United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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with following, shows the decrease in United States exports as com-
pared with the evolution among our cousins in Canada.
No. 224 2.

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1 8 DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.

It is well to look for the cause of this. One fact has often been
lost sight of by manufacturers, and that is, the absolute necessity
of pleasing customers by manufacturing what they like instead of
adopting the too often vain, and always lengthy, process of endeav-
oring to educate them to appreciate the producer's notions of what
ought to be. Business houses are not primarily pulpits for the ele-
vation of the benighted foreigner, who prefers his cheese a little
browner or his butter of a flavor rich and rare. Too often, large
fields for business extension are untouched, simply because a manu-
facturer sent out what he thought ought to succeed, and because it
did not the attempt was given up without further inquiry. To my
knowledge, a first-class cheese sent to a German trader failed for
no other reason than that, when cut, it would not make a good cheese
sandwich. If the shape had been right, the cheese would have been
a success. As it is, the sender to-day declares, ** There is no market
there." In another case, a consignment of butter was avoided like
the plague by the peasants, because it was in barrels like those in
which Finnish butter had formerly been sent, at a time when that
brand had an exceedingly unsavory reputation. Dozens of other
examples are familiar to everyone who has traveled with his eyes
open.

There is no doubt that the decrease of imports of United States
cheese into Great Britain is due to exactly the same sort of thing,
together with an unfortunate remissness on the part of some manu-
facturers to remember it was cheese that was being made.

A few shipments of apples rotten at the bottom of the barrel,
hidden by a layer of rosy cheeks, will damage the national credit to
a marvelous extent; so with everything else. It may not appear
of importance to a man in his factory or orchard in the middle of a
vast continent, but if that same man could transport himself a few
thousand miles and see his package offered for sale to a crowd of
costers from East End, London, ** waken as a wasp" and sharp as an
**'awk," he would learn a lesson, as he watched the effects on the
prices of everything else that came from that district — nay, even
nation.

In Canada, wise action has been taken in the enactment and
rigid enforcement of laws in regard to dairy products, and, conse-
quently, Canadian cheese has obtained a high reputation with an
ever-increasing sale. The old **bee," by means of which neighbors
helped one another in the young settlement, has developed into the
present cooperative system, which has had such good results. By
this means, the farmer on the prairie has all the benefit accruing
from the use of the best machinery, which otherwise he never could
have had, and consequently is able to compete on fair terms with the



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DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA. 1 9

rest of the world. The part played by machinery in agricultural
work has been shown by the well-known statistician W. G. Mulhall,
who, writing of ** Industrial advance in Germany," in the North
American Review of January, 1898, estimates the rural products of
Germany in 1895 at $2,000,000,000, and adds:

The sum total is |5o,ooo,ooo less than the value of farm products of the twenty-
three Western States of the American Union; but the number of hands in Germany
is two and a half times as great, while the improved area of the United States is
three times that of Germany. In Germany, the productive area is equal to no more
than 8 acres per farming hand; in the Western States, it is 62 acres. The value of
product |>er acre is, of course, higher in Germany, namely, J31, as compared with
$10 in the Western Stales; but the product per farming hand is $620 in the latter,
against J250 in Germany.

He attributes this great difference to the use of improved ma-
chinery on the large farms in the United States, and in a secondary
degree to the military system in Germany, which takes from agri-
culture the flower of the peasantry.

In improved machinery, of course, is included such benefits as
arise from cold storage in transit in trains and ships.

In Canada, the cheese and butter production could never have
attained its present position, but for the great interest taken in it by
the Government, which has afforded every aid possible to the farm-
ers. The present minister of agriculture — Hon. Sydney Fisher —
being a practical farmer, has given immense impetus to the trade in
farm products — particularly cheese and butter; and, moreover, his
knowledge has enabled him to give help that could never have been
given by anyone without practical experience. The scattered and
heterogeneous population of the northwestern portion of the Domin-
ion of Canada had more than ordinary difficulties to overcome.
They were isolated and in many cases remote from the railroad.
The Finns, Magyars, and Gallicians, as well as the French Cana-
dians, had to be taught every step in the method of making cheese
and butter for exportation, and that task can only be appreciated by
those acquainted with their conservative habits.

The rapid progress made is best told by statistics, which show
that 65 per cent of the cheese in the British market is supplied by
Canada. In the year 1871, there were but 353 factories in the coun-
try, turning out but $1,600,000 worth of cheese; while in 1897, the
number had increased to 2,759 factories, producing over jji 6, 000, 000
worth of cheese.

ONTARIO.

