United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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system is very much more satisfactory to both the manufacturer and
the German firms which buy the machines for use. There can be
no doubt that many other American machine-tool manufacturers
could profitably increase their business by opening offices here, with
competent engineers and solicitors.

Geo. p. Pettit,

DCssELDORF, March 22^ i8g^. Consul,



OPENINGS FOR AMERICAN COAL IN GERMANY
AND SWITZERLAND.

Fifty cents per ton in favor of Germany and Belgium is all that
prevents the United States from acquiring and controlling the coal
and coke trade of Germany and Switzerland. This is the result of
careful and oft-repeated calculations.

In considering this question, two points have to be settled —

(i) Is the trade large enough to warrant a special effort on the
part of the United States? If so,

(2) What means have to be adopted to secure it?

Switzerland's import of coal and coke for the year 1897, accord-
ing to statistics, was:



Articles.


Quantity.

Quintals*
12,180,473
1,225,067
a. 576,297


Value.


Coal


Francs,
32,337.677

4,2QO,19S

7,126,282


$6,241,171
828,007


Coke


Briquettes -


i»375.372






Total ,




43,754.«54


8,444.550









* I quintal = 220.46 pounds.



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OPENINGS FOR AMERICAN COAL.



243



In 1898, Switzerland imported from Germany 9,988,608 quintals
(998,601 tons) of coal and 1,026,444 quintals (102,644 tons) of coke,
which means that of the whole of Germany's export Switzerland
took 7. 1 per cent of coal and 4.8 per cent of coke. The consumption
per head of each man, woman, and child in Switzerland is about 14
francs ($2.70). According to incomplete statistics, the consumption
of coal in 1899 will be at least 10 per cent more than in 1898.

It is impossible to give figures as to the consumption of coal and
coke in Germany, as the supply comes from its own mines ; but it is
an acknowledged fact than German and Belgian coal is inferior to
our coal, and lacking in the caloric qualities for which ours is famous.

The center for the distribution of coal and coke for Germany
and Switzerland at present is Mannheim, on the Rhine, where, in a
free zone, large wharves are established with modern facilities for
handling it economically.

In a pamphlet describing the business development and indus-
tries of that town, I find the supply of coal and coke arriving by
water and shipped again by rail stated as follows :

Metric tons.*

1890 I, 120, 790

1891 I, 126, 790

1892 I, 257, 892

All was of German and Belgian origin.

Dr. Emminghaus, in his report to the minister of the interior of
the Grand Duchy of Baden, to which Mannheim belongs, shows by
detailed tables that 2,426,340 metric tons of coal and coke arrived at
that place during the year 1897. In the yearly report of the Phal-
zischer Handels and Gewerbe Kammer for 1896, I find the follow-
ing as the ruling wholesale prices per io,ooq kilograms (10 tons, or
22,046 pounds) at the mines:



Description.



Common Ruhr machine coaL.

Ruhr nut coal (I and II)

Ruhr great coke

Saar coal:

I..

II

Ill

Saar great coke



Beginning
of 1896.



I20.23
26. iS
3332

29.05

19-52
XX. 90
32-»3



End of
1896.



Iao.94
ao.94
40.46

29-75
20.23
X3.80
38.08



The retail price of Belgian coal delivered in Berne to-day is 51
francs ($9.84) per ton; of briquettes, 39 francs ($7.53) per tpn; and
of coke, from 45 to 48 francs ($8.69 to $9.26) per ton.

The German railroads reduced their freight charges on January
I, 1898, to 70 pfennigs (16^ cents) per ton as a fundamental tax.



♦ 1 metric ton= 2,204.6 pounds.



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244 OPENINGS FOR AMERICAN COAL.

plus 2.2 pfennigs (0.5 cent) per ton per kilometer for distances uf>-
to 100 kilometers (62.137 miles), and beyond 100 kilometers, 1.7
pfennigs (0.4 cent) per ton per kilometer. Nevertheless, these low
rates can not compete with those of the enormous freight barges
that ply upon the Rhine. One of these barges will hold 3,500 tons,
equaling in capacity 175 German railroad freight cars, and three or
four of these barges are moved together by a tug. As an example
of the low rates charged, I quote the freight on grain from Rotter-
dam, taken from the side of the vessel, to Mannheim, which averaged
during the year 1897 7.56 marks per 2,000 kilograms, or about 90
cents per ton. The great traffic on this water way may be exem-
plified by a statement taken from a report by the department of
agriculture of the Duchy of Baden as to the port of Ludwigshafen,
the landing port of Mannheim: Vessels arriving during 1897, 6,896,
carrying 797,190 metric tons of freight; vessels departing during
1897, 6,896, carrying 221,334 metric tons of freight.

