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house and take out small samples, give the goods proper care, etc.

There are about sixteen bicycle factories in Sweden. Some of
them are small concerns, however, and I believe that many buy parts
of bicycles from larger factories. The repair shops are numerous.

Bicycles are principally imported from England, the United
States, and Germany. As to customs duty, there is no discrim-
ination against the productions of any particular country. The

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Riksdag at its latest session changed the duty on finished bicycles
to 25 kronor ($6.70) apiece, and on parts of bicycles to 2 kronor
(53.6 cents) per kilogram, which rate will be charged after January
I, 1899.

The chief receiving port on the western coast of Sweden is Goth-
enburg. There are also other ports of entry, among which Malmo
and Helsingborg may be mentioned.

The port charges on bicyles amounts to i per cent of the duty
paid, to which should be added about 7 cents warehouse dues for
each bicycle. The dues to be paid for bicycles placed in bonded
warehouses also amount to i per cent of the duty.

Bicycles are generally covered with paper, bagging, or straw,
and packed, one or several, in an open crate. I have heard no com-
plaints against this kind of packing. The crates should be strong
enough, however, to stand ordinary handling without breaking. It
would probably be too expensive to use tight packing cases.

It is hard to tell who are the leading importers. Wholesale mer-
chants, as well as retail dealers, are seldom willing to furnish any
information about the extent or relative importance of their business
transactions. Still, the following firms may be mentioned :

Paul Berghaus, Gothenburg, wholesale hardware merchant; han-
dles principally a Canadian bicycle, but might try others.

Wilh. Denninghoff, Gothenburg, wholesale hardware merchant;
said to own shares in a Swedish bicycle factory.

Nornans Symaskins Werkstads Aktiebolag, Gothenburg, manu-
facturers of sewing machines; wholesale and retail dealers in sewing
machines and bicycles; bicycles handled, Columbia chainless, Stan-
ley, and several other kinds.

Goteborgs Gummibolag, Gothenburg, dealers in rubber goods;
handles Progress, made in Chicago, and Adler RSder, made in
Germany; also a chainless bicycle made in Copenhagen.

Landens Ingeniorsbyr&, Gothenburg; chief business, electric
elevators; handles the President bicycle, and another kind made in
Hudiksvall, Sweden.

Olof Lindstrands Idrotts-affjir, Gothenburg, Swedish sporting
goods, handles the Brennabor bicycle, of German make.

Jacob Bagge, Gothenburg; sells the Crescent bicycle.

A. Th. Nyberg, Gothenburg, dealer in hardware, firearms, and
ammunition; sells also the Durkopp bicycle, of German make.

Blidberg & Stridsberg, Gothenburg, clothiers; exhibit in their
show windows ** American high-art bicycles," made by Messrs. R. H.
Wolff & Co., New York.

Goteborgs Velociped-affar, Gothenburg, general hardware dealer;
handles principally the Humber bicycle, made at Malmo, Sweden.

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Ivar & Otto Klein, Malmo, Sweden.

A. B. Palm, Helsingborg, Sweden.

The shipment of inferior bicycles from the United States seems
to have created a demand for the English and German bicycles. To
my personal knowledge, a dealer imported 350 bicycles from Amer-
ica; terms of payment, cash against documents. When the machines
arrived, it was found upon examination that the inside tube of the
tires was so poor that the least pulling or stretching would tear it.
The importer called on me, but I suggested that he leave the case
with the regular custom-house arbitrators, appointed for such cases.
The bicycles were later sold at auction at a great loss to the im-
porter, who was at the mercy of the exporter, the money being already
paid. Cases of this kind do great harm to the reliable American
manufacturer who turns out a first-class bicycle.

The English and German exporters give from three to six months
time, and all shipments are allowed examination before being ac-

Bicycles now retail here at prices ranging from 350 to 200 kronor
($93- ^o ^o $S3-6o)» ^^^ some are even sold as low as 160 kronor
($42.88) apiece.

