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Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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have copied all, thus deteriorating it. The machines are of hand
power and operated in private houses, from one to five being found
in a house. The knitting business is not scattered through the
country like weaving, but is concentrated in manufacturing centers,
a great deal being done in Osaka.

Large quantities of cheap underwear are made here, all from
cotton yarn spun in Japan. Cotton and woolen yarns used in mak-
ing the better grades are imported. Not much woolen underwear
is used, the demand being confined to the better classes of the
Japanese people, who also wear light-weight all wool with open
meshes in summer. This light weight referred to has been made
here for some time for the Indian market. The Japanese children
have lately begun wearing mixed knitted singlets in the central part
of Japan, and, on account of the comfort derived, they should be
extensively used in the northern part of this country. They might
be, if furnished at low prices; coarse quality would not hinder their
sale.

SPINNING MACHINERY.

As Stated in my annual report for 1898, nearly all the spinning
machinery still comes from England.* American manufacturers of
machinery have obtained large orders for other kinds; but they seem
to have utterly ignored the constant demand for spinning machinery
and for all the other spinning-mill requirements, including engines and
boilers. This may also be said in regard to almost all the weaving
machinery in the country. The first spinning machines used in
Japan were sent from England, where a single firm has supplied
more than half the spindles. Another English firm supplies a com-
plete mill equipment, including boilers and engines. Weaving ma-
chinery is largely furnished by a third. French and German makers
have supplied a considerable quantity of the silk and woolen weav-
ing machinery, and I learn that some woolen machinery for an Osaka
mill came from the United States; but our country is practically
sending almost none of the large quantity of spinning and similar
machinery constantly in demand.

There are 52 spinning and 16 weaving establishments here, us!ng
imported machinery. The weaving establishments with machinery
are located as follows : Five at Tokyo, four each at Osaka and Kyoto,
and one at Nishinomiya, Sidzuoka, and Wakayama. There are four
flax (jute) mills making canvas and twine, located in Shimotsuke,
Sapporo, Otsu, and Osaka.

* See extracts from Mr. Lyon's annual report in Consular Reports No. 220 (January, 1899), P* S'*



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INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN JAPAN. 47



INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS IN JAPAN.

I inclose a clipping from the Hiogo Evening News, an English
journal published at this port, dated the 14th instant, containing a
synopsis of an address upon the subject of '*The present condition
of Japanese industry," made by Mr. Ariga Nagafumi, a graduate of
the Imperial University at Tokyo, and lately a high official of the
Agricultural and Commercial Department.

One of the leading features of the address is his statement that
the ratio of increase in industrial exports was 66 per cent in 1887 and
78 per cent in 1897; also, that the ratio of decrease in such imports
was 92 per cent in 1887 and 60 per cent in 1897, showing a tendency
to decrease in manufactured imports and increase in exports.

James S. Lyon,

HiOGO, February 16^ i8g^. Consul.



THE PRESENT CONDITION OF JAPANESE INDUSTRY.

The actual state of Japanese industry is best explained by statistics. Taking
the sum total of the exports to be 100, the ratio of increase of industrial exports
was 66 per cent in 1888, 64 per cent in 1889, 67 per cent in 1890, 55 per cent in 1891,
67 per cent in 1892, 71 per cent in 1893, 75 per cent in 1894, 77 per cent in 1895, 74
per cent in 1896, and 78 per cent in 1897. In short, the exports have increased from
66 per cent in 1888 to 78 per cent in 1897. The decrease in the import of industrial
prodacts for the same period is shown by the following figures: Ninety-two per
cent in 1887, 87 per cent in 1888, 87 percent in 1889, 73 per cent in 1890, 73 percent
in 1891, 72 per cent in 1892, 76 per cent in 1893, 67 per cent in 1894, 71 per cent in
1895, 71 per cent in 1896. and 60 per cent in 1897. That is, imports of industrial
products declined from 92 per cent in 1887 to 60 per cent in 1897. There is thus a
tendency to decrease in manufactured imports and to increase in exports.