This perfect water way, accessible from Rotterdam, where the
barges are loaded directly from the trans-Atlantic steamers, is of
the greatest importance in solving the possibility of introducing
American mine products into Switzerland. The river passes all the
large German distributing points, such as Cologne, Diisseldorf,
Coblenz, Mainz, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, and Strassburg.

Basel, the frontier town of Switzerland, is connected with the
Rhine by a 7-kilometer (4.35 miles) canal, which will be in working
order shortly.

Mannheim, however, should not be made the distributing point.
The rents in the free zone are high, for the reason that the space is
limited and the business established.

Across the river from Strassburg is situated the town of Kehl, in
the Duchy of Baden, connected with the Badische Railroad and the
German network of railroads, also with the Elsass-Lothrigen Rail-
road, connecting France and Switzerland, and only 50 kilometers
(31 miles) by the direct water way to Basel. A free zone could be
established there or at Hunigen, near Basel. The rents are low and
wharf facilities cheap. I suggest the opening there of a distributing
depot for the products of our American mines. Switzerland could
be served better and cheaper than from Mannheim. The quality of
our coal would soon cause it to be regarded with favor.

In the establishment of as good facilities as are owned by our
German competitors, and with a competent man at the head of the
enterprise, I see no reason why the present difference in price should
not be overcome and a new outlet for our coke ovens and coal mines
secured.

Adolph L. Frankenthal,

Berne, February 20, iSpp. Consul,



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UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO TURKEY. 245



UNITED STATES EXPORTS TO TURKEY.

Consul Marshal Halstead sends the following, dated Birmingham,
March 22, 1899:

When the Americans once secure a hold on the markets of the Levant, their
vast resources, their business capacity and energy, and the vigilance of their con-
suls will give them the lead in many classes of goods.

This is the last sentence in a special dispatch, with Vienna date,
published in the London Times this morning. The touch of expec-
tation that the vigilance of American consuls will be a factor in this
new business drifts into the Times dispatch so naturally that I use
it to call attention again to the opinion so generally entertained in
Great Britain and on the European continent that the American
consular service is unexcelled. At the same time, there is much in-
formation in the dispatch that is important commercially, and I give
it below in full :

[Special dispatch to London Times, dated March aa. 1899.]
THE UNITED STATES AND TURKEY.

I have had more than one opportunity of sending information published by the
Deutsche Zeitung, of Vienna, on the active political and commercial propaganda
of some of the great powers in Turkey. The same journal now gives a very inter-
esting account of the manner in which the United States is endeavoring to extend
its influence in that direction. Sooner or later the European powers will find in
the Americans a dangerous rival in the eastern markets. The ground has been pre-
pared already by extensive missionary work. Throughout the whole of Asia Minor
and its hinterland there are American missionary establishments, which, like every-
thing American, are organized on a practical basis. Their headquarters are at
Smyrna in the west and at Mosul in the east. To each, mission schools are attached,
where children learn reading, writing, and arithmetic and are trained as skilled
workmen. At Marash, for instance, there is an artisans' school, where no fewer
than 1,000 children are being educated.

Hitherto, commercial relations between the United States and Turkey have
been of small importance. Ships sailing under the American flag are not frequent
visitors at Turkish ports. The last statistics issued, those of the year 1896-97,
show that not a single American vessel arrived in the Turkish harbors. Formerly,
they used to take petroleum to Turkey; but Russian competition has driven the
American oil out of the field. Since the beginning of this year, however, a direct
line of steamers between New York and Constantinople has been organized, which
promises to stimulate commercial intercourse between the two countries. Amer-
ican goods now no longer require to be transshipped in English or American ports,
and this, of course, greatly reduces the cost of transport. The merchandise ex-
ported from America to Turkey consists principally of raw iron, hardware, tools,
agricultural machines, and other iron manufactured goods, rum, beer, and flour.
At the beginning of the year, 1,000,000 kilograms (2,204,600 pounds) of American
flour had been imported into Turkey, whereas French and also Hungarian flour had



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246



TRADE OF SWITZERLAND.



been refused entrance at the custom-house. The Americans import from Turkey
opium, skins and hides, carpets, and cotton of Egyptian growth.