The returns furnished to me December 22, 1898, by the minister
of agriculture, show the great strides made in this Province. I have
a list of 1,123 cheese factories and 234 butter factories. Ten years



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20 DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.

ago, not a tenth of them were in existence. Many of the cheese fac-
tories are putting in creamery plants. The local legislature is very
vigorous in all matters connected- with agriculture, having spent
$4,509,090 in the* last thirty years on the agricultural college, dairy
schools, farmers' institutes, fruit-experiment stations, and the col-
lection of agricultural statistics. This Province stands head and
shoulders over all the rest in the completeness of its reports.

The chief regulations with regard to the Dominion dairy stations
are as follows :

(i) 'The comi>any owning the building makes it frost proof.

(2) The dairy commissioner pays $100 as rent and fixes such ap-
paratus as may be needed.

(3) The equipment becomes the property of the company or is
removed, as arranged.

(4) The agreement lasts for two years.

(5) The dairy commissioner manufactures butter from milk fur-
nished at the factory at the rate of 3 cents per pound ; that includes
all charges for labor, tubs, fuel, sale, etc. (this low rate is set to in-
duce farmers to join).

(6) The dairy commissioner sells the butter to the best of his
ability and pays net price to the patrons, according to milk supplied,
tested by Babcock milk tester.

(7) The dairy commissioner pays an advance of 15 cents per
pound at the end of each month.

(8) The patrons receive at the factory 80 pounds of skim milk
and 10 pounds of buttermilk per 100 pounds of milk received. If
the buttermilk is sold, it is to be accounted for to the patrons.

This combination of effort, by provincial and Dominion govern-
ments, is placing within the reach of the people the very best practical
education obtainable upon the subjects of cheese and butter mak-
ing, with the results seen in tables of reports appended hereto.

QUEBEC.

A great deal of money has been spent by the local legislature, ac-
cording to the public accounts, on lectures, schools, etc., with vary-
ing success. Now, however, the Dominion Government g^ves a
grant of $3,000 per annum for lectures, and much good work has
been done by the two governments in cooperation.

In this Province, there are syndicates of cheese factories and
creameries. A syndicate is a group of from fifteen to thirty facto-
ries, the representatives of which agree to contribute a stated amount
for the payment of an inspector. These have been assisted by the
provincial government to the extent of half the expenses, up to $250
for each syndicate, as the government's share. A special course of



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DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



21



instruction was provided for the inspectors of these syndicates, and
a condition for their qualification as inspectors was that they should
possess a certificate from the dairy school at St. Hyacinthe. On
December 8, the assistant provincial minister of agriculture stated
that the government had determined to give a bonus to induce im-
provement in the curing rooms.

NEW BRUNSWICK.

In 1892, the local government undertook a programme of work
for the extension of agricultural knowledge, which has been pro-
ductive of good results. The building of cheese factories and cream-
eries has progressed, and their work has been successful.

The traveling dairy was introduced in 1893, giving instruction in
sparsely settled districts on butter making, etc., with excellent
results.

Progress of winUr dairying in Ontario^ Quebec^ and Maritime Provinces in stations
managed by the department of agriculture.



Year.



Dairy

stations.



Patrons.



Butter
made.



Cheese
made.



Value of
product.



18M-W —

1896-97-..
1897-98-..



Number.

a
4
5
7
5



Number.

218
433
99«
646



Pounds.
22,697
58.518
55,936
86,990
xo8,ox6
97.704



Pounds.



1*833



I4.349.9*
13.454-73
13,480,78
18,101.94
21,053.98
18,588.65



There are now at least 150 cheese factories fitted with plant for
the manufacture of butter in the winter.



NOVA SCOTIA.

The secretary of agriculture reports: **We have cooperative
creameries subsidized by the government to the extent of three in
each county. So far, only about one-half the counties have availed
themselves of this opportunity." The approximate return of butter
and cheese by the creameries last year was $100,000.

The Manchester Steamship Line will run steamers with cold
storage to Montreal in connjection with the Manchester Canal. Dur-
ing the winter, the service is to be fortnightly to Halifax and St.
John. This new venture is likely to be a great boon to the fruit and
dairy men.

PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND.

Cooperative dairying has been a great success here. Up to 189 1,
it was unknown. It was then arranged that the farmers erect a



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22



DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



suitable building for a cheese factory and the department fit it up
with machinery and manage it. In 1896, the department withdrew
from the larger factories, and in 1897, from all. At present, all
are flourishing and increasing. It is interesting to note that in
1890, there were not 10 acres of Indian corn for fodder in the island.
Thanks to departmental aid, in 1896, there were over 10,000 acres.