Robert S. S. Bergh,

Gothenburg, November 28, i8g8. Consul,


Bicycles are in general use, especially in French Switzerland,
Geneva, Lausanne, Zurich, Lucerne, etc. The condition of the roads
varies very much ; they are not suitable for riding from December un-
til March, owing to the heavy traffic everywhere and to the fact that
they are repaved during this period. During the season (which of
late has not set in before April) the best roads are found in French
Switzerland, Italian Switzerland, and in the Cantons of Aarau, Lu-
cerne, and Basel. They are rather rough in the Cantons of Zurich,
Graubunden, and Schafifhausen, where the roads are often cut up
by heavy traffic. Half of the roads are hilly, and the cycles have to
stand a great strain. The only wheels suitable for this country are
those with strong rims; thick, nonslipping tires; reliable brakes,
spring saddles, and mud guards. This outfit should be made im-
perative for every wheel imported into this country. In French
Switzerland, i^-inch tires on 28-inch wheels are asked for most,
while in German Switzerland, only ij^ and i)^ inch tires find buyers.

The receiving port for French Switzerland is Havre and for Ger-
man Switzerland, Antwerp.

There are bonded warehouses in Geneva, Basel, and Schaffhausen.

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The majority of cycles are imported from Germany; the United
States follows, and then England. The duty on bicycles entering
this country is 70 francs per 100 kilograms ($13.51 per 220 pounds).
In French Switzerland, 20 per cent allowance is made for crating
and packing; but in German Switzerland, the duty is charged on the
gross weight. Consequently, the crating must be as light as possible,
and closed boxes should never be used. It has frequently occurred
that more duty had to be paid on the box, owing to its weight, than
on the bicycle itself. It is necessary, however, that the metals
be greased before leaving the factory, and that the whole cycle be
wrapped in paper (preferably in large paper bags). There is no
differential duty favori;ig certain countries.

All loose parts should be in small sealed boxes inside the crate;
but no catalogues, bill of lading, or posters should be inclosed.
These should be sent separately, or at least invoiced separately, or
else the same duty will be charged as on the bicycle.

The leading importers are: L. Delapraz, Geneva; Bruel Bros.,
Geneva; L. Despland, Lausanne; Thomas F. Alton, Zurich; Amsler
& Co., Schaflfhausen ; Gebr. Schmidt, Basel (Bale); E. loss, Marion
street, Berne — all of ^hom, except the last two, are wholesale and
retail dealers. Other retail dealers are:

Zurich. — August Frey, Wolff- American, New York.
G. Ogurkowski, Cleveland and Bennabor.
M. Stifler, Express, Hercules, and Rudge.
A. Lehmann, Adler.

Thomas F. Alton, Humber, Crawford, Columbia, Ram-
bler, Sterling, and Victor.
The last firm takes the greatest interest in American cycles, and
pushes them extensively.

Berne. — Hamberger&Lips, Columbia, Cleveland, Humber, Peug-
got, and Naumann.
Burgher & Heimlicher, Crawford and Wanderer.
Maurer & Hofer, Rambler.
Basel. — G. Grisard, Gladiator and Clement.

I. Iten,. Cleveland.
Lucerne. — Thomas F. Alton, branch of Zurich house.

F. Birrer, Adler and Wanderer.
St. Gall.— F. Mader, Durkopp and Opal.
Geneva. — I. Van Leisen, general agent, Columbia.
L. Ansermier, Gladiator.
Bruel Bros., general agents, Cleveland.
Vouga Bros., Stearns.
Vassalli & Grilliet, Peuggot.
A. Domenjos, Sterling and Naumann.
E. Panchand, Georges Richard.

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Lausanne. — P. Despland, general agent, Rambler.
Interlaken. — E. Gotz, Rambler.
Freyburg. — F. Stoucky, Rambler.


Zurich, January 21^ 1899, Consul.


The bicycle has not attained the popularity here that it has in
many places. Its use is confined almost entirely to the European
and American residents. The natives have not adopted this method
of conveyance to any great extent, which may be accounted for, as
a rule, by their poverty.

The conditions of the roads and streets are not such as would
attract a wheelman. One main road, leading from Aden (camp) to
Aden (Steamer Point), a distance of some 5 miles, is kept compara-
tively smooth and free from sand; but it is very hHly and in some
places so steep that a cyclist can not ride up. Elsewhere in this sec-
tion of Arabia, the roads are rough and sandy, and almost three-
fourths of the year the monsoon drives such a dust as to add great
discomfort to the topographical inconveniences.