Of the capital used in Japanese industry, no perfect statistics are obtainable
with regard to moneys absorbed in industrial works conducted by partnerships and
individuals. But in regard to industrial companies, the increase of capital is from
56,000,000 yen ($28,000,000)* in 1894 to 62,000,000 yen ($31,000,000) in 1895, 74,000,-
000 yen ($37,000,000) in 1896, and 151,000,000 yen ($75,500,000) in 1897. That is to
say. the capital employed by industrial companies in 1897 is about three times that
used in 1894. But all this capital was not actually paid up. The actually sub-
scribed sums were 36,000,000 yen ($18,000,000) in 1894, 41,000,000 yen ($20,500,000)
in 1895, 48,000,000 yen ($24,000,000) in 1896, and 74,000,000 yen ($37,000,000) in
1897. Thus, the actual capital of industrial companies is 74,000,000 yen, to which
debentures — ^4,000,000 yen ($2,000,000) in 1894, 4,900,000 yen ($2,450,000) in 1895,
5,500,000 yen ($2,750,000) in 1896 (that of 1897 is not yet ascertained)— have to be
added. Of these debentures. 610,000 yen ($305,000) in 1894, 420,000 yen ($210,-
000) in 1895, and 440,000 yen ($220,000) in 1896 were actually paid up. Briefly
stated, the industrial capital in 1897 was three times that in 1894.

The capital employed by companies carrying on western industries is 140,000,000

♦ The United States equivalents are suted in round numbers.

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48



JAPAN S TARIFF CONVENTIONS.



yen ($70,000,000) (of which 74,000,000 yen is paid up), with debentures, etc., as
above stated. It consists generally of fixed capital, floating capital for the payment
of wages, purchase of raw materials, etc. The interest charged is very high. In
the case of one company, 36,943 yen ($18,977), and in that of another company
26,400 yen ($13,200), were paid in interest in the first half of 1898. It is thus in-
evitable that, with high interest and inefficient workmanship, the companies some-
times suffer great losses. The following table illustrates the position of the spinning
companies:



Year.



Total num-
ber of
companies.


Companies
maidng
a profit.


33
43
59
59
66


29
28
41
41
33



Companies
sustain-
ing loss.



i893'
X894.
i895<
1896.
1897.



4
X4
x8
x8
33



A Still more deplorable condition is seen in the native industries. Take the case
of Fukui, which is famous for the production of habutai, the export of which
amounted to 8,000,000 yen ($4,000,000) last year. But the total capital used in its
production is only 500,000 yen ($250,000), and the smallness of means brings about
difiiculties and entails enormously high interest. With such a scarcity of capital,
the Fukui weavers are compelled to sell cloth at very cheap prices to the agents
of the foreign merchants at Yokohama, who make very lucrative bargains.



JAPAN'S TARIFF CONVENTIONS WITH GER-
MANY AND FRANCE.

Minister Buck transmits from Tokyo, under date of Januai^ 9,
1899, copies of the tariff conventions recently concluded by Japan
with Germany and France, whereby the ad valorem charges fixed
by the tariff conventions annexed to the new treaties with those
countries are converted into specific duties. The conventions read:

[From the Japan Gazette, Yokohama, January 7, 1899.]
SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN GERMANY AND JAPAN.

The following supplementary treaty between Germany and Japan was published
in the Official Gazette of the 30th of December, 1898:

The Governments of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and of His Majesty
the Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia, in accordance with clause 2 in Arti-
cle III of the protocol annexed to the treaty of commerce and navigation, signed
at Berlin on the 4th of April, 1896, have agreed to the following articles:

(i) The tariff annexed to this treaty shall be substituted for the ad valorem tariff
attached to the protocol concluded on the 4th of April, 1896. It shall be subjected
to all the stipulations given in Article III of the said protocol as far as applicable
and shall be put into force on and after the ist of January of the thirty-second year
of Meiji (January i, 1899).

(2) This treaty is supplementary to the treaty and protocol concluded on the
4th of April. 1896, and shall be in force during the same period as the latter.