Progress of summer and winter dairying in Prince Edward Island,



Year.



Stations.



Patrons.



Butter
made.



Cheese
made.



Value of
product.



Summer season.



1892 .
1893-
1894.
1895,-
1896.



Number.



IVtnter season.



X894-95-
1895-96 .,
1896-97.



Number.

M3

1,187

itSoS

2.957

739

206
646



Pounds.



44.512
68,664



Pounds.
63,018
457 1224
802,418

1.737.269
336,289



28,991
108,016
97.704



|6,38t.98
48,168.79
86,242.78
159.650.47
30,885.81

5.989.26
21,053.98
18,588.65



* Nine were separating stations only.

Two traveling inspectors employed by the department visited
these cheese factories and creameries, and report that **the business
may now be considered as thoroughly well established and self-
sustaining. "

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES.

In order to assist the farmers, the government appropriated
$15,000 in 1896. The system is briefly outlined as follows: Carts
go around and collect the milk, which is brought either to separating
stations or the creamery. The government officials then take charge
of it, manufacture the butter, and ship it to the best markets. By
means of cold storage on the trains and steamers, a market is reached
which could never be by the individual settler. The charge is fixed
at 4 cents per pound and i cent extra to go into a sinking fund, so
that in due course the creamery may become the property of the
district. In many cases, creameries already in existence and failures
have been taken hold of by the department and operated success-
fully.

During the 1897 season, the department advanced 10 cents per
pound on the butter markets at the end of each month. These pay-
ments are made by Dominion checks, which are payable at par
everywhere. These checks are often used as currency in the north-
west.



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DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



23



The business reported in the last season at these experimental
stations is as follows:



Name of station.



Patrons.



I Number,

Calfirary \ 31

Edmonton | 90

Grenfdl | 80

Indian Head 61

Innisfail 8x

Maple Creek 21

Moose Jaw-« 57

Mooeomin ~ 113

Prince Albert-~ 43

Qu'Appelle .- 97

Red Dcer.~ • • •• 66

Regina ^ 74

Wetaskiwin 47

Whitewood". 131

Wolseley .- 47

Yorkton 109



Butter
manufac-
tured



Pounds.
14,071
371364
39.706
22.715
38,621
9,921
49.265
31,583
20,104
25,960
30.148
30,502
17,691
46.871
30,029
49.352



Average

price
realized
at the
cream-
ery.



Cents.
19.04
17.62
17.64

17.33
18.87
30.28
17.86
17.48
16.9s
18.52
18.59
17.56
18.49
17.77

17.93
16.74



Net value
of butter

to pa-
trons, per

pound.



Cents.
15.04
12:66
i«-5
13-43
13.91
12.72
14.04
12.68
12.95
13.52
14.7
13.65
13.68
10.5
«3.o9
9.94



Manufac-
turing
charge,

per
pound.



Cents.

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4



Dlys in

oi>era-

tion.



Number.

143
148
120
156
150
100
168
135
144
127
150
150
122
120
122
144



Gross
value of
product.



12,729.80
4,840.26
7,047.20
3.959-21
7.304.36
2.033.99
8.837.74
5.586.09
3,409.34
4,808.85
5.63983
5.383.63
3,306.43
8,340.03
3.624.91
8,362.48



Returns from Dominion dairy stations in Northwest Territories,



Year (summer season).



Dairy
stations.



Patrons.



Butter
made.



Value of
product.



«fl94-

1896...
1897-



Number.



Number,
56
60

311
1,148



Pounds.

23.727

53.249

132,021

473.903



I3.653.54
^0,923. 37

24.526.43
85,264.15



MANITOBA.

In 1894, two experts visited the new creameries and cheese fac-
tories, and, as they were furnished with traveling dairy outfits, they
were able to giv5 valuable instruction. The remarks made on the
Northwest Territories practically apply to this Province.

BRITISH COLUMBIA.

In 1894, work of instruction by means of a traveling dairy was
done on the mainland and on Vancouver Island. In 1895, an expert
instructor assisted in establishing creameries and spent several weeks
in giving instructions to those who wished to learn butter making.
In 1896, further work with the traveling dairy was done.



A NEW VENTURE — TINNED BUTTER.

