United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 224-227 online

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The exportation of hides has diminished since 1890, on account of the epizoOty.
The Abyssinians employ many skins for making "selitchas," or sacks, for carrying
merchandise.

The resources of this country are immense and the fertility of the soil extraor-
dinary. Great tracts of land lie waste, the natives cultivating only enough for their
wants. With its regular rainy season from June to September, its terraced mountain
lands, its warm and deep valleys, which invite every kind of cultivation from that
of the Tropics to that of the temperate zone, this country is capable of becoming
one of the richest in the world. Seven-tenths of the uncultivated land from Harar
to the boundaries of southern Abyssinia are admirably adapted to the cultivation
of coffee. Cotton could also be made remunerative; what is grown is of a very
fine quality and is woven by the natives for their togas. The conditions of the
country are most favorable for cattle breeding. As soon as the railway from
Harar to Djibouti is finished, Harar will become the great supply market of mut-
ton, goats, and cattle for Somali and the countries of the Arabian coast. The
native horse is especially valued for his endurance. The mule, small and strong,
with great powers of resistance to fatigue and privations, renders inestimable serv-
ices in this mountainous country, where he carries loads of 100 kilograms (220
pounds). Tobacco grows wild, as well as the olive, sycamore, and fig trees. From
the dakoussa plant, beer, a favorite drink of the natives, is made. Honey is found
in great abundance throughout all Abyssinia; it is used to make the national dnnk,
the **tech," as well as an excellent quality of brandy.

The duties on exports and imports of all kinds of merchandise are 8 per cent,
calculated ad valorem. The packing of goods must follow certain conditions, 00
account of the transportation by mules and camels. All merchandise, other than
liquids, should be in bales and boxes — the latter covered with zinc when the con-
tents are fragile; weight, 50 to 60 kilograms (no to 132 pounds); shape, elongated.



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FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS.



757



For liquids, eighteen bottles in a case are preferable; contents of barrels ought not
to exceed 50 liters (13.2 gallons); these should have double wrapping of linen.

Importers should not make the mistake of supposing they are to deal with a
race of savages; quite the contrary. The Abyssinians are essentially a mercantile
people, with their own civilization and business customs, which must be considered.



Trade in Poland.— A British Foreign Office report (No. 2226)
on the trade and agriculture of Poland and Lithuania for the year
1898 says in part:

The year i8g8 was one of unexampled prosperity for the districts of European
Russia, caused partly by the freedom and encouragement given by the Government
to all industrial undertakings and partly by the opening up of new markets for
local produce in the eastern provinces of Russia and Siberia. During the last
forty years, the population of Russian Poland has almost doubled, rising from
4,764,446 in 1858 to 9,445,943 in 1897. From an agricultural point of view, 1898
was an especially good year. The yield of the different cereals was estimated as
follows: Wheat, 25,241,880 bushels, or 20 per cent more than 1897; rye, 117,094,400
bushels, or 10 per cent more than 1897; barley lo per cent and oats 40 per cent more
than 1897.

Great progress was made in the textile industry, especially in cotton and linen.
On account of its cheapness, much more American cotton is now imported than
formerly, though the Egyptian is used for the finer numbers.

Warsaw is the principal center of the tanning industry in Russia. The total
value of the output of forty-seven tanneries is over 7,000,000 rubles ($3,605,000). In
close connection with the tanning industry comes the manufacture of boots and
shoes. These are famous all over Russia for their lightness, cheapness, and dura-
bility. On account of the cheapness of labor, the machine-made article can not
compete with the handmade.

There is an opening for agricultural machinery, owing to the increasing diffi-
culty of finding farm laborers, and also to the fact that the peasants prefer to work
in factories or to go abroad, where wages are higher. From statistics published by
the committee of Russian sugar manufacturers, the production of beet root was
116,539,850 cwts. in 1898, as against 121,326,420 cwts. in 1897. The area under
cultivation was much greater; but. owing to the sudden cold in October, there was
a partial failure of the crop.

In the iron and steel industry, the supply does not equal the demand. The
total production of iron for 1898 is put down as follows:



Description.



Lithuania ...

Poland

All Russia..,



Quantity.



Poods.

6a, 700
15,887,31a
i33iOOo,ooo



Pounds.

2,264,222

573 » 722 > 61 I

4,802,896,000



The import of iron from abroad during the first six months of 1898 was 16,824,-
000 poods (607,548,288 pounds). All works are overwhelmed with orders, some
having contracts for five or six years ahead; so that terms for delivery are in
many cases twelve to eighteen months. The United States, owing to its shorter



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758 FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS.

terms for delivery, is commencing to compete successfully in machinery, tools, and
rails.

