United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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estimates for the two years 1897 and 1898, the above valuation has been adopted.
182



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NOTES. 1 83

signature and full description of the bearer, states for what commer-
cial house he is traveling, and in what line of business. It is as-
sumed that the British Board of Trade has sent similar notices to
other chambers of commerce throughout Great Britain. Liverpool
is the headquarters of British trade with Spain, and it is expected
that the new arrangements as to identification of commercial travel-
ers will lead to a great extension of trade.



Motor-Vehicle Competition at Liverpool.— Consul Boyle
writes from Liverpool, February 17,. 1899:

In a recent consular report on ** Auto-motor freight wagons and
freight rates in England,"* attention was drawt. to the forthcoming
second trial of motor vehicles for heavy traffic at Liverpool. The
official notification, containing conditions of the competition, has
just been issued. The trials will begin on the morning of Monday,
July 31, and will conclude on the evening of Wednesday, August 2.
Trial runs will be made from Liverpool over distances from 30 to 40
miles. There will be four classes of vehicles eligible, the minimum
loads being 2 tons, 3^ tons, 5 tons, and 6 tons (2,240 pounds to the
ton). The vehicles must be propelled by mechanical power alone,
but there will be no restriction on the source of the power or the
nature of the agents used. The hope has been officially expressed
that vehicles from the United States will take part in the competition.
Those interested can secure printed copies of the details of the con-
ditions, regulations, etc., on application to Mr. E. Shrapnell Smith,
honorary secretary of the Self-Propelled Traffic Association, Royal
Institution, Liverpool, England.



British Railroad Charges for Travelers' Samples.— Consul
Marshal Halstead, of Birmingham, on February 10, 1899, says:

Messrs. Gormully & Jeflfery, manufacturers of bicycles in Chicago,
with export headquarters in London, went into the courts here to
test the Midland Railway Company's right to charge on travelers*
samples. They won their case, and, to avoid replying individually
to the numerous business houses who have written them, they have
issued the following statement:

The case between the Gormully & Jeflfery Manufacturing Company and the Mid-
land Railway Company was fought on November 30, 1897, and result can be seen
in the Times Law Reports for December 8, 1897, No. 6, vol. 14. It is too long a case
to give the whole in this letter, but we will state briefly what the learned judge
said, viz: **That he had no doubt, when the railway companies gave to commercial



♦See Consular Reports No. 223 (April, iSt^), p. 599.



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184 NOTES.

travelers, described by that name, the right to carry more than the ordinary amount
of luggage, they did so in order that travelers might take their samples with
them. In this case, he found as a fact that Mr. Darke was known to the defendants
as a commercial traveler for the plaintifif ; they knew that plaintiff was engaged
in selling portions of bicycles, or possibly whole bicycles; they also knew that
Mr. Darke tendered each of the cases which he was taking with him, not as mer-
chandise or ordinary passenger luggage, but as commercial traveler's samples.
The defendants, the Midland Railway Company, were not entitled to extra cloak-
room fees or the charge for conveyance."

This may be of interest to manufacturers in the United States of
other lines than bicycles.

Canadian Freight Charges for Petroleum.— Under date of
February 23, 1899, Consul Brush, of Clifton, says:

On January 6 last, the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk rail-
ways, which almost completely dominate Canadian railway traffic,
issued a new tariff for the transportation of petroleum. Its osten-
sible purpose was the protection of Canadian petroleum and its by-
products against the United States article, and the announcement
of a discrimination of at least 50 percent in favor of Canadian petro-
leum and by-products was received with some enthusiasm. The
independent refiners, however, soon discovered that the new tariff
operated to the interest of their powerful competitor, the Stand-
ard Oil Company. The oil production of Canada has practically
passed into the control of the Standard Oil Company, which de-
clined to sell oil to the independent refineries. The specific duty
of 2^ cents and the high transportation charges on petroleum pur-
chased in the United States (whether from independent producers
or the Standard Oil Company) made it impossible for them to com-
pete with the trust. The independent refiners appealed to the rail-
way committee of the Dominion privy council, alleging that, unless
immediate relief were granted, they would be forced into bank-
ruptcy. The railway committee summoned the representatives of
the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk lines to appear before them.
As a result of the conference, the two trunk line» announce an im-
mediate withdrawal of the objectionable tariff. The independent
refiners do not yet consider the victory a final one, but hope that
the Government will give their interests full and proper protection.



