United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

. (page 4 of 92)
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factories, which all put up their matches in terne-plate cases containing 10 dozen
packets of 10 boxes each. These plates are not used for roofing and not much now
for guttering, for which purpose galvanized iron is preferred.

Wrought-iron building girders have not hitherto been largely imported, but
their use will doubtless increase, and Belgium is to the front with cheap prices.

Iron pipes, both black and galvanized, used all to come from England, but now
the United States is a strong competitor; whilst in regard to cocks, joints, T's, etc..



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.



II



it is said to be only because people are accustomed to English shapes that so many
still come from England. A large importer here told me that the United States
makes were lighter (duty is by weight) and cheaper, and he looked forward to buy-
ing in the United States later on.

Wire nails (Paris points) are made in the country from imported Belgian wire.

The old English horseshoe nail, which required finishing by the farrier before
being used (and the form of which English makers would not change), was replaced
a few years ago by the ready-finished German nail, which now holds the market.

Engineers' bolts and nuts, from about 3 inches by half an inch, or 2^ inches
by five-eighths of an inch and upwards, are made here, being protected by a duty of
600 reis per kilogram; but coach and cabinet makers' bolts and nuts are largely
of continental manufacture. The price of the former, assorted sizes — that is, not
all small sizes — is 1.200 milreis (20.7 cents) per kilogram.

Wood screws are now mostly German. A recent sale of these was made thus:



Length, in

quarters of

an inch.


Thickness,
in lines.


Price, per gross.






Reis.


Cents.


4


4


380


6.55


4


5


440


7.5«


4


6


480


8.27


6


4


480


8.27


6


6


640


11.03


6


9


820


14.03


7


7


7SO


12.92


7


9


880


15- 16


7


10


940


16.10


8


6


720


13-4


8


7


760


14.09


8


9


1,000


17.23


8


10


1,100


18.95


9


10


1,250


21.54


12


la


1,700


29.29



One large commission agent told me that up to two or three years ago, his orders
went to England; but when English makers would not raise their discount allow-
ances, he had to send them to the Continent. After a time the English makers,
finding they were not receiving his orders, sent out to inquire the reason, and offered
to make needful concessions; but, as he says, it is much easier to refuse business
than, having once done so, to recover it from buyers who have been made to change
and have become accustomed to the change.

BRASS OF ALL SORTS.



Brass hinges appear to be principally German. They cost as follows, per dozen:

Maries. Cents.

1% inches... o. 60=14. 28

i^ inches... 70=16. 66

2 inches.. 85=20. 23

a}i inches.. i. 25=29. 75

231^ inches.. i. 45=34. 4i

3 inches I. 75=41. 65

3>^ inches ....'. 2. 50=59- 5o

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12 COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.

A certain amount of brass smelting is done in the country, black-lead crucibles
being used for the purpose. One importer of these who used to get the Battersea
make told me that he read in the Philadelphia Manufacturer of an American black-
lead crucible. He sent for a catalogue and found that the prices compare as follows:

American— 3^ cents per number (number equals about 3 pounds of metal
capacity), less 35 per cent.

English — 3d. (6.08 cents) per number (number equals about i kilogram, or 2.2046
pounds, of metal capacity), less 20 per cent.

He has since imported the American article, finding it quite satisfactory.

LEAD (pig, SHEET, AND PIPE).

Pig lead (132.4-pound ingots) is all imported from France (Marseilles), The
quality is stated to be better and more pliable, and the price cheaper, than English
pig. Sheet lead for cisterns, etc., comes mostly from England. Lead pipes are
made in the country, being protected by an import duty of 200 reis per kilogram
(3.4 cents per 2.2046 pounds), against an import duty of 30 reis (0.5 cent) per kilo-
gram on pig. Current sizes are sold at about 800 reis (14 cents) per kilogram;
small sizes at about 850 reis. Composition lead pipes come from England.

PAPER (other than HANGINGS).

Paper for newspapers comes from France and Norway. United States paper
has been tried, but, like English, found too expensive.

Wrapping paper comes from the Continent, excepting some special quality from
the United States; a cheap quality is made in the country.

A leading German importer told me he found great difficulty in getting any-
thing from England; that when English travelers called upon him, they were not
able to state prices in marks or francs quickly, but had to stop to calculate the
equivalents of their English prices from tables; that their invoices are not only all
in English, and with English weights and money, most difficult for his Brazilian
clerks, but they displayed want of attention to custom-house requirements.