During the year i8g8, there was a steady rise in the price of coal, due not to its
scarcity, but to the rapid industrial development of the country and to the fresh
demand created by the new forest preservation act, according to which railway
engines are no longer allowed to use wood fuel. The output of the Polish coal pits
was 4,026,883 tons in 1898, an increase of 11. 3 per cent over the preceding year.
The Government has decided to use British coal for railways, of which there are
1,200 miles in operation.

Bicycles in Siam. — The Moniteur Oflficiel du Commerce of
Paris, in its edition of April 27, 1899, says:

Almost simultaneously, American and English firms have placed numerous
models of their manufactures on the market at Bangkok. At the present time, not
only is the bicycle met everywhere in the streets of the capital, but it has also pen-
etrated into the interior. Europeans are not the only ones seen on bicycles; the
Siamese and even the Chinese, in spite of the inconvenience of their form of dress,
have readily adopted this mode of locomotion. The success of the bicycle ^s gen-
eral in the Orient. The majority of machines now used in Siam are American,
English, or German makes; a few French and Belgian are also seen. The demand
for American wheels is strong, as they have the reputation of solidity as well as
cheapness. These are the two conditions of success on the Bangkok market. A
machine of 14 kilograms (30.8 pounds) is considered too heavy in Siam, where the
heat is excessive. Wooden fellies will not resist the action of the air and the damp-
ness of the climate. Rubber pedals are preferred, as many Siamese and Japanese
ride without shoes or sandals. All machines should be accompanied by duplicate
parts. The import duty on bicycles in Siam is 3 per cent ad valorem. The import-
ers are: Schmidt, Fertch et Cie.; the firm Kiam Hoa Heng et Cie.; Ch. Knider;
Falk & Beidek; P. Arinet; Lake & Co.; and Alibhai & Chandafhai.



United States Competition in the Argentine Republic. — The

following paragraph is from a letter from Buenos Ayres to the Brit-
ish Trade Journal, London, April i, 1899:

American competition is very keen. There are a number of American houses
here which do a large business and are very much in evidence by their energetic
and enterprising methods. Some of these houses sell on commission, on a large
scale, in the following manner: They have a connection with a New York house of
good standing, through whom they make transactions. The New York house gen-
erally being influential can obtain goods on credit, and samples of these are sent
to the Buenos Ayres house; or, if the articles are not too bulky, a stock is sent on
consignment. The Buenos Ayres house has large showrooms, where a regular
museum of American articles is exhibited, such as safes, agricultural implements
and machinery of every description, bicycles, and a great variety of those ingen>
ious inventions for wiiich our trans-Atlantic cousins are famous. The greater part
of these articles are not for sale, but are merely samples sent on exhibition, and
from these local dealers place their orders. The advantages of this system are that
it brings to the notice of the dealers a large variety of goods which would never
be sold in the ordinary way. It has its disadvantages also, as prices are much
enhanced, owing to the the number of commissions that have to be paid before the
goods reach the consumer.



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FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 759

Agricultural Machines in Argentina.— The following is taken
from the Moniteur Officiel du Commerce, Paris, March 23, 1899:

The rapid development of the cultivation of cereals and lucern grass in the
Argentine Republic has made an important opening for agricultural machines of
every kind. The following table shows the machines most in use in Cordoba, the
countries of production, and price:

Plows, American:

No. i}4 each... $4-34

No. 2}4 do 4.83

No. 3>^ do 6.27

Cornshellers, American:

Virginia do 27.00

Clinton (hand machine) do 5. 79

Scythes, French per dozen... $4. 83 to 5. 79

Shovels: • - .

American ~.do 6.47

English do 4.83

Picks and pickaxes:
American —

Collins do 13. 50

Colorado do 2. 60

French —

Pengeot do 3.38

Rakes,^ machine, for lucern grass (Osborn, American) each... 32.80

Hand rakes, American per dozen... 2.12

Reapers:

English —

Albion No. 5 each... 67.55

Albion No. 7 v-'-^o 77.20

American —

Osborn do 67. 55

Eureka do io6. 00

Thrashers and drillers find little sale at Cordoba. Cheap machines will find a
more ready market than high-priced ones. The rural proprietors are speculators
rather than farmers, and attach little importance to high finish and durability.