There are no domestic manufacturers in this district, and not even
a repair shop. The bicycles in use here are imported from the
United States and England, the greater number coming from
the United States.

There is no duty on bicycles, or repairs for same, in Arabia; but
any that may be shipped to Somaliland would be subject to a duty
of 5 per cent. This duty would be assessed on goods coming from
any country, and there is no differential rate.

Aden is the receiving port for southern Arabia and Somaliland.
There is a port charge of about 24 cents per each 35 cubic feet, which
covers all the landing and port charges. There is no bonded ware-
house here.

I am not aware of any special rules or requirements for the pack-
ing of bicycles to bd enlered here. I have seen some arrive packed
in frames similar to those used in shipping wheels in the United

There are no regular bicycle dealers. The following firms have
imported some wheels: Messrs. Pallonjee, Dinshaw & Co. ; the Ara-
bian Trading Company, Limited; Menohew Messa; and W. H. Lock-
erman. The first named is now keeping in stock a small lot of
supply and repair goods. The Cleveland, Relay, and Columbia
wheels have been sold here.

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See Consular Reports No. 217 (October, 1898), page 284, where
a previous report from this consulate on the subject of bicycles will
be found.

E. S. Cunningham,

Aden, November 2g^ i8g8. Consul.


Bicycles are not in general use in this country. There are two
at Tamatave, owned by Frenchmen. The native has not as yet
reached this stage of civilization.

The roads about Tamatave are at all seasons of the year nearly
ankle deep in sand, rendering cycling almost impossible. There is
some talk of constructing a driveway along the seacoast. The coun-
try outside of Tamatave is mountainous and intersected by many
rivers. The roads at the capital, Tananarivo, are better adapted to
the requirements of the wheel, and there are a few more in use there,
among the European population. Bicycles are imported from France.
The duty on foreign wheels is 250 francs ($47.25) per 100 kilograms
(220.46 pounds), besides a municipal tax of i per cent of the cost.
French bicycles are admitted free.

Tamatave is the principal receiving port on the east coast, as well
as the chief port of the island. On the west coast are Majunga,
Nossi B6, and Fort Dauphin. Port charges are 5 francs (96 cents)
per ton. A recent decree from France has established a bonded
warehouse at Tamatave.

Goods should be packed and invoices prepared with great care.
The slightest mistakes are fraught with serious consequences. The
invoices should state the weight of all the parts of the wheel and
the total weight, as well as that of the case and material used for

The leading importers are Messrs. Dadabhay & Co., the Com-
pagnie Lyonnaise de Madagascar, Mr. F. Bonnet, and Mr. P. H.
Golaz — all of Tamatave. Only two have been imported by Messrs.
Dadabhay & Co. in the past two years. The other firms have imported
about an equal number.

I would suggest that correspondence with these firms (save
Messrs. Dadabhay & Co., who are English) be in the French

M. W. GiBBS,

Tamatave, December 2j, i8g8. Consul,

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Bicycles are in general use amongst Europeans here, and even
natives use them so far as their means will allow The roads are
fairly level and smooth, with few hills of little height. Most strangers
declare they are ideal for the wheel. There are no manufacturers
of bicycles here.

Wheels are imported mostly from the United Kingdom, the
United States, and a few from Germany. There is no duty on bi-
cycles or on any other article entering this district from any part of
the world, the port being free.

Singapore and Penang are the receiving ports in this colony.
Port charges are nil, as affecting importers. There are no bonded

Goods should be carefully packed in cases lined with pitch paper.
Plated parts should be well coated with vaseline, and cases should
not be stowed close to boilers.

The leading importer is the Borneo Company, Limited, handling
the Humber, Beeston, and Osmond wheels.

Retail dealers are:

John Little & Co., Limited; Rover, Quinton, Remington.

Katz Bros, Limited; Adler, Gloria, Manhattan.

Robinson & Co. ; Premier, Dayton, Ariel.

Riley Hargreaves & Co., Limited; Monopole, Royal Psycho,
Pathfinder, Acatene chainless.

Straits Cycle Agency; Columbia, Raleigh, etc.

E. Spencer Pratt,

Singapore, December <P, i8g8. Consul- General.


