United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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by each machine or process, the cost of producing the same, the
cost of the machine, and the simplicity and durability of the work-
ing parts. On completion of the test, the committee was to furnish
a report to the minister, etc.

The bonus (No. 2) of ;^25o ($1,217) was offered for a process of
utilizing the waste products of the hemp.

Up to this time, no machine or process has been found which, in
the opinion of the committee, seems to comply with the require-
ments.

Frank Dillingham,

Auckland, February /j, iSg^. Consul,



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334 CANADA S MINERAL PRODUCTION.



CANADA'S MINERAL PRODUCTION IN 1898.

A very interesting summary of the mineral production of the
Dominion of Canada for 1898 has just. been published by the Cana-
dian Geological Survey. The returns are not yet all in, but the
pamphlet shows that the output for the year 1898 is considerably
ahead of the previous year's record.

Of the total output of metallic products, valued at $21,622,601,
$13,700,000 was in gold, $10,000,000 of this representing the yield
of the Yukon district. Silver (fine, in ore, etc.) was produced to the
value of $2,583,298. The other minerals were: Copper (fine, in ore,
etc.), $2,159,556; nickel (fine, in ore, etc.), $1,820,838; lead (fine, in
ore, etc.), $1,206,399; and iron ore, $152,510.

The output of nonmetallic substances was $15,884,596, of which
coal represented more than half, viz, $8,227,958. Building material
(including bricks, building stone, lime, sand, gravel, and tiles) was
valued at $3,600,000; petroleum, $981,106; asbestus and asbestic,
$486,227; and Portland cement, $981,106.

The estimated value of the mineral products not returned is put
down at $250,000, thus bringing the total value of the mineral prod-
uct of the country last year to $37,757,197, or $9,095,767 more than
1897, when the value was $28,661,430. The following extracts are
from the pamphlet:

Compared with 1886, the first year for which statistics were issued, we find an
increase in the value of mineral products in thirteen years of nearly 270 per cent.
When it is remembered that in the same period the increase in the population has
been only about 14 per cent, it will be evident that the proportional importance
of the mining industry to the country is very much greater than at the beginning of
the period dealt with. Thus, the per capita value of the mineral production of the
country has increased from about J2.20 to $7.20.

Of the gold output, the main feature was the large increase in that of the Yukon.
This accounts for |7, 500,000 of the enlargement, which is three times as great an
estimate output as that for last year. With the exception of the gold washings of
the Sascatchewan River, in the Northwest Territory, there were increases in all the
other districts of the Dominion.

There was an increased output of coal in all the different districts,
and a gain of 50 per cent in the output of copper in the Province
of Ontario. A rise in the price of this metal makes the proportional
increase in value greater than that for the quantity. There has also
been an increase in the output of nickel, but a decrease in lead,
silver, and asbestus.

Urbain J. Ledoux,

Three Rivers, March 6, iSgp. Consul.



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THE FORESTS OF CANADA.



335



THE FORESTS OF CANADA.

The following extracts are from a report by Consul-General Bit-
tinger, dated Montreal, March 14, 1899. ^^^ ^"^^ ^^^^ ^^s been sent
the Department of Agriculture.

In the days of old, a mighty forest stretched from the ocean that
breaks on the shores of Nova Scotia to the Lake of the Woods, some-
thing like 2,000 miles, covering a good 350,000,000 acres. The set-
tler has cut his way into the fringe of this vast woodland, but his
depredations are as nothing compared with the terrific" scourge of
fire, which has left millions of scorched and blackened trunks to
mark the place where it has roared and destroyed. In spite of all,
enough is left to place Canada high among the wood-producing
countries of the world. The following table will show the area of
the forests in the different Provinces:



Province.



Toul area.



Woodland.



Percental



'ercentaffe
of wood.



Ontario

Quebec

New Bninswick...

Nova Scotia...

Prince Edward Island..

Manitoba

British Columbia

Northwest Territories

Total



Sg,



. mtUs.
219,650
227,500
28,200
20,550
2,000
64,066
382,300
371.481



S^. miUs.

zo3,zz8

zz6,52z

Z4,766

6,464

797

25,626

385,554

696,952



Per cent,
46.49

51.22
52.55

31. 45

39.85

40

74.69

29.38



3.3x5,647



z, 248,798



37.66



These figures are fqunded on the most recent and reliable infor-
mation available.