Germany in Shantung. — The following appeared in the Lon-
don and China Telegraph, London, June 12, 1899:

The negotiations between the Imperial German Government and the Shantung
Syndicate for railway and mining concessions have been concluded, and as a result
the various interested gfoups have amalgamated. The construction and working
of the railways will be carried out as much as possible with German capital. As
we have already intimated, the first line to be constructed will be that from Tsin-
tau, via Weihsien, to Tsintau-fu, with a branch line to Poshau. This line must be
finished in five years and the first portion to Weihsien in three years. Till 1908
the syndicate has the option of undertaking lines from Tsinan-fu to Ichow-fu, and
from Tsintau to Ichow-fu. The former of these two lines is hardly likely to be
carried out, now that the Anglo-German agreement with regard to the Tientsin-
Chinkiang Railway has been arrived at. The syndicate has the right to search for



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760 FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS.

minerals and apply for claims within a limit of 30 li (12 miles) on both sides of the
line. But this right must be exercised within five years and the claims must be
properly worked within ten years of their assignment to the company. The total
area taken in claims may not exceed half the area of the 3oli (12 miles) zone at the
end of twenty years. The German navy is to have a preference in the produce of
the coal mines. The railways will have to carry the Government mails free of
charge. The syndicate must allow other undertakings to build branch lines outside
of the 12-mile limit. The capital for building and working the lines has been fixed
at 54,000,000 marks ({12,852,000).

The Imperial Government has succeeded in obtaining very considerable privi-
leges for itself, as compensation for its expenses in administering the country and
in creating the harbor at Kyao-chau.

As soon as the dividend exceeds 5 per cent, the Imperial Government is to re-
ceive one-twentieth of the excess up to 7 per cent, one-tenth of the excess over 7
and under 8 per cent, and so on up to 12 per cent, after which the Govemoient
gets half the profits. After sixty years, the Government has the right to buy up the
railways.



Chamber of Commerce at Manila. — The London and China
Telegraph, London, June 12, 1899, says:

Commercial circles at Manila have taken advantage of the political and eco-
nomical reforms which are now being effected in the island in order to organize
themselves as a body, hoping thus to gain more influence and authority than has
hitherto been possible under the Spanish regime. In former times, every member
of the chamber entitled to vote had to be a Spanish subject. Foreigners were only
admitted in a consultative capacity. Recently, at the initiative of certain British
subjects, a new chamber of commerce was called into existence. The statutes coo-
tain the same stipulations as are customary with similar bodies, namely, to watch
and protect the general interests of trade and commerce, to gather information, to
give advice, and even to act as referee and arbitrator in commercial matters. It is
being managed by a committee of thirteen members, five of whom must be im-
porters and five exporters; one acts on behalf of the banks and two represent the
industrial and maritime circles, respectively. Owing to the supremacy of British
trade in the Philippines, the members of the first committee are almost exclusively
British. Altogether, the creation of the chamber of commerce signifies notable
progress and great advantage to trade and industry in the Philippines.



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IN DEX.



Vol. LX- Nos. 224, 225, 226, and 227.



Abyssinia, commerce, 755.
Academy, Vienna export, 486.
Acetylene gas and insurance, France,

384.
Act, license and stamp, Cape Colony,

393.
Aden:

Bicycles, 39.

Commercial travelers, 75.

Trade, 523.
Adulteration, coffee and chicory, Bel-
gium, 189.
Africa:

Gold Coast, trade, 584.

Madagascar, taxes, 527.

Senegal, commerce, 585.

Soudan, opening up, 395.
Africa, East:

Louren9o Marquez, hardware, 382.

Louren^o Marquez, tonnage dues,
526.
Africa, South:

Cape Colony, debts, collection, 169.

Cape Colony, license and stamp act,

393.
Iron, United States, trade notes, 370.
Natal, coal, 375.
Natal, imports, 371.
Natal, tea, 378.
Trade and industries, 176.
Trade and trade openings, 368.
Transvaal, consumption of goods,

525.
Transvaal, gold, 581.
Transvaal, harness and saddlery,

695.

Transvaal, patent medicines, 695.

Transvaal, trade conditions, 178.

Transvaal, United States manufac-
tures, 694.

Wheat, fiour, and canned meats, 692.
Africa. West, United Sutes trade. 526.



Agricultural conditions, Paraguay, 363.
Agricultural machines, Argentine Re-
public, 759.
Agricultural products, Siberia. 231.
Agriculture and live stock. New South

Wales, 689.
Agriculture and trade, Uruguay <i898),

528.
Agriculture, Minas Geraes, 551.
Alaska, gold mining, 705.
Algeria:

Grasshoppers, 749.

