United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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(48.66 cents), which would fortify in a most satisfactory manner our present mone-
tary standard, at the same time causing the injury to disappear which is now suf-
fered in effecting sales of silver bullion, in consequence of the difference between
its metallic and its monetary value.

But, undoubtedly, that which is the most worthy of study is the new destination
given during recent months to the shipment of sugar. There has been put into
effect in the United States the tariff which establishes an additional duty exclusively
on sugars from those countries which give a bounty (prima) upon exportation; a
duty which, in consequence of being always equal in amount to the bounty paid,
the English call countervailing (compensating) and might be called *' para-primas,"
since, in the same manner that the *' para-rayos" (lightning rods) protect us against
lightning, those duties protect us against the bounties. The proceeding mentioned
has produced the result which was to have been expected, and, in fact, has closed
the doors to the importation of beet sugar into the United States,* because the im-
porters of sugar from Germany, France, and Austria,. being obliged to return the
bounty which they had received in the form of an additional duty, have ceased to
ship to the American market, and it has fallen to cane sugar, on which there is
no additional duty, to supply the demand.

This in itself satisfactorily explains the change in the direction of our exporta-
tions; but there is something more. The reduced shipments made during the last
year to the United States have permitted the refiners of that country to appreciate
the quality of our sugar; and, convinced in a practical way of its superiority, they
pay higher prices for thje Peruvian product than for that of any other origin. In
view of the fact that our sugar brings is. (24 cents) more in New York than in Liver-
' pool, it can not surprise us that almost all produced within the last few months has
been consigned to the first of those ports, nor that the greater part of that which will
be produced up to next June has been purchased for shipment to the same place.

We thus see that by reason of the causes indicated, there has been opened for
our sugars the principal market of the world, which for itself alone consumes the
fabulous quantity of 2,200,000 tons per year; and that the New York market has
been substituted for the old one of Liverpool.

The influence which this change must exercise in our foreign commerce must
be great, and will certainly facilitate the exchange of some of our other products
for the manufactures of the United States.

This is a natural evolution, the proper result of the geographical situation of
both countries and the general development of the commercial and political inter-
ests of the American republics; and the complete realization of this idea will be
promoted by the efforts of the statesmen, the wealth of the capitalists, and the
energy of the promoters of the great Republic of the North.

The construction of the canal to unite the Atlantic and the Pacific, a work which
it is no longer possible to consider doubtful; the establishment of a great interna-
tional bank with branches in all the capitals of the American republics, a project
which has received the approval of one branch of the United States Congressf — will
give a great impulse to commercial traffic among all the nations of this hemisphere.



* Note bv Bukeau of Foreign Commerce.— The imports of beet sugar into the United Sutes,
according to Treasury returns, have been: In 1896 (calendar year), 1,063,389,004 pounds; in 1897, 1,373,-
230,362 pounds; in 1898, 418,981,330 pounds.

t Note by Bureau of Foreign Commbbck.— The bill was discussed, but did not pass either House
of Congress.



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730



ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF URUGUAY.



But that which will undoubtedly be conducive to the greatest development of
pan-American commerce will be the construction of the central railroad which.
traversing the three Americas from north to south, will, in the end, unite New York
and Buenos Ayres.

The greatness of this work predisposes one to consider it Utopian; but when one
considers that of the 10,228 miles which separate the northern from the southern
metropolis, 4,762 are constructed and the execution of the remaining 5,456 only re-
quires the expenditure of $174,000,000, of which more than $100,000,000 would be
spent within the United States itself in the purchase of rails, rolling material,
bridges, etc., it ceases to appear so difficult to realize a work which already has its
principal branches, as would be the lines from Oroya to Callao, from Puno to
Mollendo, from Oruro to Antofagasta, and from Rosario to Mendoza. and also from
Santiago to Valparaiso, not to mention the Mexican railroad.

But a few years ago, still more difficult appeared the realization of the construc-
tion of a railroad across the continent of Africa, beginning at Cairo and ending at
Cape Town; nevertheless, to-day it is no longer a matter of doubt that within a
relatively short time that road will be in operation. The existence of the great rail-
road of our continent, destined to bind together all the Latin-American republics,
would constitute their principal element of prosperity and stability, and, at the same
time, would make New York the commercial and financial center of the whole of
this extensive and rich hemisphere. Its power and preponderance would be so ad-
vanced that in the next century we would see New York disputing with London
the predominance which it has maintained in the business world, and especially in
financial matters, during the century about to close.



ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF URUGUAY.

Minister Finch writes from Montevideo, April 19, 1899:
Newspapers of Montevideo are publishing statistics referring to

the exports and imports of Uruguay. I copy from one of these

publications the following:

It is often said that this Republic is in a stagnant stale as regards economic
progress, or that at all events it does not advance as its resources would warrant.
These discouraging assertions are mainly based on the statistics of foreign
commerce.

Divided into periods of five years each, the official values of imports and ex-
ports for the last twenty years have been:



Years.



Imports.



1879- 1883.,
1884-1888..
i88g 189J.
1894-1898.



$91,841,000
124,111,000
126,240,000
119,012,000



Exports.

$103,909,000
120,502,000

156,020,000



Total.

$195,750,000
244,613,000
216,909,000



The imports show but slow progress, and even retrogression. There was a
leap forward in 1884-1888, but in the next period the advance was only $2,000,000,
and in the fourth there was a positive decrease. This, however, should not be re-
garded as a symptom of economic retrogression, for it is well known that from



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ECONOMIC PROGRESS OF URUGUAY.



731



year to year new industries are being established and developed in the country,
which diminish the consumption of foreign merchandise. Among the items of
importation which tend to disappear maybe mentioned leather goods (boots, shoes,
etc.). The movement in these has been as follows:

1879-1883 $694,000

1884-1888 457,376

1889-1893 196,793

1894-1898 220,000

In the year 1887 alone the importation of this class of goods was $321,000, while
in 1898 it did not reach $57,000. It should be remembered that this heading in-
cludes not only manufactured goods, but also raw materials employed in the home
industry, the importation of which increases yearly and is now from $30,000 to
$40,000 a year, against only $1,000 twenty years ago.

The economic movement is most accurately reflected in the table of exports,
which show a steady progress, the difference between the first and fourth periods
being $52,000,000. There is no doubt that the productive power of the country in-
creases, and therefore there is no basis for the pessimist conclusion that we are in a
stagnant condition. In order to illustrate more forcibly this expansion of forces,
we will select two items, namely, wool and agricultural produce. The embarka-
tion of wool for the last twenty years has been as follows:



Years.

1879-1883

1884-1888

1889-1893

1894-1898 .«



Quantity.

Kilograms.
105,898,000
152,163,000
150,041,000
225,461,000



Value.



$24,747,000
32,369,000
40,310,000
52,715,000



The exportation of this article has thus been more than doubled, both as re-
gards quantity and value. The following is the table of the value of the agricul-
tural produce exported in the same periods:

1879-1883 $2,546,000

1884-1888 4,247,000

1889-1893 2, 581,000

1894-1898 14, 219,000

In the first three periods, the exportation was stationary and even retrogressive;
but in the fourth, which corresponds to the development of the national agriculture,
the production increased considerably and reached a figure exceeding the total of the
previous fifteen years. And, so far from this high level being lost, it is being well
maintained, and in all probability will yet be exceeded. Given these facts, it must
be agreed that our country, far from being stagnant, has achieved real progress, in
spite of all the political difl^culties with which it has been struggling for many
years.

Another local publication, referring to the above article editori-
ally, says:

We can not agree with it, however, in taking the increase of production or ex-
portation as the only or even the chief index of economic progress. The Republic



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732 KXPORTS ANJ) KX PORTERS OF PUERTO CABELLO.

might be able to export the wealth of all the Indies, but would yet be making but
slow economic progress if the riches thus acquired were not translated into com-
mercial activity by a corresponding increase in consumption.

Although the productive and exporting power of Uruguay has increased, her
consuming power, as marked by the imports, has remained practically stationary;
in fact, it has decreased in relation to the increase in the population, though that
likewise has not been rapid. The commercial movement per head will be found lo
be less to-day than it was twenty years ago. The money gained by the additional
production has contributed little or nothing to the national prosperity and develop-
ment, but has mostly been absorbed by official debts and the expenses of civil wars.
This is not, and is not likely to be for many years, an industrial or manufacturing
country, and the growth of home industries has been relatively too insignificant to
atone for the stagnation in importation. The country may produce more, but the
people do not consume more — probably they consume less — whether in necessities
or in luxuries, and so long as this is the case it can not be said that the country
makes real economic progress.