The quantity of pine is estimated, in Ontario, as 19,404,000,000
board feet; in Quebec, at 15,734,000,000 feet; in the other Prov-
inces, at 2,200,000,000 feet; total, 37,338,000,000 feet. A low cal-
culation of the annual cut is 1,000,000,000 feet, in which case
Canada has not more than forty years' supply, and the growth of new
wood, in spite of all regulations, is not nearly equal to the cut. It
is impossible to give anything like a just return of the spruce limits,
estimates being so diverse aS to be useless.

The great tree of Ontario is the white or Weymouth pine. There
are also the red pine, spruce, hemlock, etc. The valuable black
walnut, tulip, plane, and coffee trees are almost extinct. The quan-
tity or value of timber can not be given, as many millions of acres
are utterly unexplored. In the known woods, a return to the On-
tario Government states that there are 60,410,000,000 feet.



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336



THE FORESTS OF CANADA.



Quebec, with its newly added territory, is now an even larger
Province than Ontario. Vast regions to the north are unknown.
The white pine is the most important tree, as in Ontario; it is how-
ever, rapidly disappearing. Rich spruce is noted in Bonaventure
River au Bouleau, Chicoutimi County, River French, and Bay Lake.
There is great waste of hemlock, on account of its bark.

Some of the best cedar areas of the country are on the north
shore of New Brunswick. An unsurveyed area of some 2,000,000
acres on the Upper Restigouche is reported to be full of good spruce
and cedar. The pine forests, at one time rich, have been greatly
impoverished. The same is true of Nova Scotia. A quantity of
good spruce is left in the last-named Province, but it is being used
in a similar way.

British Columbia may be said to possess the largest compact
timber resources in the world. Only the fringe has been cut. It is
estimated that the Douglass pine, cedar, spruce, Alaska pine, etc.,
standing in the railway belt, amount to 25,000,000,000 feet, worth
$25,000,000. The coast is heavily timbered as far north as Alaska.
There is no white pine, but spruce attains perfection in this section.

The following table shows the area in forests in various countries
of the world :



Country.



Area in


Percentag^e


forests.


of total area.


Acres,


Percent.


24,172,360


32.58


^^yin^n^


23-52


x.a43.507


17.08


3,291,100


12


23,466,450


17.92


34,347.000


25.70


3,025,400


12.60


10,131,235


i4.3»


19,288,626


24.53


1,163,841


5- 25


4,942.000


15.32


498,200,000


37.15


5.763,163


48


»6,354.94i


»3.03


44,480,000


40.65


2,259,018


so. 13


3,500,000


8.Q3


2,695,000


4


799,*30,7*o


37.66


450,000,000


23.39


5,760,000


18


140,000,000


25


'7,500,000
28,700,000




30.34



Europe.

Austria...

Hungary

Belgium

Bulgaria

France

Germany...

Greece

Italy

Norway

Portugal

Roumania..

Russia

Servia

Spain..

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

A merica.

Canada

United SUtes

British Guiana.»

Asia,

India

Turkey

Japan



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COAL IN NEW BRUNSWICK.
Canadian exports of forest products in i8gj»



m



Description.



To United
Sutes.



To Great
Briuin.



Bark for tanning

Firewood

Logs, all Idnds.^

Lumber:

Pine deals

Spruce and other.

Deal ends

Planks and boards..

Laths, palings, and pickets-
Joists and scantling

Staves and headings.

All other.

Shingles .,



Sleepers and railroad ties

Suve bolts.

Boa shooks, etc

Timber:

Square oak.

White pine

All other.»

Wood for wood pulp.

Manufactured

Wood, manufactured:

Household furniture

Doors, sashes, and blinds....

Matches and match splints...

Wood pulp.

All other.



Total manufactures

Total manufactured and unmanufactured..



I"2,IS4

173.799

2.099.777



315.746

3,151

8,613,383

500.361

313,345

643,137

340,174

1,184,379

332,939

38.634

18,037



$30,300

3.309.450

6,513,334

638,1x0

961,357

7.334

"3.448

48, 49*
76,1x9



7,86x



8,335

34,323
677,321
305.344

3o,x5x
1,388

4.078

576,730
io9.37'i



38,546

538.926
1.350,304

474.388
33.931
50.831

68,0x4
273.989
136,384
164,138
376,888



1.715.79a
33,046,339



Export of forest products per province for fiscal year.