PROVISIONS.

England does comparatively little trade in these, which, excluding dried meat
from the River Plata, appear to come mostly from the United States and southern
Europe.

stationery other THAN PAPER.

Ink, both printing and writing, is made at a national factory; but the amount
produced must only be a small proportion of the total consumption. As regards
the printer's ink, I have heard that the improve4 exchange has already induced one
large user of .the local make to import, and that he is getting his ink from the
United States at 8 cents per pound in loo-pound barrels. I hear the local factory
has just been put into liquidation.

WOOLEN AND WORSTED AND MIXED TISSUES.

These do not appear to be of common use here in Rio de Janeiro, except among
the well-to-do classes, and 11 to 12 ounce goods are about the heaviest. Baizes
are made a little in the south, but are mostly imported from England. There is
much less use for them than of old, owing to the development of railways, one of
their chief Uses being for packing loads of goods on mule back.



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.



13



FREIGHTS.

I have carelully looked into the matter of freights, and find that in a large num-
ber of cases there is a very distinct advantage to continental shippers. Sailer
freights aie said to be easier to arrange from the Continent than from England,
and rates on weight are so much cheaper that pig iron has sometimes gone by
steamer from the east coast of England to Hamburg for shipment thence by sail.
I note the following comparison as to number of sailing vessels arriving from
London, Liverpool, and Glasgow with those from Antwerp and Hamburg, viz:



Arriving f roui—



1895.



1896.



1897.



Loodoo, Liverpool, and Glasgow..
Antwerp and Hamburg



Nutmber.
38



Number.
25



Number.
»3
84



TRADE-MARKS.

False marking of foreign (in the sense of other than English) made goods seems
to be most heard of in connection with the piracy of trade-marks 'by national
manufacturers. The law on this subject appears in itself good; trade-marks (not
names) may be registered; the application for registration must be accompanied by
a certificate either to the effect that the mark has not been registered elsewhere or
giving the particulars of any such registration; any false indication or anything by
which a buyer is deceived, such as a good, but not necessarily exact, imitation of a
mark, is forbidden; and, further, by the latest national factory-marks law, national
goods are not allowed to bear indications of contents, origin, etc., in any other lan-
guage than Portuguese. But, although the law may be good and the tribunals fair,
the process of enforcing it is intricate and expensive, owing, I gather, to the num-
ber of people who have to be feed in order to prevent vexations delays. In the case
of false indications of origin merely, it is obviously not worth any person's while to
prosecute, and the State takes no initiative in the matter. It is a moot point
whether articles whose names are in a foreign (f./., other than Portuguese) lan-
guage, and whose names are such that they would, if translated, either lose their
meaning or be ridiculous, can not be made in the country under their own foreign
name; but, putting this aside, I have seen perfumery articles of national manufac-
ture bearing labels which certainly appeared illegal, the seller nevertheless being
quite unconcerned and only remarking that the law was a bad one for national in-
dustries. Makers of *' Huntly & Palme's" biscuits have recently had to compromise
a suit brought against them; and, I am told, two different imitators of " ApoUi-
nans" water have paid fines, but go on again cheerfully with their fraud, while old
Apollinaris-water bottles are in strong demand.

NATIONAL INDUSTRIES IN THE RIO DE JANEIRO AND SAO PAULO DISTRICTS.

Cotton manufactures. — The largest and most developed of the national industries
in the above-named districts is the manufacturing of the raw cotton of the country.
Most of this cotton seems to come from Pernambuco. The majority of the mills
buy in the market of Rio de Janeiro, but one of them at least imports from Pernam-
buco. From the figures I have been able to obtain, I make out the cost of moving
the cotton from the field to the mill (in Rio de Janeiro itself), including the export
duty (payable alike on cotton shipped to another State of Brazil, as on that shipped
abroad), is about id. (2.028 cents) per pound, or o.yd. (1.42 cents) exclusive of the
export duty. The high freight coastwise resulting from the law limiting cargo to the
national flag tends to make this cost higher than it otherwise would be.



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14 COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.

Wages at one of the largest and best-managed mills are estimated to work out
at I milreis (17.23 cents) per kilogram (2.2046 pounds) all round, or, roughly speak-
ing, about 500 reis (8.6 cents) per kilogram on coarse cloth and 1.500 milreis (25.65
cents) on fine.