Minister Finch says, in communications dated April lo and May 8,
1899, that the customs receipts of Montevideo for the month of March
amounted to $1,063, 183, against $1,221,432 for 1898 and $732,527 for
1897. In April the receipts were $1,046,916, against $1,018,950 in
1898 and $702,361 in 1897. A local paper comments on the figures
for March as follows:

These receipts show the improvement which we had a right to expect from the
combined circumstances of return to constitutional government, cessation of political
agitation, and the fact that the autumn and winter goods are arriving. The receipts
compare favorably with those for any month of March for the last six years, leav-
ing out those of 1897, which were exceptionally depressed by the outbreak of civil
war. The figures of imports are unusually high, and if exportation had not been
unusually slack for the time of year, the total receipts would probably have beaten
the record for March. ~In this connection, we may add that, since the Easter holi-
days, there has been exceptional activity in nearly all the wholesale and importing
houses of the capital, orders for goods coming in from the interior faster than they
can be filled and keeping the clerks busy until late hours of the night. In one
day, the Central Railway transported no less than 700 tons of merchandise to the
interior, beating all its previous records. This great activity is a good sign and
may fairly be regarded as a forerunner of the general revival which the Republic
has so long been awaiting.



EXPORTS AND EXPORTERS OF PUERTO
CABELLO.

I have the honor to transmit herewith statistics covering the ex-
ports and exporters of the consular district of Puerto Cabello. It
has cost me many days of hard personal work, but the result is so
satisfactory that there is little room for complaint. The books and
papers of the custom-house have been carefully examined, and the
information given is the result of such examination.



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EXPORTS AND EXPORTERS OF PUERTO CABELI.O.



7'o2,



Table shoimng the various products exported from Puerto Cabello during the quarter of
the year ended March ji, i8gg, the countries to which the products 7vere exported^ and
the names of the exporters.





United
States.


Whither exported.






Exporters.


Cuba.


France.


Ger-
many.


Italy.


Spain.


ToUl.


Coffee.
Ascher & Co


Pounds.
25.600


Pounds.


Pounds.

53.465

788.785

73.430

363.191

817,804

10,266

382,683

29.633

290,943

1.268,894

578

''64,334

4,344,006


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.

79,065

845.849

349,878

454,191

1.134.834

24.866

1.183.953

29.633

439.224

1,615,891

578

301,366


p Rfkrrizbeiti^.




57,064
253,706






Rra<u*hi A Sons


17,818
91,000
87.424






4.924


Roulton & Co






Rlnhm&Co




211,700


17,906
11,900








2,700
18,027




510,165




273,078


14 Frcy






KnUtcr K Ar O


38,100
160,541




110,181
186,456






Leseur, Ronier & Baasch




















16,482




20,550










Total


930,648




1,108,667


29,806


46,201


6,459.328






Value. United States '-ur-


$74,669




$606,379


$152,418


$4,822


$6,643


$844,931


^




Cacho.
Carbon & Co










4,500




4.500

893

3.364


F Rerrizbeitia . .. .. ...








893










3,364


















Total






3,364


893


4.500




8,757










Value






$183


$58


I216




$457










Cocoa.
R^rrizbeitia






10,141
3.451
3,555
6,541
10,097
46,460
7,038








10,141
3,451
3,555
6.541
10,097
51.960
7.038


Rraschi & Sons.












Blohm & Co
























M Frey














5.500










Rivas Fensohn & Co .























Total ...


5,500




87.283








92,783












Value


$1,161




$27,472








$28,633












Cassava.
A R Torres




1,448
$23








1,448
$23


Value



















▼ - —






Cattle.
Braschi & Sons.




♦1,318
♦2,340
♦5.372
♦739
♦1,858








♦1,318
♦2,340
♦5.372
♦739
♦1,858














E Ermen












A B Torres











All other '


1


















Total


•11,627










•11,627












- -^^ -I


Value




$353,9''J








$353,963




-






.





• Head.



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734 EXPORTS AND EXPORTERS OF PUERTO CABELLO.

Tabu sho'iving the 7'arious products exported from Puerto Cabeiio, etc. — Continued.