The industrial states of Europe, and, foremost among them, Austria-Hungary,
are warned by the Deutsche Zeitung of the danger with which they are threatened
by American exportation. When the Americans once secure a hold on the markets
of the Levant, their vast resources, their business capacity and energy, and the
vigilance of their consuls will give them the lead in many classes of goods.



The United States minister at Constantinople, Mr. Straus, says,
under date of March 27, 1899:

I have every reason to believe that if enterprising American
houses would study this market and establish agencies under Ameri-
can representatives, they would in the course of a short time do a
profitable and, in many products and articles of manufacture, a large
business. But, in order to extend such trade, it would be advisable
to send in the first instance agents with American energy and relia-
bility. A knowledge of the French or German language, or both,
would be of great advantage.



TRADE OF SWITZERLAND IN 1898.

From advance sheets of the Bureau of Statistics of Switzerland,
the complete work of which will not appear until next August, I am
enabled to cull the following facts relating to the trade of Switzer-
land during 1898:



Description.



1898.



1897.



Increase.



Export

Import

Specie:
Import
Export



1*39.637,460
ao3,766,529

17,164,432
11,063,368



l» 33. 782,459
»99,<»S.374

16,061,950
10,472,842



15.855,001
4i74i|XSS

X, 103,472
590,526



The increase of the exports is in the following articles, the figures
being approximate:



Articles.



Watches

Watch materials

Machines

Ironware

Fresh fruit.

Cheese



Amount.

$960,000
120,000
820,000
200,000
132,000
200,000



Articles.



Chocolate

Embroideries:

Chain stitch

Flat stitch

Organzine and tramc.
Silks



Amount.



$260,000

340,000

320,000

400,000

1,400,000



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TRADE OF SWITZERLAND. 247

The approximate increase of imports is noted in the following list :



Articles.



Machines

Copper

Watches and materials..

Fresh butter.

Cocoa beans

Eggs

Meat:

Fresh

Smoked

Sugar



Amount.



$i,o5o,oc»
520,000
380,000
120,000
160,000
60,000

360,000
180,000
180,000



Articles.



Wine

Chemicals and dyes.

Leather and leather goods....

Coal

Coke and briquettes.

Cotton:

Raw

Goods

Silks

Silk and cotton mixed goods.



Amount.



$300,000
680,000
240,000
420,000
180,000

580,000
400,000
120,000
60,000



IRON.

At present, Germany dominates the Swiss iron trade. The fol-
lowing table should be of interest to the iron industry of the United
States. In compiling it, I have given the total amount of Germany's
export and the amount taken by Switzerland, showing the percent-
age of the whole. This will give a good idea of the market of this
Republic.

Iron export of Germany in r8g8.



Articles.



Scrap and crude iron

Comer and angular iron

Railroad frc^ and ties

Railroad rails.

Malleable iron in bars.

Lump iron.

Sheet iron, cold rolled, rough, polished, and lacquered.

Iron wire, rough, coppered, or tinned

Rough castings

Axles for railroad cars and railroad wheels.

Pipes, welded and drawn

Rough ironware.

Machines:

Mainly cast iron.

Mainly malleable iron.

Copper:

Bars and sheet

Wire



Total. Share of SwiUerland.



Quintals*


Quintals.*


Per cent.


2.724,70s


251,378


9.2


2,047.053


414,062


20.2


308,032


112,841


36.6


1,238,387


X73.415


14


2,636,980


209,258


7-9


340,636


25.425


7.3


1.576.386


168,231


10.7


1,887,132


66,700


3-5


295.665


43,949


14.9


317.209


25,820


8.1


302,271


73,49'


24.3


1,634,716


142,070


8.7


1,318,813


97,795


74.2


291,932


12,982


4-4


53.686


6,745


12.6


163,617


24,202


14.8



* I quintal =220.46 pounds.

The eminent civil engineer, Mr. Elmer L. Corthell, of New York
and of Mississippi jetties fame, told me, while here and examining
the iron and stone bridge just finished by a German firm, that in his
judgment nothiag would prevent United States bridge companies
from successfully competing with the -German firms in this line.
He also gave it as his opinion that in building iron, the United



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248 AMERICAN FRUITS AND PLANTS IN BELGIUM.

States could carry off the trade of Switzerland, provided we would
learn to make and give dimensions in metric measurements.

It is useless to offer material measured in feet and inches to a
builder who understands practically only meters and centimeters.

I am further assured that it would take little exertion of our com-
panies manufacturing railroad rolling stock, such as car wheels and
axles, to get a foothold in Switzerland, if they comply with the de-
mands of the railways. Special attention should be drawn to the
fact that Switzerland took nearly one-fourth of the total German
export of piping, and one-fifth of angular iron for building purposes.