In witness whereof, the undermentioned Viscount Aoki Shuzo, Minister of State



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JAPAN S TARIFF CONVENTIONS.



49



for Foreign Affairs of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and Count Casimer Von
Lcyden, His Imperial Germanic and Prussian Majesty's envoy extraordinary and
minister plenipotentiary, having been furnished with the necessary powers, have
signed and sealed the present treaty.

Done in duplicate at Tokyo this twenty-sixth day of the thirty-first year of
Meiji (December 26, 1898). Viscount Aoki Shuzo.

Count Von Leyden.
Annexed tariff.



No.



Articles.



Unit,



Duty.



CoCtOQ tissQCS:

Velvets, Telveteens

Cotton tissues of all other sorts, pure cotton or mixed with
flax, or other fiber, including wool, cotton, however, pre-
dominating, not specially mentioned in this tariff —

Drills

Duck

Handkerchiefs in the piece ;

Prints.

Sateens, plain, printed, or figured, brocades, Italians

and figured shirtings.
Shirtings-
Dyed

Gray

Twilled

White or bleached

T cloths

Turkey red and cambrics

Victoria lawns.

All other sorts of pure cotton tissues, and all tissues of
cotton mixed with flax, hemp, or other fiber, includ-
ing wooU the cotton, however, predominating in
weight, not especially provided for in this tariff.
Note. — It is expressly understood that ready-made clothing
and other made-up articles are not included under the head-
ing of cotton tissues.

Lead, pig and ingot

Chemicals and drugs:

Amorphous phosphorous.,.

Bismuth subnitrate

Bromide—

a. Of potash.

b. All other kinds

Quinine

Chloride of potash

Dynamite

Iodide of potash.

Nitrate of poush (saltpcterX

Salicylic acid

Wire:

Telegraph wire—

■ a. Telegraph or galvanized wire of iron or mild steel..

b. All other telegraph wire

Other than telegraph wire—

a. Iron and mild steel wire, and small rod not exceed-

ing one-fourth inch in diameter.

b. Steel (other than mild) wire and rod not exceeding

one-fourth inch in diameter.
Note.— By the term " mild steel " as used in this tariff is
understood mild steel manufactured by the Siemens, Besse-
mer, basic, or similar processes, and approximating in value
to iron of the same class in this tariff.

No. 224 4.



Square yard...



Yen.
0.04X



...do.
...do .
...do .
..-do .
...do.



-do

.do

......do

-do

-do

-do

.do

Ad valorem.....



> kin-



Kin..



...do .



.do

Ad valorem

Ao

100 kin

Kin.

Ad valorem

100 kin

Ad valorem



100 kin

Ad valorem..



zoo kin..
Ao..



|0.02



.016


.0079


.053


.026


.on


.005


.012


•0059


.017


.0084


.013


.0064


.006


.0029


.ozz


.005


•ozo


.0049


.009


.0044


.oia


.0059


.006


.0029


zop.ct.
.316




•157


.Z65


.082


.206


.Z02


.093


.046


zop.ct.
sp.ct.
2.267






Z.Z28


.056


.027


zop.ct.

.490




244


zop.ct.




.256


"7


sp.ct.
•503




.25


z.8z9


.905



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50



JAPAN S TARIFF CONVENTIONS.
Annexed /ari^— -Continued.



No.



Articles.



Unit.



Duty.



17



Iron, mild steel, and steel:
Pig and ingot—

a. Of iron and mild steel

6. Of steel (other than mild)

Rails-

a. Of iron and mild steel

b. Of steel (other than mild)

Bars, rods, and plates:

Of iron and mild steel—

a. Bar and rod exceeding one-fourth inch in diameter.

b. Plate and sheet .-.

Of steel (other than mild)

Sheet, galvanized, both plain and corrugated—

a. Of iron and mild steel

b. Of steel (other than mild)

Tinned plates—

Of iron and mild steel—

a. Ordinary

b. Crystallized.