The machinery employed is almost all English. The spinning is all ring spin-
ning, and the highest counts of yarns spun are fifties to sixties.

I visited several mills, and some reference to these may serve to indicate the
importance of the industry. The '*A" mill, near Rio de Janeiro, is one of the larg-
est. It employs about 1,500 hands, has 355 carding machines, about 50,000 spin-
dles, 1,250 looms (the majority being 36, 38, and 40 inches, with a few smaller sizes
down to 30 inches, and some 48 inches), steam engines of a combined power amount-
ing to nearly 2,000 horsepower, and an electric motor (United States) of 125 horse-
power. Its chief product is bleached goods, but it also dyes and weaves trouserings,
oxfords, etc., the total outturn being about 1,000,000 meters (1,093,627 yards) per
month.

The *'F** mill, also near Rio de Janeiro, has 12,000 spindles (all 38 inches), 318
looms, and a steam engine of 500 horsepower. It em ploys about 370 hands. Its chief
product so far has been in bleached goods, but one-color oxfords were just being
started when I visited it. Its total outturn is about 350,000 meters per month.

The supply of cotton being limited to the produce of the country, owing to the
effect of the duties on imports, and the Brazilian cotton being all long stapled, both
the above mills buy the poorest qualities for making low-grade goods.

The **I" niill, in SSlo Paulo, has about 170 looms, two engines of about 240
horsepower combined, and a German motor for the electric light. It is said to em-
ploy about 400 hands. Its chief product appears to be colored goods, viz, trouser-
ings, oxfords, etc.

The "A" mill, in Sflo Paulo, which I also visited, is situated on the railway. It
has about 22 carding machines, 4,500 spindles. 198 looms, and a 200-horsepower
engine, all English, and German electric-light installation. About 350 hands are
employed.

I estimate that there are at least 11,000 looms, more or less, in the Rio and Sao
Paulo districts, besides hosiery and undershirt machinery. A good deal of dyeing
is done, but only one mill does printing.

There are, however, print works* at a place in the SSLo Paulo district, and I saw
the manager of these in Sao Paulo. They have over 800 rollers at these works,
and water power to an amount (some 1,500 to 2,000 horsepower) far beyond their
requirements. From 130 to 150 hands are employed, and these are chiefly immi-
grants expert at the work, which is of a kind that the natives can not yet be trusted
to do. They have machinery for printing in as many as eight colors, and their
machines are all English.

y«/^ weaving. — There are four jute-weaving factories, having about 1,100 looms
between them. Three are in the Rio de Janeiro district, and one of the three makes
a seamless bag under an American patent; but by far the most important of the
four is the large factory here in Sao Paulo. This factory, which I have visited,
contains 599 looms, which represent an annual capacity of 14,000.000 meters (15,-
316,000 yards), and the looms are being added to in order to bring up the capacity
to 18,000,000 meters (19,692,000 yards). The staple product is the 37-inch hessian
for the ordinary coffee bag, made in several different qualities; but the chief sale is
of a quality weighing 290 grams (0.0639 pounds) per meter (1.094 yards). Rather less
than lyi meters go to a bag. The factory wHl sell either bags or hessians. Thirty-
inch hessians, 400 grams (0.088 pounds) per meter, are also woven for the heavy
bags for upcountry use. as well as covers (varnished) for protecting coffee from
rain showers in the process of drying, and jute cloth for common scissor beds.



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COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL. 1 5

The factory has two English steam engines of 300 and 100 horsepower, respec-
tively; its own water supply, brought from a stream 4 miles distant; a large con-
densing tank, and a railway siding; and it employs about 900 operatives. From
December to May there is but little sale for the hessians, so they have to go largely
into stock during that period, and new depositories are being built to facilitate this.

Cordage and iwim manufacture. — The making of common cordage and twine,
largely from **sunn" hemp, is an industry which is carried on in a number of
small rope works; but seaming twine, for the coffee bags, made of Italian tow
{Estopa ptHnata)^ or hemp, is made in at least two well-appointed factories, one in
Rio Janeiro and one in Sao Paulo, both of which I have visited.