Copra in Samoa: Freight Rates from America.— Consul-

General Osborn writes from Apia, February 4, 1899:

During the last quarter of 1898, no invoices were issued at this con-
sulate. Prior to that time, invoices were issued each month, princi-
pally for copra, which was sent by a German firm to San Francisco.



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NOTES. 1 85

The invoices for the first quarter of 1898 were $11,276; for the sec-
ond quarter, $13,854.86; for the third quarter, $17,533.70; and for the
fourth quarter, nothing. Upon inquiry, I find that the contract of
the German firm with the San Francisco merchant has terminated,
and that a fair price for the commodity can not be obtained in the
United States. I am informed that only a trifle more than the cost
of the copra at this place can be obtained at San Francisco. During
the last year. Lever Brothers, of Sydney, had an agent here, and
competition was sharp. By the last steamer, the agent was no-
tified that he was no longer needed, and that they had constituted
the German firm their sole agents. This indicates that the entire
product of the islands will from this time go to the colonies or to
Europe. The loss of the sale in the United States means a cor-
responding loss of trade. Rates between San Francisco and Samoa
have been such that most American commodities consumed here are
sent to Sydney, and thence 2,800 miles to Apia, and delivered here
much cheaper than they could be obtained direct from San Fran-
cisco. The tariff direct from San Francisco is $16 per marine ton,
and from Vancouver to Sydney $6 per ton. Possibly, some arrange-
ment could be made by which goods could be sent to Vancouver and
thence to Fiji, and then here by the interisland boats, which to some
extent would relieve this place from the excessive rates from San
Francisco.



Commerce of HiogO. — Consul Lyon sends from Hiogo, under
date of January 16, 1899, copy of a statement of the superintendent
of customs of the port, to the effect that the imports and exports
together for the year 1898 were valued at 198,253,000 yen ($99,126,-
000),* against 162,149,000 yen ($81,074,500) in 1897. The imports
represented 138,133,000 yen ($69,066,500) in 1898 and 110,741,000
yen ($55,370,500) in 1897. The exports for the two years were
60,119,000 yen ($3o,o59»5oo) and 51,408,000 yen ($25,704,000),
respectively.

On January 21, Mr. Lyon transmits a clipping from the Kob6
Chronicle, an English newspaper published at that port, stating
that the commerce of Hiogo (Kob6) during the year 1898 was almost
7,000,000 yen ($3,500,000) in excess of that of Yokohama, thus mak-
ing Hiogo the leading commercial port in Japan, although the ex-
ports do not equal those of Yokohama. The trade returns of
Yokohama, it is stated, fluctuate according to the silk market, while
the commerce of Hiogo is more general.



* In round numbers.



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1 86 NOTES.

Communication with the Philippines.— The following, dated
Sydney, February 7, 1899, has been received from Consul Bell:

I would report, for the possible benefit of our traveling or com-
mercial people, that three steamship lines plying between Australia
and China and Japan are now calling regularly at the port of Ma-
nila, Philippine Islands. These are the China Navigation Company,
the Eastern and Australian Steamship Company, and the Nippon
Yusen Kaisha (a Japanese line). Each of the companies has four
fairly good and well-equipped steamers, averaging 2,500 tons, and,
as each line makes monthly trips, there is a call at Manila about
once in ten days from Australia, and from Chinese and Japanese
ports. These are not new lines, but their regular call at Manila has
been arranged since the islands came into our possession. There is
already considerable business, both in freight and passenger traffic,
between Sydney and Manila, and there is great confidence in ship-
ping circles that the trade will soon become very important.



Orange Boxes in Syria.— Under date of February 9, 1899, Con-
sul Merrill writes from Jerusalem, in reply to inquiries by the di-
rector of the Philadelphia Commercial Museum* relative to the
preparation of orange boxes and the possibility of introducing them
in shooks from America, as follows:

The wood for orange boxes is brought from Roumania. It is a
very coarse kind of pine. The ordinary length of a box that will
contain 150 oranges is 69 centimeters (27 inches); breadth, 34 centi-
meters (13.3 inches); depth, from 25 to 27 centimeters (9.9 to 10.7
inches). The wood for the side boards is 7 to 8 millimeters (0.27 to
0.31 inch) thick; for the top pieces and the partition in the middle
of the box, 17 millimeters (0.67 inch).