Of steel (other than mild)

Pipes and tubes

Railway carriages for passengers and parts thereof ,

Iron and mild steel nails (including wire nails, spikes, sprigs,
Ucks, and brads):

tf. Plain

b. Galvanized .«

Bolts and nuts, plain and galvanized ,

Window glass, ordinary:

Uncolored and unsuined ,

Colored, suined, and ground

Dyes, dyestufls, and paints:

Aniline dyes.

Alizarine dyes.

Logwood extract

Paint in oil

Yarns, plain or dyed:

Of cotton

a. Of linen, for weaving purposes.^

b. Of hemp or jute, for weaving purposes.

Of wool, also combed, or worsted—

For weaving purposes... ,t

For other purposes

NoTB TO Nos. 31, 32, 33, AND 34.— It is exprcssly under-
stood that all mixed yarns of cotton, linen, hemp, jute,
or wool (combed or worsted) are to be classed for duty
according to the material predominating.

Yarns, all sorts, not specially provided for in this uriff

Silk-faced cotton satin

Hops...



Hau, including also felt hats

Caoutchouc, manufactures of

Linen tissues:

Canvas

All other sorts.

Note.— It is expressly understood that ready-made clothmg
and other made-up articles are not included under the head-
ing of linen tissues.
Leather:

Sole

Other kinds

Railway engines and parts thereof ,



100 Idn

Ad valorem..



100 kin

Ad valorem...



100 kin

Ao

Ad valorem.



100 kin

Ad valorem...



zoo Idn

Ad valorem..

.do

.do

.do



100 Idn...

Ad valorem.....
.do



100 sq. feet...
Ad valorem..



Ao..

Ao,.

.do..

zoo Idn..



Ao

.do

Ad valorem.....



zoo kin..
Ao ..



Ad valorem...

Ao

Kin

Ad valorem...
^o



Square yard...
Ad valorem



zoo kin

Ad valorem..
„...do...Hf



Vtn,
0.083
SP.ct.

.Z29

5 p. ct.



.26Z

.296

7ip.ct.

.740
zop.ct.



.6gz
zop.ct.
zop.ct.
zop.ct.
Sp.ct.



•S73
zop.ct.
zo p. ct.

.302
zop.ct.

zop.ct.

zop.ct.

zop.ct.

1.304

4.Z80
6.527
Sp.ct.

8.000
9.Z69



zop.ct.
zop.ct.



zop.ct.
zop.ct.



.047

zop.ct.



5.600
zop.ct.
5p.Ct.



$0,041



.064



.129
•«47



.368



.a85



.649

2.o8z
3-35



3.98
♦.56



2.83



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JAPANS TARIFF CONVENTIONS.
Annexed /!anf^— Continued.



51



Articles.



Unit.



Duty.



Milk:

Condensed or desiccated...

(All proportionately for tins of other weight.)

Sterilized ,

Paper of all kinds:

a. Printing paper—

1. Weight not exceeding 34 pounds per 500 sheets of
not less than z,o86 square inches per sheet.

2. An other kinds. ,

b. All other kinds of paper

Oil, paraffin ,

WajE, paraffin. ,

Cement, Portland ,

Clocks (excepting watches) and parts of clocks

Woolen and worsted tissues of all kinds, pure or mixed with

other material, wool, however, predominating:

Blanketing and whipped blankets, plain woven... ,

Flannels—

a. All wool ,

h. Wool and cotton mixture.

Mousselines de laine —

a. Plain or white

b. All other kinds. ,

Cloth—

a. Wholly of woolen or worsted yam, or of woolen

and worsted yarn, such as broad, narrow, and
army cloth, cassimeres, tweeds, and worsted
coatings.

b. In part of woolen or worsted yam and in part of

cotton yam, such as pilot, president, and union
cloth.
Italian cloth, including Italian cloth in which cotton pre-
dominates.
Other tissues-
Alpacas

Buntings

Long ells.

Serges—

a. Where the warp is worsted and the weft woolen.....

b. All other kinds..

All other sorts, pure or mixed with other material, the

wool, however, predominating in weight, not specially
provided for in this uriff.
NoTS.— It is expressly understood that ready-made clothing
and other made-up articles are not included under the head-
ing of woolen and worsted tissues.
Zinc:

Block, pig and slab or plates.