Whither exported.


Exporters.


United
States.


Cuba.


France.


Ger-
many.


Italy.


Spain.


Total.


Co/>ra.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pounds.


Pound*,


F Brandt








".357

34 900

2,898

6 626






".357
34,900

6,8i6


M Frev i




















R O Kolster














\











Total




j


55.981


55.98r


v.,





1
'


$3,166




-


$j.i66




^






— —




Dried or jerked beef.












M. Frey





62,681










62,681


V^alue ... . . 1


$5,037










$5,037


Divi-divi,






















45.300
$966




45»3«>
$966


Value










Oxhides.


















Adolfo Acosto


8,738













8.738


E. Bcrrizbeitia


47.600












47»6oo




95.263
58,079
6,373
35,047












95,263


A Erm'en . .












R & O Kolster










ft ■>-,',


Lcseur, Romer & Baasch




1







35,047


Toul


251,100


: ; i


25i,ior<




^^ .






Value


$36,648


1 ' i


$36,648




1 1


Goats kifu.












"




Braschi & Sons


14,618
19,673
4,050












14,618
19.673
4.050


A Ermen..







































Total


38,341




' 1





38.341


Value


$11,806


1 1 '" J _


$11,806






1


Deerskins.










E Berri/beitia


183
862
388










t8)


Braschi & Sons.






'


863


A. Ermen




1 1

1


388


Total


1,433


1 \ ; j


1.433


Value


$196




$196


Oranges.




1 1 -





_ ^ _ _


- -


A. B. Torres




698
$1


1






69S
$1


Value 1






Tonka beans.












Leseur, Romer & Baasch


485
$245












485
$245


Value












Copper ore.












Csonzales & Co






1,122
$^5










Value












$-5


Timber.












Gonzales & Co








8,312






8.312
$82


Value













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COPPER AND BRASS IN JAMAICA. 735

Recapitulation. — Quantity ami value of the exports to the several countries.



Articles.



To the United States:

Coflfce

Cocoa

Oxhides

Goatskins

Deerskins

Tonka beans.



Total..



To Cuba:

Jerked beef.,

Cattle

Cassava .,

Oranges



Total-



To France:

Coffee ,,

Cocoa

Cacho

Copper ore...



Toul..,



To Germany.

Coffee

Cacho

Copra

Timber ...



Total-



To Italy:

Coffee

Cacho

Dtvi-divi...



Total..

To Spain:
Coffee...



Grand total..



Quantity.



Pounds.

930,648

5.500

251,100

■ 38,341

1.433

485



.227.507



62.681

♦11,627

1,448

698



4.344.006

87,283

3.364

1,122



4,435.775



Value.

$74,
36,



66g
i6i
648
806
196
245



5
353.



037

9^3

23



358.754



1,108,667

893

55,981

8,312

1.173,853 I 155,724



606


,379


24


472




183




25


634


059


152


,418




58


3


,166




82



29,806
4,500
45.300

79,6<)6



46,201



4,822
216
966

6,004



.285



,643
,909



♦ Head.

Luther T. Ellsworth,
Puerto Cabello, April ^.^ j8gg. Consul.



COPPER AND BRASS IN JAMAICA.

The following is a copy of a letter from Consul Dent, dated King-
ston, April 27, 1899, to a Pittsburg correspondent:*

The imports of sheet copper and brass into Jamaica are very small,
and come mostly from England. I append a memorandum showing
the importations last year This memorandum shows the values

♦To whom Advance Sheets have been sent.



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72>^



tOTTON-GOOnS TRADE IN HAITI.



also, from which the prices here can be calculated, though I am in-
formed the price is regulated by the value in England. The ordinary
English measurement is used ; not the metric system. Sheet copper
for guttering is imported from England in limited quantities in
lengths of 5, 10, and 100 feet (the latter made up of lo-foot lengths
seamed) in widths of 18, 20, 22, and 24 inches; weight, 16 ounces to
the square foot. When the sugar estates were more numerous and
more prosperous, sheets of copper were imported for repairing stills
and teaches, in thicknesses from one-sixteenth to three-eighths of an
inch ; sizes of sheets, 6 by 2 up to 8 by 6 feet; but it is now very rare
that any are required, and the importation in this line has almost
ceased. Copper for sheathing ships* bottoms is no longer used here,
being superseded by yellow metal. Yellow sheathing metal is used
here in limited quantity; sheets are 4 feet by 14 inches, 12, 14, 16,
and 18 ounces to the square foot. For any further information of
this character correspondence may be addressed to Messrs. E. Lyons
& Sons, or D. Henderson & Co., Kingston, Jamaica.