The market price for the wood for an orange box is from 68 to 70
centimes (13 to 13.5 cents); the expense for making and nailing the
box is from 10 to 15 centimes (1.9 to 2.8 cents); so that a ready-
made box would thus cost about 80 to 85 centimes (15 to 16 cents).

Some Swedish wood dealers have recently tried to enter into
competition, hoping to control this industry, but, thus far, without
success.

If the United States should attempt to furnish these materials,
the importations would have to be made just at the beginning of the
season — that is, in July, August, or September.

The fact that no direct line for shipping merchandise exists be-
tween the United States and Yafa, as well as the unreliability of



♦ To whom a copy of the rep)ort has been sent.



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NOTES. 187

oriental merchants, would have to be considered. The latter is a
less serious difficulty than the former.

I desire that any credit for this report should be given to our
consular agent at Yafa, Mr. Hardegg.



Passenger Traffic Across the Russian Frontier. — Under date
of February 15, Consul Smith, of Moscow, sends the following:

The custom-house department has published the following data
of the passenger traffic across the Russian frontier for six months
ended December 31, 1898:

Number of Russian and foreign passengers that have crossed the Euro-
pean frontiers with passports and other legitimate documents from

Europe to Russia / 2, 632, 627

From Russia to Europe 2, 722, 912

Over the Asiatic frontier:

From Asia .to Russia 75, 311

From Russia to Asia 48,816

The arrivals into Russia of passengers with passports exceed the
departures by 25,000.

Expositions of United States Goods in Russia.— The De-
partment of State desires to make correction of an item which
recently appeared in the papers to the effect that the Minister of
Finance of Russia had informed our embassy at St. Petersburg that
American products intended for exposition purposes would be ad-
mitted free, upon the condition that a sum corresponding to the
amount of the duties on the products be deposited as a guaranty; and
that this sum would be returned in case the products should be
exported within a certain time.

The action of the Russian Government was not taken in view of
a general proposition that American manufactures should b^ ad-
mitted free for purposes of exposition, but was in view of a sugges-
tion previously made that a special exposition in some designated
Russian capital, for a limited time only, of American products and
manufactures might be organized by American exporters with the
sanction of the United States Government and the permission of
the Russian Government. The Russian minister's statement to the
United States embassy -at St. Petersburg had reference only to
the treatment of goods sent to that exposition, should the proposed
project be realized. It has no reference to any general admission of
American goods for purposes of commercial display, and exporters
should be cautioned not to attempt to send any goods or valuable
samples to Russia on individual account under the impression that
they will be bonded for reexportation in the manner described.



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1 88 NOTES.

The impression seems to be prevalent that the United States Gov-
ernment is about to open rooms for the exhibition of samples of
goods in Russia, and many inquiries are made on the subject. The
report is probably based on a statement by Consul Rawicz, of War-
saw, appearing in Commercial Relations, 1896-97, Volume II, page
729 (also in Consular Reports No. 208, January, 1898), to the effect
that the Exporters' Association of America was about to open in
Warsaw a sample room tor the exhibition of American manufactures.



Manufacture of Marmalade in Scotland. — In reply to inquiries
by a California company (to whom the original report has been sent),
Consul Higgins, of Dundee, under date of February 14, 1899, says:

The manufacture of marmalade forms a considerable industry
in this city. It is made in two kinds — known to the trade as ** mar-
malade" and ** home-made marmalade.'* In the former case, all the
white substance adhering to the skin is retained ; while in the quality
known as ** home-made," this is carefully removed and the outer
skin but sparingly used, giving the preserve the appearance of a
jelly. The skins are cut in quarters by hand, and parboiled in barrels
arranged in a line and having a steam pipe running along the top,
from which branches pass down the center of the barrels. Seeds
and fibrous matter are removed by machinery. Bitter oranges only
are used, and come from Spain. In the best qualities, pure sugar
is used; in the cheaper varieties, inferior sugar mixed with glucose
in a proportion varying from 3)^ to 7 pounds for every 100 pounds
of sugar. The cost of a 15-horsepower boiler is $973. This will
supply heat to six pans, from which 5 or 6 tons a day can be turned
out. Jam-boiling pans of 60 pounds pressure cost J67 ; of 90 and
120 pounds pressure, $76 and $85, respectively. These are of the
same size, the additional cost being due to the heavier copper for
the high pressure. A small horizontal engine with governor costs
$171; chipping machine for skins, $124; pulping machine, $110;
machine for ** home-made" marmalade, $124; shafting, hangers, and
drums, $42. These prices are free on board steamer at Dundee.