Province.



Ontario

Quebec

Nova Scotia...

New Brunswick...

Manitoba

British Columbia

Prince Edward Island
Northwest Territories..



Totol.



$I0,033,603

11.587.158

3,508,963

6,388,014

48

742,119

5.645

4.180



To United
Sutes.

Q



$9.95i.<^3

2,834.424

581,396

2,031,054

48

33.564



4.180



To Great
Briuln.



154.390
8,360,575
1,445,100
4.054.528



144.058
934



COAL IN NEW BRUNSWICK.

It is known chat many thousands of dollars have been expended
in prospecting and developing the oil deposits at Baltimore mines,
in Albert County, New Brunswick. This enterprise has not as yet
yielded a paying percentage upon the investment, and the oil works
at this place have been abandoned. Westmoreland County is to be
the scene of the next operations in the search for oil.
No. 225 9.



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338 NOTES FROM THE YUKON.

An agent sent here by New York capitalists believes, however,
that the oil is but a by-product of a more valuable mineral, which
exists in almost unlimited quantities. Ever since the prospecting
for oil began in Albert County, it has been known that coal, or shale,
as it is called, was found abundantly. So engrossed were the oil
men in their enterprise that they paid little attention to what is now
believed to be one of the most valuable coal deposits ever discovered.

The quality of the coal is said to be superior to the best Scotch
cannel coal for some purposes. It is particularly valuable for mixing
with other coal for the production of illuminating gas.

An engineer who was sent by the promoters to look over the
ground estimates that 200,000,000 tons of the coal are in sight. The
depth and extent of the deposit has not yet been tested. A company
will organize immediately, the capital stock to be about $1,000,000.

The nearest railway point to the deposit is the Harvey and Salis-
bury road, 8 miles distant, which connects with the Intercolonial
Railway. The company will either purchase the Harvey and Salis-
bury road or build direct to the Intercolonial Railway, a distance of
16 miles. The company will also need a water front and may make
Moncton their shipping headquarters.

By next fall, the company expects to be shipping 1,000 tons of
coal a day from their mine, and in a year from now it calculates
that the output will be 3,000 tons a day, and that the enterprise
will give employment to 2,000 men.

GusTAVE Beutelspacher,

MoNCTON, March ji^ iS^g. Commercial Agent,



NOTES FROM THE YUKON.

The weather for the past three months has been a pleasant sur-
prise to the people who have spent their first winter here. The
coldest weather we have had was between the 8th and 15th of No-
vember, the thermometer registering 40° to 50° below zero. The
month of December was ideal winter weather, the thermometer then
only registering around zero, and there. being no wind, so to speak,
the air was as pleasant as in November weather in the Middle States.
In January we had a couple of weeks of very cold weather, but noth-
ing to be dreaded when one is warmly clad, with the extremities of
the body well protected against frost bites. While there have been
a great many cases of frozen limbs, and amputation is sometimes
necessary, such cases mostly came from long-continued exposure on
particularly cold days, or from exhaustion, or getting the feet wet
on stampedes.

Stampeding to relocate claims where owners failed to do the



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NOTES FROM THE YUKON. 339

necessary representation work, or to some reported locality said to be
good, has been very frequent all winter. The majority of such stam-
pedes, however, proved failures; for instance, on the first week of
January, a stampede took place from Dawson down the Yukon River,
on which some three hundred men and women started at midnight,
among whom were some well-known rich mine owners, who would
not be expected to go out stampeding unless they had some informa-
tion of a positive character. Anyone who could get a dog or two
and a sled and some provisions together started. After traveling all
night, a council of war was held by those who were in the secret of
the coveted locality. Heads were counted, and, finding there were
more in camp than there could possibly be claims to stake, the lead-
ers concluded not to go farther, but to starve out those who had
brought only a few days* provisions along. Many came back to
Dawson for more provisions, and started off again in the effort to re-
gain their former position. Finally, the leaders made an onward
movement up creeks, across divides and hills, and, having to make
new trails in the snow, unfortunately lost the proper direction to the
supposed goal. They had, therefore, to beat a retreat to Dawson,
returning footsore and weary, and many with frosted limbs, after a
week of fruitless search. There have been, however, some successful
relocations of good claims this winter, which will pay the possessors
handsomely for all the trouble and hardships they have undergone.