In reply to inquiries from the Philadelphia Commercial Museum*
relative to the extent of the textile industry of Japan, Consul Lyon, of
Hiogo, under date of January 21, sends the following report:

In a recent report on the commerce and industry of Japan, made
to the National Association of Manufacturers of Philadelphia, Mr.
Robert P. Porter has taken up the subject of the cotton and silk in-
dustries in the various provinces of this country, where they have
made most progress, and it may be said that comparatively few
changes affecting them have been made since.

* Advance Sheets have been sent the museum.

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Mr. Robert B. Brennan in 1897 made a report to the British For-
eign Office on the textile industries of Japan, he having been aided
in his work by English firms in Japan long engaged in exporting
and importing textile goods. Mr. Brennan's report will be found
a valuable one on that subject and is later than Mr. Porter's. The
estimates of the cost of labor given by Mr. Porter in his report are
far below the present standard of wages — in fact, the cost of labor in
many trades has more than doubled since his work was written, and
this condition has greatly enhanced the cost of production.

The Japanese Government published in 1898 a work entitled
R6sum6 Statistique de L'Empire du Japon, giving the volume of
the home industries of Japan, dealing with the manufacture of cotton,
silk, wool, jute, hemp, and linen, both separately and in mixture.


The manufacture of textile goods in Japan is not confined to cer-
tain localities, as in the United States, but extends by means of hand
looms all over the country. The spinning wheel was formerly in
general use, but during the last twenty years, it has been almost
wholly displaced by spinning mills using machinery. More than
1,000,000 spindles are now thus operated, forty-seven mills in Japan
producing last year an estimated yield of 650,000 bales of yarn of
400 pounds each. Present returns show that more than 200,000 bales
will be shipped to China during the current year, and the home de-
mand for counts averaging i8s. will be nearly supplied by the re-
maining 450,000 bales. Only one of the spinning mills in Japan has
imported the machinery necessary for spinning the higher counts
above 30s. The Nippon mill, of Osaka, has done this, but so far has
probably not made a success of it. Higher counts are steadily im-
ported from England and in greatly increasing quantities, to meet the
home demand. When mill hands with greater skill are to be procured
in Japan, the spinning of the higher counts will increase more rapidly,
in order to supply the domestic market and the demands from
China and Korea.

Increasing demand for the higher counts of cotton yarn explains
the rapidly growing market for American cotton, from which it is
produced. It would be well for American cotton producers to note
this fact, with a view to educating a sufficient number of Japanese
workmen to become expert and teach others, in order to extend the
sale of American cotton, from which the higher counts are made.

Many of the large class of persons formerly employed in spinning
by hand are now engaged in weaving textiles on hand looms. It has
recently been computed that more than 600,000 hand looms are in
use in Japan, and it is stated that they employ 890,000 women and

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50,000 men. As these hand looms are generally operated in private
houses, giving a home character to the work, it can readily be seen
why such slow progress is being made in the introduction of power-
weaving machinery. The hand looms now in use are called ** bat-
tan "and are an improvement on those formerly used. They cost
but about 5 yen ($2.50 gold) each and take up little room in a house,
while a power machine would require a separate building, and with
the necessary power would cost, say, nearly 500 yen ($250 gold).
The hand loom will produce about half as much as a power loom,
but one person could attend to perhaps four or five of the latter at
a time, and thus be able to turn out, say, eight or ten times the
product with a power loom as with a hand loom. The convenience,
however, of having the hand loom in the house and the difference
in its cost will, perhaps, be sufficient to delay the introduction of
power looms to any great extent for some time to come. The com-
parative cost of labor is about i to 8 or 10 in favor of the power
looms, and this should tend to crowd out the hand looms very fast;
but it is not doing so yet, though the progressive spirit of the Japa-
nese will no doubt ultimately cause them to substitute power looms
for the hand looms now in use. In regard to spinning machinery,
the labor cost is about i to 150 in favor of the machine, and this
very great difference is, of course, the cause of the rapid introduc-
tion of spinning machinery.

The hand looms are handmade, and are principally used in sup-
pling some 1,000,000 pieces of goods, say, 14 inches in width and
from 12 to 25 yards in length, to the home market and for export to
China and Korea.