Berlin Congress for Suppression of Tuberculosis. — The De-
partment has received from the German embassy, under date of Feb-
ruary 26, 1899, the programme of an international congress to be held
at Berlin from May 24 to 27, 1899. The note accompanying the pro-
gramme says, in part:

The object of the congress will be to facilitate efforts for the prevention and cure
of tuberculosis, to lead said efforts into the right channel by a discussion of their



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NOTES. 189

proper scientific basis, and to bring about the greatest harmony possible as regards
the most suitable measures. The subjects to be discussed comprise: Propagation,
aetiology, prophylaxis, theraputics, and management of hospitals. The discussion
will be in the German language, although, by permission of the president, another
language may be used.

Inasmuch as the effort to stamp out tuberculosis as an endemic disease is now
being made in almost all countries, as it is in Germany, it is to be presumed thai
foreign countries generally will be interested in the work of the congress.

The ambassador sends copies of a circular issued by the German
central committee for the erection of hospitals for persons with dis-
eased lungs, and requests that societies interested in the prevention
and cure of tuberculosis be informed. He also transmits an invita-
tion to the United States to send semiofficial delegates to the con-
gress.

Belgian Congress of Life-Insurance Doctors.— Consul Roose-
velt, of Brussels, writes, on February 14, 1899;

The first international congress of doctors connected with life-
insurance companies will be held at Brussels from the 25th to the
30th of next September. All Europe and the United States will be
represented at this congress, which proposes to establish universal
formulas for the examination of persons desiring to be insured. As
a result of the congress, it is hoped that permanent offices will be
created in every country composed of five medical members, who
will see that the decisions of the congress are observed, and whose
work may serve to lessen the difficulties of application.



Adulteration of Coffee and Chicory in Belgium.— The follow-
ing, dated Brussels, February 13, 1899, has been received from Con-
sul Roosevelt:

The expert commission for examining alimentary commodities*
recently reported that there were numerous contraventions of the law
relative to the trade in, chicory and coffee. In consequence, the Min-
ister of Agriculture has again called the attention of dealers and offi-
cers concerned to the fact that it is positively prohibited to sell or
expose for sale chicory which at 100® C. loses more than 15 per
cent of its weight; chicory dried at this temperature leaving in the
process of incineration more than 10 per cent mineral matter in pul-
verized chicory or more than 8 per cent in chicory in grain, the con-
stituent parts of which, soluble in boiling water, will be less than 50
per cent. As regards coffee, no substitute whatever for this com-
modity can be sold under any denomination comprising the word
** coffee," its derivatives mixed, or homonymous, or the names of
origin of the natural coffee.



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I go



NOTES.



Telegraph Line to Dawson : Temperature in the Yukon.—

Under date of March i6, 1899, Consul Brush, of Clifton, writes:

The Canadian Government has decided to construct a telegraph
line to connect the Yukon territory with British Columbia. A party
of engineers has left, to commence the work without delay. The
plan of the Minister of Public Works is to construct the line of tele-
graphs between Lake Bennett and Dawson City at once. At the
same time, surveyors will examine the country northward from Ques-
nelle, British Columbia, which is the terminus of the present Gov-
ernment system (old Cariboo line), in order to connect with the line
to Dawson.

The ministers have decided that the franchise for the telegraph
line to Dawson is too valuable, and too important from the stand-
point of the national safety, to be allowed to go into any but Gov-
ernment hands.

The following is given as the official record of the January
temperatures at Dawson. They were taken by the Canadian com-
missioner, the minus sign indicating below zero:



Date.



January i.-.
January 2...
January 3...
January 4...
Januarys-
January 6...
January 7...
Januarys...
January q...
January 10..
January 11..
January 12..
January 13..



Mini-


Maxi-


mum.


mum.