The former was only reopened this year, after having been closed for a number
of years, and it appears to be under capable and active management. The ma-
chinery used is mostly English, the engine being of 80 horsepower, and there are
about 1,500 spindles. About 140 operatives are employed at present. The out-
turn amounts to 1,500 kilograms (3,307 pounds) daily. More than half of this is
seaming twine, and some 250 kilograms is good-quality parcel string, making a
total of over 1,000 kilograms daily from yarn spun in the factory. The balance of
the 1,500 kilograms is made from finer yarn imported from Italy, the factory not
having the necessary machinery for spinning this finer yarn. Cordage and rope,
from Italian hemp, are also made here.

The factory at S210 Paulo is situated close to the railway, and is quite new. Its
machinery, including a lOO-horsepower engine and a small engine for use in case
of need, is all British. At present, there are only 200 twisting and 200 spinning
looms. The outturn is about 500 kilograms (1,1023 pounds) daily. About 40 hands
arc employed.

Woolen manufactures. — A list of woolen mills was given in the report of the
British consul at Rio de Janeiro for 1896, page 10. Since that list was made out,
the mill first named in it has been put into liquidation, and is said to be likely to
become the property of the one last named. A new mill has, however, come into
existence through the enterprise of the wealthy owner of the large hessian fac-
tory in Sao Paulo, alongside of which factory it is being constructed and whose
water supply it uses. I visited this mill. The machinery, including the engine of
300 horsepower, is all English, and English electric-light plant is being procured.
So far there are only 80 looms, and only a portion of these are working, but more
are en route. Worsted yarns, as well as some woolen yarns, are imported; also a
little mixed wool and cotton — all from England. The chief product is high-quality
stuff for both men's and women's wear, some dyed in the piece at the mill and some
made from yam imported dyed. A little flannel is also made. Common blankets
with cotton one-way were tried, but did not prove a success.

Hat making. — I visited one of the leading felt-hat factories in the neighborhood
of Rio de Janeiro. This factory is quite new, having been built to replace one
which was burned down. It seemed very well managed and has room for expan-
sion. The machinery, including a 50-horsepower engine and boiler and British
electric-light installation, is largely British; but there are also some American and
other machines. At present, about 100 operatives are employed, and the outturn
amounts to about 400 hats per day, about half being made of hair and half of wool,
perhaps io per cent of the total being hard hats.

Iron working, machinery making, etc. — The most important of these establish-
ments in the neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro is probably the national rolling mill.
The works, which I visited, have a harbor front and a railway siding. I noticed
four or five old iron hulks being broken up, and the manager said he had not had
recourse to puddled bars (on which the duty is 10 reis per kilogram) for six months.
The output of bars amounts to about 250 tons per month. These works have a



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1 6 COMMERCE AND INDUSTRIES OF BRAZIL.

combined power of 250 horsepower, supplied entirely by English steam engines.
The electric installation is American. A large foundry is attached, where a variety
of work is done, such as the making of hand pumps (American pattern), trolley
wheels, tram-car wheel boxes, etc.

Another foundry which I visited makes chiefly box smoothing irons for use with
charcoal, turning out about 500 finished per day. This foundry also makes cast-
iron pots, cast-iron fire holders for cooking, cast-iron spirit burners (also for cook-
ing), cast-iron tops for brick cooking ranges, and tailors' smoothing irons weighing
4 to 5 kilograms each. The spirit burners, which are much less used than the old-
fashioned fire holders, are sold at only 10 milreis per dozen in large quantities.
There is a carpenters' shop attached to this foundry, where wheelbarrows 01^ the
American pattern are made from native wood (steamed and bent on the premises);
also collapsible stools of deal laths to sell at 30 milreis (J5.17) per dozen, etc. The
machinery in thisfactory is all English, including one cupola and two small steam
engines. There are 86 operatives, all of whom are on piece work.

I also visited the Rio de Janeiro wire-nail factory. This factory has 40 machines
(German), a French engine of 100 horsepower, and Babcock & Wilcox boilers (two).
It was employing about 60 operatives when I visited it, and its product was about
5,000 to 6,000 kilograms (11,023 to 13,228 pounds) daily. The capacity of the factory
is stated at 10,000 kilograms daily. The wire is all imported from Germany.

Another local industry is the making of horseshoes. The principal factory,
which I visited, employs 36 hands and turns out 500 to 600 dozen shoes per day.
This industry is protected by the import duty on plain articles, not otherwise
specified, made from wrought iron, which is 200 reis (3.45 cents) per kilogram.