The Japanese manufacturers are very conservative in their busi-
ness methods, and manufacture large quantities of goods only on
orders. The largest silk factory in Japan using power looms is
the Kyoto Orimpno Kaisha, of Kyoto. It imported these machines
from France. It was the intention of the company to manufacture
silk fabrics for export; but after some years of unsuccessful attempt,
the project was abandoned, and the company commenced making
satins and '*obi'* materials for home use. In these lines, it is said,
it has been very successful. This mill also manufactures curtain
and upholstery materials, and it has found a good market for them
in England and Australia. The power looms first obtained have
been copied here, and the company is using large numbers of them ;
but they are not equal to the imported ones.

Silk in its various forms, from the raw material to the finished
product, is mainly exported from Yokohama. The industry dates
back to an early period, and is to-day in an advanced condition.

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Mr. Porter, in his report on the commerce and industries of Japan,
has treated the subject most thoroughly. Not much can be said in
addition. Exports of manufactured silks from Japan during 1897
were as follows:




Silk piece goods:

Chirimen (sillc crapes).'.

Habutai (pongee)


Silk and cotton mixtures

Silk handkerchiefs

Other silk manufactures.












It, 608












There is no doubt a great misapprehension existing in our coun-
try as to the necessity for the use of woolen goods in Japan. The
climate is thought by many to be such as not to require warm cloth-
ing in winter, but this is not the case. During the last winter,
which was said to be not as cold as usual at this port, foreigners were
clothed as warmly as persons need to be during the cold season in
Washington, D. C, and the masses of the Japanese people needed,
but did not have, the same protection ; and it must be remembered
that this locality is a warm one, in comparison with sonie other parts
of the Empire.

The manufacture of woolen goods is a new industry here and a
small one, as only about 13 per cent of the woolen textiles used in
Japan are made in this country. The raw material is all imported
from China, Australia, and London. The four woolen factories of
the country are located in Osaka and Tokyo. One is owned and
operated by the Imperial Government and manufactures supplies for
the army and navy. Some of the better grades of gotton and woolen
yarns are made there, but they are mostly imported. A large pro-
portion of the woolen cloths used are made on hand looms, similar
to those already referred to.

Importations of wool and woolen fabrics into Japan during 1897
were as follows :




Wool catties (i>^ pounds)..

Woolen cloths. yards..

Woolen mixtures do




J. 337.424



Digitized by


Total value of textile and fiber imports into Japan during i8gf.




All-wool fabrics, woolen mixtures, wool, and woolen yamSi.....




I. 315. 661








Raw ro^on and cotton fabHcSi.... ...•..••. •.•...

Raw ^1k anrf «ilk mixtures.... r,.. r..,.

Raw flax, hemp, canvas, and linen mixtures..

Other manufactured fabrics and goods, as cotton handkerchiefs, towels,
velvetSb felts, webbinirs. And other raw materials.. ..i... ....-....••■....••••. ••■■.■...




A much more general use of woolen products is requisite for the
comfort of the people, and all classes are constantly becoming more
able to purchase them; hence, there is no doubt that the demand
for them will increase.


As stated in my last annual report,* Japanese rugs have deterio-
rated in quality to such an extent as to greatly check the American
demand. The materials used are hemp, jute, cotton, wool, and silk,
the two latter separately and in combination. They are made on
upright hand looms, which vary from 3 to 24 feet in width. The pat-
tern is worked from the front. This is largely a **home industry."
There are no large factories. Only one or two employ more than
100 hands each. Kob6 is the center of the rug-making district.

Mr. Brennan states in his report that in the neighborhood of Osaka
and Hiogo, there are some 2,000 establishments employing in 1896
about 13,000 females and 5,000 males, producing some 3,000,000

square yards of rugs at prices ranging from 6)4 to 20 sen (3^ to 10
cents) per square foot.

Countries from which Japan imports hemp and flax for making
rug^, and the value of such imports, are as follows :



PhilmffMn^ T«1anH4.







»94.S9 - *


Rritlch India. r

Great Britain

Hemp and flax yarn are also imported to the value of 197,105 yen


The first knitting machinery used in Japan was brought from Eng-
land ; some has since come from other countries, and the Japanese

*To appear in the forthcoming Commercial Relations, Vol. I.

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Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign CommerceConsular reports, Issues 224-227 → online text (page 7 of 92)