The winter here as a whole, in my judgment, is preferable to sum-
mer, as traveling over the creeks and trails is much easier. It is not
an uncommon occurrence for one to travel from 50 to 60 miles in a
single day with a couple of dogs, starting at daylight and completing
the trip the same evening. In summer, one must traverse bog and
morass, wade through streams, and frequently get into muck up to
the waist, in going from here to the diggings on Dominion and other
creeks. The freightage of necessary provisions is much easier in
winter, with the assistance of dogs, a couple of which can easily pull
from 500 to 800 pounds on a sled. In summer, the load would have
to be packed on the backs of mules or bronchos, making locomotion
much more expensive and slower.

The sun was lost sight of in Dawson on the 5th of December, dis-
appearing from view behind the hills and not reappearing again until
the 7th of January. On some of the creeks, some 15 and 20 miles
from here, where the hills rise abruptly from the streams, the sun
was lost sight of in the first week of November.

The temperature on the creeks is generally about 10° warmer
than here, from the fact that Dawson is more in the open and is
exposed to drafts of winds.

The darkness of winter days, like the coldness of this Arctic region,
has been very much exaggerated. There has been good daylight



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340 NOTES FROM THE YUKON.

from 9 a. m. to 3 p. m. ; of course, in offices and stores, lights had
to be burned all day, with the exception of a couple of hours at mid-
day. This happily lasted but a couple of weeks ; at this date, we
have daylight from 6.30 in the morning until 5.30 in the evening.
In a couple of months, we will have daylight all the time.

The extremely moderate weather for this region has had the effect
of reducing the price of wood from $35 to $15 per cord; last year,
the average price was $60 per cord. This weather has also caused
many of the miners to suspend work on the creek claims for a time,
on account of the water coming into the shafts where tunneling or
drifting had to be done. On one claim on Victoria Gulch, a spring
was struck that overflowed and flooded all the mines in that vicinity
for three-fourths of a mile.

There is a machine for taking water out of the mines on the
siphon principle, which works very effectively. This apparatus also
acts as a thawing machine, and is now coming into practical use
by owners of claims. There are about twenty of the machines in
successful operation here — all that can be obtained at present.
Hundreds of similar machines can be advantageously used in summer
time for thawing ground and pumping water where drifting has to
be carried on. By this means, miners can be enabled to work their
ground continuously winter and summer. When one considers the
vast expanse of territory both here and in Alaska rich in gold de-
posits, it will be seen that there is an excellent opening for such
machines.

Many people who have had ** lays, "or leases, on claims, and who
failed after a couple of months to find sufficient to pay, have quit
and gone out over the ice; a goodly number have turned their faces
toward Alaska. To those who have means to subsist for a couple
of years, Alaska will be found after all to be the poor man's mining
country, as, when one finds ground there, he gets sufficient of it — 20
acres — to warrant his staying. There is a vast extent of placer
mining ground in Alaska where a man can get out, with a pick and
shovel, I to 4 ounces of gold per day. Great fortunes could be
reaped by companies who would buy up mining ground already
located in Alaska and introduce modern mining machinery. Forty-
Mile District, Seventy-Mile District, the Tanana District near Circle
City, and others are open for such enterprise. It takes capital; but
capital, if put in the right districts in Alaska, will be amply repaid.
I have before me a reliable list of twelve claims prospected in the
Seventy-Mile District, Alaska, all averaging almost 3 ounces of gold
per man per day. This territory, with modern machinery, would
be most valuable.

J. C. McCooK,

Dawson City, February 11, i8gg. Consul.



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TELEPHONE SERVICE IN CANADA. 34 1



TELEPHONE SERVICE IN CANADA.

The following reports were made in answer to a Department in-
struction of March 3, 1899. Consul-General Bittinger writes from
Montreal, under date of March 15:

The Bell Telephone Company, Limited, covers the Provinces of
Ontario, Quebec, and Manitoba, in the Dominion of Canada. The
cost for telephone service in the city of Montreal is $30 for private
residences and $50 for business houses per year. There is no cost for
installation and rent. The cost at pay stations in the city is 10 cents
for five minutes.

The telephone is first located by the company where the sub-
scriber directs; if afterwards the instrument is required to be moved,
such removal is done by the company at the expense of the sub-
scriber.

The Bell Telephone Company has a long-distance service in the
Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, covering hundreds of stations.
Their charges for this service for written messages of twenty words
or under are as follows :

• Cents.