Perhaps the most important industry under this heading is the making of ma-
chinery, especially coffee machinery, in the Sflo Paulo district. There are at least
four factories engaged in this business, three of which also import machinery.
One of the principal of these factories has a large foundry, and about 550 hands
are employed. Coffee machinery is the principal product of these works, and water
motors are said to be the next most important item of manufacture. The gross
output is over 500 tons per month. It is calculated that more wrought than cast
iron is used.

Matches. — The making of safety matches, practically the only ones used in the
country, is an important industry. The largest factory, which is allied with the great
company in England and America, is said to be under admirable management and
to contain wonderful American labor-saving machinery. The outturn of this fac-
tory some time since was 630 tins per day, whilst only 50 operatives — some of them,
it is true, being highly paid Americans — were employed, exclusive of the men in
the repair shop. The factory which produces the best matches, however, imports
everything — boxes, sticks, etc. — ready, so that there is little more to do than to put
the igniting composition on the sticks and then pack the matches in the boxes.
This factory, which contains German machinery, was only producing 130 tins per
day at the time when the big factory was turning out 630; but its price was recently
55 milreis ($9.48) per tin (containing 120 packets of 10 small boxes each), against 52
milreis (I8.96) per tin for the product of the big factory, and 46 and 45 milreis
(I7.93 and |7.75)t respectively, for the product of the two other factories. From
these prices has to be deducted the consumption tax of 24 milreis ($4.14) per tin,
a stamp of the value of 20 reis (0.345 cent) having to be afiSxed to each box.

Candles and soap. — The making of stearin candles and soap is carried on in a
large, long-established, and well-managed factory in Rio de Janeiro. The price of
the candles is about 17 to 18 milreis (I2.93 to I3.16) a box. The price of soap is
from 1.800 milreis (31.6 cents) per box of 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds) to 5.600 or 5.800
milreis (86 cents to |i) per box of %% kilograms (18.76 pounds).



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DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



WAREHOUSE CHARGES.



TcthU for calculating warehouse charges by dividing the duties leviable ^ according to law
No. 428 of December^ i8g6.



Rate of duty leviable.



Rate of warehouse charges according to the
period for which the goods are stored.



Up to 30
dajrs, I per
cent ad va-
lorem per
month.



Up to 60
days, i\ per
cent ad va'

lorem per
month.



Up to 90
dasrs, 3 per
cent ad va-
lorem per

month.



More than
90 days, 3
per cent ad

valorem
per month.



Divisors.



5 per cent..

7 per cent.,
xo per cent*.
13 per cent..
15 per cent.,
aopcr cent..
ss per cent..
30 per cent..
40 per cent..
4S per cent..
48 per cent.,
so per cent..
60 per cent..
6a per cent..
67 per cent..
78 per cent..
84 per cent..



5


3.33


2-5


7


4.66


3.5


10


6.66


5


13


8.66


6.5


»5


10


7-5


20


13-33


10


as


16.66


"•5


30


20


15


40


a6.66


ao


45


30


82.5


48


32


24


50


33.33


25


60


40


30


62


41 -33


31


67


44.66


33-5


78


Sa


39


84


S6


42



X.66

a. 33

3-33

4.33

5

6.66

8.33
xo

13.33
15
16

x6.66
ao

20.66
22.33
26
28



NoTK. — ^The import duties are to be divided by the corresponding divisor, according to the period
daring which the goods are stored in the warehouses, and the result will be the war^ouse charge
pcrmonth.



DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.

The great sources of wealth in Canada may be said to be four,
viz, fisheries, mines, forests, and farms. The amount annually de-
rived from them is, in round figures, $20,000,000 from the fisheries,
$30,000,000 from the mines, $80,000,000 from the forests, while agri-
culture soars above all the others combined with a grand total of
over $600,000,000. The products of the erstwhile despised **few
arpents of snow ** are now well known in the markets of the world.
Manitoba wheats are found everywhere, the produce of what but
a few years ago was regarded as so much waste land.

While wheat has made enormous progress, it is equaled, if not
outdistanced, by the rapid increase of the cheese business, the phe-
nomenal increase of which will be clearly seen by reference to annexed
tables. A comparison of the cjieese exports for the last ten years, as
given in the official returns of the United States and Canada here-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 4 of 92)