Professor Robertson, commissioner of dairying, has had some
packages of butter sent to Japan in tins, and, as the reports regard-



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24



DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



ing them have been favorable, it is proposed to pack i, 2, and 5
pound tins in a similar manner for the Klondike. The butter is
wrapped up in waxed paper and then placed in hermetically sealed
tins, which, it is clahned, will keep the butter good in any climate.
A number of tins have been manufactured in Montreal, and a ship-
ment has been sent from Calgary to the Yukon. Tinned butter has
been a great success in France, and there seems to be no good reason
why it should not be so here. Professor Robertson thinks a large
trade may be developed with China and Japan, but, as neither Chi-
nese nor Japanese include butter or cheese in their bill of fare, it
would appear that they need education in that direction first.
A large trade in tinned butter has existed for years in Ireland.

PRICES IN 1898.

The highest price realized for cheese during the past year was
9^ cents, at Brockville, September 28, and the lowest 6^ cents,
which was taken for cheese from some of the French countries early
in June. London took the largest part, and Liverpool followed.

Butter prices fluctuated widely, but ruled for the season practi-
cally the same as during last year, i. e,, $12.50 for a 70- pound tub.
Most of it went to Bristol, London being second.

Exports of Canadian cheese and butter.
[From unpublished Government returns.]





Cheese.


Butter.


Year.




















Quantity.


Value.


Great
Britain.


United
States.


Quantity.


Value.


Great
Britain.


United
States.




Pounds.








Pounds.








1877 -


35. 930 15*4


$3. 746. 575


I3. 447. 310


$295,294


14,691,789


$3,073,409


$2,746,630


$65,773


1878 ...


38,054,294


3.997,521


3,801,643


186,530


13,006,626


2,382.237


2,048,838


140,932


1879 -


46,414,035


3. 790.300


3.589.3J7


188,317


14,307,977


2,101,897


1,891,611


37,577


x88o...


40,368.678


3.893.366


3.772,769


"4.507


18,535,362


3,058,069


2,756,064


ixi,x58


1881 ...


49,255.523


5.5«o,443


5.471.362


28,500


17,649.491


3,573,<»34


3.333.419


58,522


1882 ...


50,807,049


5,500,868


5.571,076


.18,436


15,161,839


2,936,150


2,195.127


529,169


1883 ...


58,041,387


6,451,870


6,409,859


24,468


8,106,447


1,705,817


1.330,585


206,154


1884...


69,755.423


7,251,989


7.207,425


24,866


8,075,537


1,6x2,481


1,395,652


46,618


1885'...


79.655.367


8,265,240


8,198,953


86,978


7,330,788


1,430,90s


1,212,768


16.695


1886...


78,112,927


6,754,626


6,729.134


15,478


4.668,741


832,355


652,863


17.545


1887 ...


73.604,448


7,108,978


7.065,983


30,667


5,485,509


979,126


757.a6.


17,207


1888...


84,173.267


8,928,242


8,834,997


83.153


4,4x5,381


798.673


614,2x4


13.468


1889...


88,534.887


8,915,684


8,871,205


31.473


1,780,765


331.958


174,027


7.879


1890...


94,260,187


9,372,212


9.349.731


6,425


1,951,585


340,131


184,105


5.059


1891 ...


106,302,140


9,508,800


9.481,373


13,485


3,768.101


602,175


440,060


10,054


1892...


118,270,052


11,652,412


".593,690


39,558


5,736,696


1,056,058


877,455


6,038


1893 ...


» 33. 946.365


13.407,470


13.360,237


23.578


7,036,013


1,296,814


' 1,1x8,614


7.539


1894...


154,977.480


15,488,191


15,439,198


9.552


5.534,621


1,095,588


936,422


6,048


1895 ...


146,004,650


14,253,002


14,220,505


5,058


3,650,258


697.476


536.797


5.365


1896...


164,689,123


13,956,571


13,924,672


10.359


5,889,241


1,052,089


893.053


2.729


1897...


164,220,699


14,676,239


14,645.859


4,486


11,453,351


2,089,173


1,912,389


6.233


1898...


196.703,323


17,572.763






11,252,787


2,046,686















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DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA. 25

Destinatwn of butter exported during the fiscal year ended June jo^ ^^97*



Countries and provinces.


The produce of Canada.


Not the produce of
Canada.


ToUl exports.




Quantity.


Valrie.


Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value.


Great Britain


Pounds,

10,413.131

69,233

540

336

682,046


11,912.389

".794

zzo

»i5

115.754


Pounds.
1,093,696


$163,121


Pounds.

11,506,827

69.233

540

336

686, v8

168

300

2.456

30

41.752

1.465

147.803

41.576

53,86s

2,908


$2,075,5x0

",794


British West Indies.


British (rtiiana.






HodoSms






"5

116,228

42

60


Newfoondland


4,272
z68


474
42


Azi^entine Republic.


Relpum- T.„,,.. , ,.