Sheet ^

Sugar, refined:

a. No. 15 to No. 20, inclusive, Dutch sundard in color ,

b. Above No. ao, Dutch sUndard in color... ,



Doz. x-lb. tins..
Ad valorem.....



100 Idn......



.do

Ad valorem.....

Ao

100 kin

.do

Ad valorem...



>kin..



Square yard..
ulo



....do ..
....do ..



..^o.



...uio ..



..«.do .,



...do .
...do.
...do .



.do

Ad valorem..
«da



100 kin..
.do..



...do.,



Yen,

.123



SP.ct.



.800

1.163

xop.ct.

lop.ct.

•544

.065

xop.ct.



7.458

.044
.030

.018

.03Z



.075
.031
.036

.056

10 p. ct.
xop.ct.



.400
.830

.748
.827



$o.o6x



.398
.579



.27
.03a



3.714



.02x9
.0x49



.046



.037
.0x5
.0x79

.0278



.199
.4x3



.372
•41



Weights and measures.

The kin mentioned in this tariff is the Japanese weight. It is equal to 600
grams of the metric system of weights, or 1.32277 pounds English avoirdupois
weight.

The pound is the English avoirdupois weight.

The square yard, square foot, and square inch are the English imperial surface
measures.

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52 JAPANS TARIFF CONVENTIONS.

Rule for calculating ad valorem duties.

Import duties payable ad valorem under this tariff shall be calculated on the
actual cost of the articles at the place of purchase, production, or fabrication, with
the addition of the cost of insurance and transportation to the port of discharge, as
well as commission, if any exists.

Rule for the measurement of tisues.

In determining the dutiable width of any tissue, the customs shall discard all
fractions of an inch not exceeding half an inch, and shall count as a full inch
all fractions exceeding half an inch.

Note. — It is understood that selvedges shall not be included in the measure-
ment of tissues.

Protocol,

The undersigned, apart from the supplementary convention signed this day,
have agreed upon the following stipulations:

(i) With regard to the yen mentioned in the tariff annexed to the aforesaid sup-
plementary convention, it is understood that whatever rights belong or may belong
to Great Britain in virtue of the description of the yen appended to the Anglo-
Japanese conventional tariff dated the i6th of July, 1895, shall equally be extended
to Germany. The Government of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, however,
wishes it to be understood that this declaration creates no inference as to the
existence in favor of Great Britain of any rights in the direction indicated.

(2) Respecting the question of certificates of origin at place of production and the
legalization of invoices, it is understood that the words "other proper authorities*'
appearing in Article II of the Japanese imperial ordinance No. 385, dated the twenty-
seventh day df the tenth month of the thirtieth year of Meiji, corresponding to the
27th of October, 1897, are held to include German police officers, in the absence of
competent Japanese consular authorities, and that the term ** competent Japanese
consular authorities " does not include Japanese honorary consuls. The Govern-
ment of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan will take the necessary measures to
extend to the German chambers of commerce the same competence under like cir-
cumstances as is possessed by German police officers.

The Government of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan engage that under the
new tariffs, ail imports of a dutiable value not exceeding 100 yen ($49.80) shall be
exempt from any obligation of being accompanied by legalized invoices.

The undersigned have agreed that the stipulations contained in this protocol
shall have the same binding force and the same duration as the supplementary con-
vention signed this day.

In witness whereof the undermentioned have signed the same and have affixed
thereto their seals.

Done in duplicate at Tokyo, this twenty-sixth day of the twelfth month of the
thirty-first year of Meiji, corresponding to the 26th of December, 1898.

Viscount Aoki. (l. s.)

Count Von Leyden. (l. s.)



[From the Japan Gazette, Yokohama, January 6, 1899.]
THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE AND JAPAN.

The supplementary treaty between Japan and France which has recently been
concluded was published in the extra of the Official Gazette of the 30th of Decem-
ber. It reads as follows:

His Majesty the Emperor of Japan and the President of the French Republic,
being desirous of fulfilling the agreement specified in clause 2 of Article I of the

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japan's tariff conventions.