Adolph L. Frankenthal,

Berne, March /, 7<Ppp. Consul.



EXAMINATION OF AMERICAN FRUITS AND
PLANTS IN BELGIUM.

Referring to my report dated February 14, 1899,* I transmit
translation of the^official notification of the appointment of experts,
stationed at Antwerp, Ghent, and Ostende, for the examination of
fresh fruits, live plants, and fresh parts of plants sent from the
United States, and form of certificate of examination.

Geo. W. Roosevelt,

Brussels, March p, /<P(pp. Consul,



[Translation.]

IMPORTATION AND TRANSIT OF FRESH FRUITS, LIVE PLANTS, AND FRESH PARTS OF
PLANTS SENT FROM THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA. — EXECUTION OF THE
ROYAL ORDER OF FEBRUARY 3, 1 899.

The Minister of Agriculture and Public Works, in accordance with article 3 of
the royal order of February 3, 1899, relative to the importation of fresh fruits, live
plants, and fresh parts of plants sent from the United States of North America,
and in accordance with the advice of the Minister of Finance, has ordered:

Article i. Messrs. J. Hendrickx, secretary of the agricultural committee of Ant-
werp, at Borgerhout; G. Staes, assistant at the Government University at Ghent;
and J. Pruvost, veterinary doctor at Ostende, are appointed, respectively, at Ant-
werp, Ghent, and Ostende, to inspect shipments of fruits and plants sent from the
United States of North America, and which are not accompanied by a certificate as
described in the royal order of the 3d of February, 1899.

Art. 2. Inspection of the objects enumerated in article 2 of the above-mentioned
order is to be made at the public warehouse or other place of destination designated
by the customs authorities. Unpacking of the packages can not be proceeded with
before the arrival of the expert.

* See Consular Reports No. 224 (May, 1899), p. 106.



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AMERICAN BOLTS AND NUTS IN SCOTLAND. 249

Art. 3. The cost of examination by the experts is fixed at 4 francs (77 cents)
per hour, without, however, permitting the amount to exceed 20 francs ($3.86) per
day. Delay resulting from inexact or insufficient direction is at the expense of the
person interested.

Art. 4. When the expert recognizes that the packages are free from San Jos6
scale, the fact is stated in a certificate conforming to the form annexed to the present
order, declaring that the packages may be allowed free circulation in the country.

Art. 5. The present order will go into effect the 15th of March, 1899.

Leon De Bruyn.
Brussels, February 2j, i8gg.



FORM. — IMPOR'^ATION AND TRANSIT OF FRESH FRUITS, LIVE PLANTS, AND FRESH
PARTS OF PLANTS SENT FROM THE UNITED STATES OF NORTH AMERICA. — EXECU-
TION OF ROYAL DECREE OF FEBRUARY 3, 1899.

Certificate of examination.

Name and domicile of shipper.

Name and domicile of consignee.

Name and nature of packages.

Mark on packages.

The undersigned expert appointed in execution of the royal order of February
3. 1899, declares that he has examined the above-mentioned packages and found
them free from San Jos6 scale.

In consequence, these packages may be sent to their destination.

The , 189 .

The Expert.



AMERICAN BOLTS AND NUTS IN SCOTLAND.

Inquiry has been made at this consulate by a wholesale agent,
handling largely bolts and nuts and like articles, for the name and
address of a company or firm in the United States manufacturing
bolts (round and square, countersunk heads) and cold-cut nuts.
He wishes to obtain this particular combination for the Scottish
market.

This business man informs me that the American manufacturers
are now pushing the Germans very hard for the trade in bolts and
nuts in the United Kingdom. The importation of these articles from
the United States began about eighteen months ago. For many
years, the German manufacturers had little or no foreign competition
in these islands for machine-made bolts and nuts; and the British
manufacturers could only hold the market for the common square-
head bolts. In 1897, bolts and nuts began to come from the United
States, and the trade has been growing. Of late, it has been in-
creasing rapidly. In this dealer's opinion, should there be no
reduction of prices by the German and no increase of prices by
the American manufacturers, the latter will soon get the bulk of the



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250 MOTOR-CARRIAGE EXPOSITION AT BERLIN.

trade. The process of gaining the market would be easier, he says,
if some of the American bolt and nut manufacturers did not persist
in sending the goods in packages of 100 and of 50, although they
know that it is the custom in the retail trade here to buy bolts and
nuts by the gross and half gross.