300

2.456

30

41.752

1.465

147.803

37.676

53.675

2,908


60

837
zo

8,513

171

23.409

6,233

. 8,293

485


China .-






837


lanan






Germany






8.513
X7X

23.409

6,896

8,3ox

485


Haiti „






St. Pierre






United Sutes....

Danish West Indies.^.. ..
Spanish West Indies.


3,900
Z90


663
8




' ' **


Toul


",453,35X


2,089.173


X, 102,226


164.308


12,555,577


2,253.481



Exports of butter by provinces during the fiscal year ended June ^o^ iSgy.



Province


The produce of Canada.


Not the produce of
Canada.


Toul exports.




Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value.


Ontario.


Pounds.

598,237
10,037, xxa
553.811
74.008
56.283
3.172
130.728


|xox,794
i,85x,x64
91.300
13.708
6,531
979
23.697


Pounds.




Pounds.

598,237

xx,x38,288

554,861

74,eo8

56.283

3,172

130,728


$101,794
2,0x5,4x7
91.355
13,708
6,531
979
23,697


Quebec


1, XIX, 076
1.050


$164,253
55


Nova Scotia.^


New Rniruswirlc


Manitoba






British Columbia






Prince Edward Island.....












Toul


11,453,351


2,089.173


X,X02,226


164,308


12,555,577


2,253,481





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26 DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.

Destination of cluese exported during the fiscal year ended June jo^ ^^97-



Countries and provinces.



Great Briuin

Australia

British West Indies..

British Guiana

Hongkong

Newfoundland

Central America

China

Germany

Habana

HaiU

France

Japan

St. Pierre

United States

Danish West Indies..



The produce of Canada.



Quantity. Value.



Pounds.

163,942.649

720

73.627

1. 331

821

131. 531

130

9.933

120

367

966

899

5.513

38t

33.962

«7.749



Total 164,220,699 14,676,239



$14,645,859
159
8.457
147
203
i*.954
13
1,708
24
69
104
94
855
31
4,486
2,076



Not the produce of
Canada.



Quantity. Value,



Pounds.
7,181,002



$586,433



7,181,494



78



586,511



Total exports.



Quantity.



Value.



Pounds.




171,121,651


$15,232,292


730


159


73.627


8,457


X.331


147


821


203


131. 531


",954


130


13


9.933


1.708


X20


»4


367


69


966


104


899


94


5,513


855


381


3'


34.454


4,564


17.749


2,076



171,402,193 15,262,750



Exports of cheese by provinces during the fiscal year ended June jo, iSgj.



Province.


The produce of Canada.


Not the produce of
Canada.


Total exports.




Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Value.


Quantity.


Vafue.


Ontario t


Pounds,

20,842,710

139.780,676

683.119

1,283,786

6.545

1,623,848

>5


$2,010,729

12,313,406

78,093

130,494

934

142.571

12


Pounds.




Pounds,

20,842,710

146,961,870

683,1x9

1,283,786

6,845

1,623,848

IS


$2,0x0,729

X2,899,882

78,093

I30»494

069

142,57*


Quebec

Nova Scotia


7,181,194


$586,476


Ne\(r Brunswick....






British Columbia


300


35


Prince Edward Island


Northwest Territories.....














Total


164,220,699


14,676,239


7,181,494


586,511


171,402,193


15,262,750





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Google



DAIRY PRODUCTS OF CANADA.



27



Quantity and value of butter^ with the countries of origin^ imported into Great Britain
during t/ie calendar year i8g6.



Country.



Denmark.-

France—

Sweden

Holland

Vict<»ia (Australia)

Russia

United States.

Germany..

Canada

New Zealand

Belgium ^

Norway

Argentine Republic

New South Wales

South Australia...^

Other British possessions .
Other foreign countries....



Totals. 340,224,4x6



Quantity.



Pounds.

137,623,808

52.371,434

36,268,848

26,260,528

17,344,880

17,002,160

15.853.936

12,076,400

9,895,984

6,313,776

4,270,784

1,912,400

1,765.456

871,024

126,896

105,728

160,384



Value.



$30.



603,6x0
350,116
101,467
629,400
745.849
674.723
005,288

609,731
653.421
352,436
927,314
400,346

359.777
183.458
27,0x9
15,427
36.551



74,675,933



In 1897, Canada supplied 12,253,024 pounds of butter out of a
total import of 360,393,824 pounds.

Quantity and value of cheese^ with the countries of origin^ imported into Great Britain
during the calendar year i8g6.



Country.


Quantity.


Value.


Canada .r


Pounds.

X38,24x,264

65,092,944



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 5 of 92)