study the import trade and native manufacturing business here,
I have been met at the outset by the fact that there are no actual import returns
available, nor any of national manufactures.

What would have been of most service in studying the trade in this part of Bra-
zil would have been figures showing the imports into Rio and Santos; but, with
the exception of those kept by the Jornal do Commercio, taken from the manifests
of vessels entering Rio day by day, and published in the Jornal's annual Retro-
spectivo, I have found nothing here; these figures are useful as far as they go,
but they only cover a few special articles. The figures for the whole country, pub-
lished by the Government, only come down to 1894, and, for reasons referred to
later on in reference to custom-house matters, can not, I am assured, be regarded
as quite accurate.

By the courtesy of the editor of the Brazilian Review, however, I have obtained

• Mr. Worthington*s reports on Chile and Argentina were primed in Consular Reports No. 22a
(March, 1899), p. 48a.

No. 224 1.



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2 COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.

the following statistics for the whole of Brazil (which have not yet been published
in extenso), taken from the export returns of the several countries named, viz:



Country.



1893.



1894.



1895.



1896.



1897.



Great Briuin...

France

Germany.^

Belgium

Austria

Italy

Portugal

United States.

Argentina

Uruguay

Toul ,



$38,800,000
ao, 800, 000
16,000,000
6,800,000
700,000
Not suted.
8,aoo,ooo
12,300,000
10,600,000
5,5&o,«t>o



$37,900,000
23,300,000
15,000,000

4,300,000
800,000

1,000,000

6,800,000
13,800,000
13,100,000

8,aoo,ooo



$36,900,000

22,800,000

18,900,000

8,200,000

1,000,000

3,000,000

7,700,000

15,100,000

7,700,000

6,800,000



$33,900,000

20,400,000

14,800,000

10,600,000

1,200,000

2,500,000

7,200,000

14,200,000

9,200,000

7,200,000



$27,600,000
16,500,000
12,100,000
4,800,000
Not suted i
Not stated.
5,800,000
12,400,000
8,200,000
5,800,000



nvi 5*^,1



124,200,000



122,100,000



121,200,000



93,200,000



Note.— The above figures, stated in the original in pounds sterling, arc fj^iven in the equivalent
values (round numbers) in United States currency. The German figures relate to German products
oAly; the others include the transit trade. The figures for the United States (which relate to the
fiscal years) have been corrected.

. The import trade is in many hands. A large, and I am disposed to think in-
creasing, proportion of it is done direct by means of travelers or local representa-
tives of European manufacturers. Some idea of the importance of the business
done in this manner may be had from considering that the total of European (and
American) collections by drafts through Rio de Janeiro alone, based on figures I
have obtained from the five leading non-Brazilian banks, must have amounted to
something like ;f 2, 500,000 to ;f 3,000,000 last year, whilst a very large sum must be
added to represent the business done in account current, that is, where the buyers
are allowed to remit more or less as they are able.

National industries are fostered by the protective tariff, and their products form
in some lines the most serious competitors with imports; but in others, they do not
appear to flourish, or arc more or less dependent on the condition of exchange.
The largest and most developed of these industries is that of manufacturing the
raw cotton of the country.

The usual terms of payment are, in the dry-goods trade, four to six months from
end of month; and in the hardware trade, ninety days from end of month; but four
months is, I am told, given by some merchants importing on their own account. In
account current, direct business terms of payment are very elastic, as already inti-
mated, and probably in some lines nofie of our competitors make them more so
than do British shippers; indeed, I have been told the latter are practically the only
ones working on this system in dry goods. Indents given to merchants here are
usually on the basis of cash in ninety days from arrival of goods from Europe, or
sixty days and sometimes thirty days from the United States. National factories
generally sell at ninety days.

Exchange has fluctuated so much this year (namely, from about 7d. at the be-
ginning to sjd. in April and May, to 7Ad. at the date of my arrival here, and
from that again up to 8|d. on the loth instant, whilst at the date of this letter it
is 8jd.) that import business has been much interfered with. In addition to this,
the very low price of cofifee, the chief product of this part of Brazil, makes the
people poor and reduces demand to a minimum. The rapid rise in exchange must
be kept in view in connection with currency prices in this report, for it makes it
difficult to tell on what basis of exchange sales or quotations were really made.

The custom-house, while at present giving no advantage in any way to the prod-
ucts of one country over those of another, presents some difficulties. For one thing,



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL. 3

changes are liable to be made somewhat arbitrarily and at short notice. A large
importer put it to me, perhaps rather strongly, by saying that "one may study the
custom-house tariff and custom-house laws thoroughly, and then find something one
had not noticed to upset one*s calculations, or something one had relied upon revoked."
Again, while efforts have been made from time to time to abolish abuses in the collec-
tion of the customs, and the best intentions must be credited to the higher authorities
and many of the officials in regard to the same, yet, owing to circumstances it is
needless to dilate upon here, it must, I fear, be admitted that the practical working
of the custom-house, although doubtless much better here than in the outports, is not
all it should be as a medium for collecting the revenue according to the tariff; and
that, as a consequence, it is liable to produce at times an unfair species of compe-
tition, at least in some trades. I refer to the additional report of the Finance Min-
ister for last year in evidence of this, and I mention it because it undoubtedly has
an effect upon business in certain lines, whilst it must also detract from the value
of any statistics based on custom-house returns. Merchants established here can
have their own clerks to dispatch their goods, giving the Government a guaranty
with them; but otherwise an authorized **despachante" (sworn custom-house
broker), working at an established tariff of charges, must be employed. Too much
care can not be exercised in complying with all custom-house requirements in
regard to the documentation of goods. Custom-house store rent is rather heavy;
I annex a statement in regard to goods liable to it, etc., which shows the method
of charging the same.

ARMS AND AMMUNITION.

Revolvers are American (Smith & Wesson), with cheap Belgian and American
imitations. Spanish-made imitations of Smith & Wesson's revolvers are also sold,
and are very cheap; 1 saw one marked ** New York," and with a horsehead on the
handle, said to have cost 7>^ francs ($1.45). Another marked *' Smith & Wesson's
cartridges will be found to fit best this revolver," and with some initials on the
handle, said to have cost 14 francs ($2.70). The sale of revolvers, however, is prob-
ably not one-twentieth that of small double-barreled pistols, which come from Bel-
gium. Shotguns from Belgium also prevail, the prices being very much cheaper
than English; for example, I saw a Belgian gun said to cost 105 francs ($20.27), less



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