RuFUs Fleming,
Edinburgh, March 20, iSpp. Consul.



MOTOR-CARRIAGE EXPOSITION AT BERLIN.

There will be held at Berlin from the 3d to the 28th of Septem-
ber, 1899, an international competitive exhibition of motor carriages,
open to all exhibitors.

Exhibits will be classified as follows:

{a) Motor carriages and devices of all kinds for the transport of
persons.

(b) Motor wagons for transport of freight.

{c) Motor cycles and trailers.

{d) Motors and accumulators for motor carriages.

{e) Parts and wheels for motor carriages.

(/) All articles relating to motor carriages and not otherwise
classified.

The exposition will be held in a covered building known as the
Exercier-Haus, 34 and 35 Karl Strasse, which has a superficial area of
2,700 quadrat meters. It will be open daily from 10 a. m. to 6 p. m.
It is hoped that before the opening of the exposition the place will
be provided with electric light, in which case the exposition will be
continued until 9.30 p. m. daily.

A progressive series of tests, races, etc., is in contemplation, the
programme for which will be announced by the committee of man-
agement at the opening of the exhibition.

The rent of exhibition space will be as follows: For the first
25 square meters of ground or wall space, 10 marks ($2.38) per
square meter; for the second 25 square meters, 8 marks ($1.90)
per square meter; for the third 25 square meters, 6 marks ($1.42) per
square meter; and for all additional space accorded to one exhibitor,
4 marks (90 cents) per square meter.

Not more than two examples of the same class of exhibit will be
permitted to each exhibitor.

Intending exhibitors should announce their exhibits as soon as
possible, but not later than the 15th of April, either by letter or
telegram addressed to the committee as follows: ** Internationale
Motorwagen Ausstellung Berlin, 1899, Berlin, Universitat Strasse



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AUTOMOBILE REGULATIONS IN FRANCE. 25 1

No. I." With the announcement should be remitted half of the
rental for the desired space. Applications for space received after
the 15th of April and not later than the 20th will be accorded their
due share of whatever space may remain unclaimed on the 15th.

The committee has power to accept or reject any article offered
for exhibition, and the applicant will be immediately notified of its
decision as to whether his exhibit is accepted or rejected. Space
asked for and accorded for which the rental is not paid before the
ist of July will be subject to redistribution to other exhibitors.
For the preparation of the catalogue, each exhibitor will be required
to furnish not later than the ist of August two photographs or pho-
tographic plates representing his exhibits. Possession of exhibition
space as accorded by the committee will be given to exhibitors on
the morning of September i. Articles for exhibition are to be de-
livered at the exposition at the cost and risk of the exhibitor and
should arrive on the ist or 2d of September. All exhibits must be
in place and ready for exhibition by 10 o'clock on the morning of
September 3. During the hours of exhibition, the exhibits shall not
be covered, but remain open for public inspection, and may not be
withdrawn during the continuance of the exposition, except with the
consent of the committee of management. All exhibits are to be
withdrawn and taken possession of by the owner within twenty-four
hours after the close of the exposition.

The price of admission to visitors is fixed at 2 marks (47.6 cents)
on the opening day and during other days from 50 pfennigs to i
mark (11. 9 to 23.8 cents); season tickets, 5 marks ($1.19) each. Ex-
hibitors, their employees, and agents will receive nontransferable
tickets, good during the exposition, for the nominal price of i mark
(23.8 cents).

Neither prizes nor medals will be given. The advantage to ex-
hibitors will be confined to the results of the competitive tests, which
will be stated at length in the report of the committee.

Frank H. Mason,

Berlin, March 75-, i8^g. Consul- General.



AUTOMOBILE REGULATIONS IN FRANCE.

Consul-General Gowdy s^nds from Paris, March 13, 1899, a
newspaper clipping containing a synopsis of the regulations for the
circulation of automobiles, as follows:

Every type of vehicle employed must offer complete conditions of security in its
mechanism, its steering gear, and its brakes. The constructers of automobiles
must have the specifications of each type of machine verified by the service des
mines. After a certificate of such verification has been granted by the service



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252



BALANCE OF TRADE IN GERMANY.



des mines, the constructer is at liberty to manufacture an unlimited number of
vehicles.

Each vehicle must bear the following indications: (i) The name of the con-
structer, the indication of the type of machine, and the number of the vehicle in
that type; (2) the name and domicile of its owner. No one may drive an auto-
mobile who is not the holder of a certificate of capacity delivered by the prefect of
the department in which he resides, granted with the consent of the service des



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 30 of 92)