Imports of brass and copper into Jamaica,



Articles and whence imported.



Brass:

United Kingdom

United States

Copper:

Un wrought —

United Kingdom

United States.

Wrought (mixed or yellow metal)—

United Kingdom

United States

Unenumerated—

United Kingdom

United Sutes

Crucible pots for melting-
United Kingdom



Quantity.



Tons. Ctvts.
3 10
o S



17 «5
8 IS



Value.



281 3 6
2Z 6 1



245 " 3
I 13 o

452 17 4
235 »7 4

608 la It
31 3 6



I«.368.j4
103.69



».«<W.03
8.0J

2,203.88
1.147.84

2,961.97
150.71

36.78



COTTON-GOODS TRADE IN HAITI.

In reply to inquiries by the Philadelphia Museums,* Consul Liv-
ingston sends from Cape Haitien, under date of May 17, 1899, the
following statements of the trade in cotton goods and the openings
for United States products, prepared by Dr. N6mours Auguste, a
local merchant, and by the consular agent at Gonaives, Mr. Woel :

TRANSLATION OF LETTER FROM DR. AUGUSTE.

American cotton tissues could compete to advantage with similar tissues of all
kinds manufactured in Europe, and especially in England, if the American manufac-



*Advanre Sheets of the report have been sent ihc museums.



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COTTON-GOODS TRADE IN HAITI. "] ^^

turers knew the commercial customs of each country and would seek to satisfy the
public taste. Since there are customs which ought not to exist, but which never-
theless can not be changed, and which it is necessary to follow; since there is a
taste which results from these same customs, from the climate, from natural pecul-
iarities, from a certain way of looking at things — it is necessary to put one's self in
harmony therewith in order to succeed in all commercial contests. Cotton tissues
of the same quality are not dearer [in America] than in England, many having al-
most superseded similar English articles in outside markets. These are the ones
in which the first material is relatively good. This superiority is lost when we
reach tissues in which the first material is mediocre. If we add that the cost in
good American houses is less than the cost in England, and that the freight is much
lower, one sees that even for inferior articles the contest is still possible. Ameri-
can merchandise is well presented. The denims and checks have beautiful labels,
agreeable to the eye, of which the English are very sparing. The tissues without
stiffening are more popular than those from Europe, and there is a group in which
English competition has been entirely eliminated.

Every market has its customs, -and nothing is more difficult than to cause it to
change its routine. We desire in Cape Haitien that our merchandise be cut exactly
in pieces of 25 yards or in half pieces of 12^ yards. We receive certain articles,
such as denims, checks, and gray domestic, cut in this way, but we can not yet
obtain in pieces of these dimensions one article of the greatest importance, namely,
indiennes (printed calico), the consumption of which is considerable, and would
be much greater if we could always supply our customers with pieces of 20 and
10 annes (25 and 12^ yards). The manufacturers are quite willing to cut in half
pieces of 51, 53, and 55 yards, but they make us pay 3 cents for the cutting, while
in England they only make us pay id. for cutting pieces of \i% yards, and make
no extra charge for cutting pieces of 25 yards.

Blue denims. — American denim has almost entirely driven the English article
from the Haitian market. It has more regular designs, is made with better thread,
and is cheaper. But what seems strange is that the Americans make an unimpor-
tant diflfcrence in price between denims of 28 inches and denims of 23 inches. This
difference is more considerable in England. Now, we need a denim of 23 inches,
for we are obliged, in making our orders, to conform to our customs tariff. This
is based upon the width of tissues, and a tissue of 23 inches do^s not pay the same
duty as one of 28 or 29 inches.

Checks. — Checks are the second article of great importance in which Ameri-
can manufacturers compete successfully with the English. The American article
is better folded, has a prettier label, and its appearance is more attractive. It is
without stiffening, which is beginning to please the public; and perhaps, although
the price is the same, the quality is better. The designs are good and the tints are
appreciated. Here, again, appears the question of width. Makers frequently offer



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