- 41


-24


—34


-23


-34


-3'


-35


-31


-41


-32


-41


— 12


-13


- 6


-14


- 6


-25


- 4


-26


— 4


-28


-18


-33


— 22


— 22


— 21



Date.



Mini-
mum.



January 14.
January 15.
January 16.
January 17.
January 18.
January 19.
January 20.
January 21.
January 22.
January 23.
January 24.
January 25.



-27
-18
-25
-25

-30
-30

—It
- 5
-29
-31
-35
-45



Maxi.
mum.



— 6
-17
—22
-23
-23

— 2X

— 5

+ 2

— 21

— 20
-30

-a6



Indigent Sick in the Yukon.* — Under date of January 31,
1899, Consul McCook, of Dawson City, writes:

The situation as to persons who will be out of food in a couple
of months is becoming very serious. Hundreds will be so situated
and will have to be helped out when navigation opens. Many have
gone out over the ice, while more are remaining, in the hope that
they will be able to make something out of claims they own them-
selves or out of work on claims leased from others. Applicants
come daily to this office for relief.

The indigent sick, so far, have been taken care of by the relief

* This report was given to the press before it reached the Bureau of Foreign Commerce for pub-
lication.



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NOTES. 191

committee and by the local authorities, the latter seeing the neces-
sity of taking a hand in the relief work. Many of the sick are not
paupers in the strict sense of the word; but, being temporarily
without funds, are compelled to call on the relief committee and will
pay when they receive remittances from the outside. The relief com-
mittee, at this date, is unable to extend further aid, as all funds col-
lected have been exhausted, and it is some $2,000 in debt. The
greatest evil, however, will be the large number of people who will
have exhausted their supplies, and who will fail to succeed in getting
paying claims.



Warning to Investors in the Yukon.— Consul McCook writes
from Dawson City, December 31, 1898:

Investors should be very careful of mining properties offered for
sale, particularly in some sections of Alaska. Of the many who came
here last spring and summer, hundreds drifted down the Yukon
and located at Forty Mile, Eagle City, and Star City, Seventy-Mile
district. I am credibly informed there are many schemers among
these, who get up miners' meetings, elect their own recorder, jump
claims already recorded, get their man to give them receipts as
record papers, issue pFOSpectuses of water rights, all apparently in
conformity with United States mining regulations. They have
organized companies, their scheme being to sell their so-called
rights to the public. No one should buy anything until perfectly
satisfied, by investigation, that the claims or rights are correct.
There will be any number of valueless claims offered by promoters.



Machetes in Paraguay. — Consul Ruffin, of Asuncion, on Janu-
ary 31, 1899, says:

There are two kinds of machetes in use here: One with a handle
of wood, a blade of iron, and a rounded end ; the other pointed, with
steel blade and horn handle. The first is used for cutting weeds,
the last for cutting small trees, twigs, bushes, herbs, and grass;
likewise for chipping wood and making handles and articles for
agricultural purposes. They are all imported, none being made in
Paraguay. In 1897, the import amounted to 3,997 dozen and was
valued at $8,489 gold. There is no duty. Machetes costing $8 to
$10 ($1.50 to $1.75 gold) a dozen are imported from England; those
costing $21, $24, and $28 ($3, $3.50, or $4 gold) a dozen, from Eng-
land and Germany; those costing $65 ($9 gold) a dozen, from the
United States. Terms of credit are six months. Banking facilities



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192 NOTES.

with the United States are by meaqs of the Mercantile Bank, which
has an agent in New York City. Since the United States will prob-
ably supply machetes to Cuba and Puerto Rico, it may be able to
obtain a share of the Paraguayan trade as well.



Coal Trade in New South Wales. — Consul Goding, of New-
castle, writes, under date of January 27, 1899:

On January i, the selling price of coal at Newcastle was raised
from 7s. (J1.70) to 8s. ($1.94) per ton, and the miners* wages in-
creased in proportion. It remains to be seen to what extent this
will affect trade. At present, the majority of the mines are working
full time. The weighing question is still unsettled and the outlook
is not too promising; but, as a meeting between the miners and the
proprietors will be held shortly, many believe that matters will be so
adjusted that the mines will continue to be worked. The fact that
over 48,000 tons less of coal was exported to the United States in 1898



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 23 of 92)