Up to 15 miles 15

15 to 150 miles 25

150 to 225 miles 50

Charge for delivery is extra. For each additional twenty words,
or fraction thereof, one-half the above tariff is asked.

The Province of Nova Scotia is covered by the Nova Scotia Tele-
phone Company; New Brunswick, by the New Brunswick Telephone
Company; Prince Edward Island, by the Prince Edward Island
Company; Newfoundland, by the Anglo-American Telegraph Com-
pany. The city of Vancouver, British Columbia, is covered by the
New Westminster and Burrard Inlet Telephone Company; Victoria,
by the Victoria and Esquimalt Telephone Company.



Consul Sewell, of Toronto, on March 24, says:

The Bell Telephone Company of Canada was incorporated April
29, 1880, second session of the fourth Dominion Parliament, with a
capital stock of $500,000. Only limited rights were granted to man-
ufacture, but the act gave the company the privilege of taking stock
in manufacturing concerns. On the 17th of May, 1880, the original
incorporation act was amended, and by this amendment the com-
pany was granted privileges to manufacture telephones and all other
appliances connected therewith.



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342 TELEPHONE SERVICE IN CANADA.

On March lo, 1882, an act to confer certain powers upon the Bell
Telephone Company was assented to by the Ontario Government,
and privileges in relation to the erection, construction, and mainte-
nance of their system were granted. On July 9, 1892, an act was as-
sented to by the Dominion Parliament, granting the Bell Telephone
Company power to increase its capital stock, not to exceed $5,000,000,
including the original stock.

It was also provided in this act that the issuing of bonds and
debentures from time to time should be limited to a sum not exceed-
ing in the whole $500,000, and that the then existing rates should
not be increased without the consent of the governor in council.

By the original act of incorporation, the Bell Telephone Com-
pany was allowed to operate in every municipality in the Dominion.
The act did not grant it an exclusive right; the system, however,
to-day practically controls the telephone business throughout the
Dominion. By an act passed July 23, 1894, the company was given
the power to issue bonds or debentures to the amount of 75 per cent
of its actual paid-up capital. In 1891, capitalists in Toronto com-
bined and applied to the city council under the name of the Toronto
Telephone Company for the privilege of constructing and operating
a telephone system in Toronto. As soon as this proposed company
had made an ofifer to the city of Toronto, the Bell Telephone Com-
pany, realizing that the offer might be accepted, immediately made
counter propositions to the city authorities, greatly reducing the
previous rates and granting the city a percentage on all its gross
earnings within the municipality, in exchange for the exclusive priv-
ilege of operating in Toronto for five years, and other considerations.
The agreement entered into between the Bell Telephone Company
and the city corporation was substantially as follows :

The corporation agreed that it would not, during a period of five
years, give to any person, firm, or company permission to use any of
the streets or lanes of the city for the purpose of placing in, upon, or
under such streets or lanes any poles, ducts, or wires for the purpose
of carrying on telephone business, the Bell Telephone Company
agreeing to pay to the city on December, March, June, and Sep-
tember I of each year 5 per cent of its gross earnings for telephone
service within the city limits or any extension thereof, not to include
the receipts for business transacted between the city of Toronto
and the offices outside the city. The company further agreed that the
rate to be charged for leases of telephones — to wit, dwelling houses
within the city limits for one year or more — should be $25 per an-
num ; similar leases for business houses, $45 per annum ; such rates
to apply to all telephones then in use, as well as to those leased during
the period of the said contract. A pro rata rebate for the unex-



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TELEPHONE SERVICE IN CANADA.



343



pired term was granted for telephones in use at the time of the
making of the said contract on which rent was paid in advance.
The company agreed to place its wires under ground as rapidly as
possible, with the exception of lines on small back streets, required
for distribution purposes. The company further agreed not to allow
any other person or company to use its poles without the consent of
the city engineer and the approval of the council, except where the
company has already existing contracts covering the use of poles.
It also agreed to furnish the city with one duct from the conduits
constructed in any of the streets, etc., to be used for the city fire-
alarm service, making no charge therefor, and to give the city free
of cost the use of any of its poles, when required, for the fire-alarm
system. The company agreed to provide efficient telephone service,
with all modern appliances, including metallic circuits, to the satis-
faction of the city engineer.

The Bell Telephone Company and the city of Toronto continued



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 40 of 92)