53



protocol annexed to the treaty of commerce and navigation between Japan and
France concluded at Paris on the 14th of August, 1896 (which agreement stipulates
that the ad valorem tariff attached to the said protocol shall be replaced by a specific
tariff within six months from the date of ratifications and exchange of the said
treaty, the term of the six months in question being afterwards post|)oned), have
appointed Viscount Aoki Shuzo, Junii, First Order of Merit, Minister for Foreign
Affairs, as representative of His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and Francois Jules
Harmand, Commander de la Legion d*Honeur, First Class Order of the Rising Sun,
as representative of the President of the French Republic. The said representa-
tives having mutually shown the necessary powers furnished by the respective
sovereigns and found them to be correct, have conferred together and agreed to the
following articles:

Article I. The tariff hereto annexed shall be substituted for the tariff annexed
to the protocol of the 4th of August, 1896, and shall be applicable to all French
products imported into Japan. The tariff shall be put into force immediately after
the copies of this treaty are ratified and exchanged.

Art. II. This treaty shall remain in force during the same period as that for
the treaty and protocol concluded on the 4th of August, 1896.

Art. III. This treaty shall be subject to ratifications to be exchanged at Tokyo
as soon as possible within six months from the date of its signature.

Done in duplicate at Tokyo, twenty-fifth day of the twelfth month of the thirty-
first year of Meiji, corresponding to the 25th day of December, 1898.

Viscount Aoki Shuzo.
J. Harmand.
Annexed tariff.



No



Articles.



Unit.



Duty.



Aniline dyes.^

Cotton tissues:

Drills

Dnda...

Handkerchiefs in the piece. .'

Prints..... k

Sateens, plain, figured or printed brocades, Italians and

figured shirtings .
Shirtings-
Dyed

Grey-.

Twilled

White or bleached ,

T cloths..

Turicey red cambrics.

Plush or velvets-. ,

Victoria lawns. ,

All other kinds of pure cotton tissues and all tissues of cot-
ton mixed with flax, hemp, or other fiber, and also
wool, the cotton, however, predominating in weight,
not especially provided for in this urift.
NoTK.— It is to be understood that ready-made clothing and
other made-up articles are not included under the heading of
couon tissues.

Ircm, bar and rod, exceeding one-fourth t>f an inch in diam-
eter

Note.— The word " mild steel," as used in this Uriff, is held
to mean mild steel manufactured by the Siemens, Bessemer,
bask, or similar processes and approximating in value to iron
o€ the same class m this tariff.



Ad valorem..



Square yard...

.do

Ao

^o

...«..do



.do

Ao

Jo

.do

Ao

Ao

Ao

.do

Ad valorem..



Yen.
zo p. ct.

0.016

■053
.011
.oia
.017



.013
.006

.CXI

.010

.009

.012

.041
.006

zop.ct.



>ldn..



I0.007
.026
.005
.0059
.008



.0064

.0029

.005

.0049

.004

.056

.02

.0029



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54



JAPANS TARIFF CONVENTIONS.



Annexed tariff — Continued.



No.



Articles.



Unit.



Duty.



23



a8



Locrwood extract.

Silk and silk cotton sateens..

Steel, pig and ingot.

Woolen and worsted tissues of all kinds, pure or mixed with
other material:

Alpacas.

Blanketing and whipped blankets.

Buntings

Cloth—

a. Wholly of woolen jram or worsted or of woolen
and worsted yam, such as broad, narrow, and
army cloth, cassimeres, tweed, and worsted coat-
ings.
h. In part of woolen or worsted yam and in part of
cotton yam, such as pilot, president, and union
cloth.
Flannels—

a. Of wool.-

b. Wool and cotton

lulian cloth...

Long ells.

Mousseline de laine—

a. Plain and white

b. Dyed and printed...

Serges—

a. Where the warp is worsted and the woof woolen..

b. All other kinds.

All other kinds, pure or mixed with other material, the



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