Wine production, 392.
Alkali trade. Great Britain, 283.
Allen, H. N. (consul-general, Seoul):

Commercial travelers, Korea, 73.

Trade, Korea (1898), 411.
A Isace-Lorrai ne :

Phylloxera, 201.

Textile industry, decline, 268.
Anderson, W. K. (consul, Hanover):

Beet-sugar consumption, Germany,
655.

Car couplers, automatic, Europe,
516.

Coffee trade, Hamburg, 257.

Shipbuilding, Germany, 515.
Antigua:

Malt liquors, 367.

Tariff changes, 199.
j Antwerp:

Education, commercial, 289.

Ivory market, 743.

Rice exports to Cuba, 577.
Arabia:

Aden, bicycles, 39.

Aden, commercial travelers, 75.

Aden, trade, 523.
Argentine Republic:

Agricultural machines, 759.

Railways, light, 724.

Tariff changes, 345.

761



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762



INDEX.



Argentine Republic — Continued.
Tariff changes (correction), 583.
Trade and ocean freight rates, 141.
United States competition, 758.
Artificial cotton, Austria, 572.
Atwell, W. P. (commercial agent, Rou-
baix):
Cloth pressing by electricity, France,

120.
Copper production and consump-
tion (1898), 256.
Expositions, United States goods,

France, 93.
Wool market, world's, and United
States, log.
Australasia, trade conditions, 401.
Australia:

Butter trade, 388.

Cable to Canada, 391.

New South Wales, agriculture and

live stock, 689.
New South Wales, coal trade, 192.
Austria:

Cotton, artificial, 572.
Cotton spinning, 482.
Export conditions, 482.
Linen industry, 483.
Rubber overshoes, 236.
Vienna export academy, 486.
Austria-Hungary, Prague, trade, 652.
Austrian view, United States trade com-
petition, 107.
Auto cars, Scotland, 630.
Automatic car couplers, Europe, 516.
Automobile regulations, France, 251.
Automobiles:
Paris, 455.

Revised regulations, France, 579.
Avery, W. L. (consul, Belize), postal
money-order service between British
Honduras and United States, 578.
Axes and dolls, Paraguay, 562.

Baehr, M. J. (consul, Kehl):

Beer, German, foreign and home

consumption, 653.
Meat, scarcity, Strassburg, 88.
Phylloxera, Alsace-Lorraine, 201.
Textile industry, Alsace-Lorraine,

decline, 268.
United States trade competition,
Austrian view, 107.
Balance of trade, Germany, 252.



Balkan Peninsula, imports from Ger-
many, 385.
Banana trade, Nicaragua, 576.
Bandinell, J. J. F. (consul, Niuchwang).

nuts, China, 64.
Bank, Paraguayan-United States, pro-
posed, 130.
Barlow, A. D. (consul-general, Mexico
City), railways, street, Mexico Ciiy,
366.
Barnes, J. A. (consul, Cologne), labor.

West Germany, 510.
Beaupr6, A. M. (consul-general. Guate-
mala):

Debts, collection, Guatemala, 174.
Expositions, United States goods.

Guatemala. 95.
Jewelry, Guatemala, 145.
Rubber, Guatemala, 147.
Beecher, J. P. (deputy consul, Havre).

vermuth, preparation. France, 599.
Beef, whale, Korea, 413.
Beer, consumption, Spain, 112.
Beer, Germany, foreign and home con-
sumption, 653.
Beet-sugar consumption, Germany, 655.
Beet-sugar industry, 1877 to 1899, Ger-
many, 471.
Belgium:

Antwerp, education, commercial.

289.
Antwerp ivory market, 125, 743.
Antwerp, rice exports to Cuba, 577.
Brussels, electrical works, 383.
Cattle fairs, interdiction, 128.
Coffee and chicory, adulteration,

189.
Congress of life-insurance doctors.

189.
Dairy machines, demand, 745.
Debts, collection, 167.
Flour, United States, Brussels, 105.
Fruits and plants. United States.

examination, 248.
Fruits and plants. United States, re-

striction, 106.
Glucose, 584.
Insane, treatment, 393. '
Liege, exposition, international, 91.
Slate, 494.
Tax, glucose, 201.

Trade with United Sutes (1899),
647.



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INDEX.



763



Bell. G. W. (consul, Sydney):

Agriculture and live stock. New

South Wales, 68g.
Philippines, communication with,

186.
Tariflf changes, New South Wales,

71.
United States trade, Sydney, 71.
Bergh, R. S. S. (consul, Gothenburg):
Bicycles, Sweden, 35.
Tramways, Gothenburg, 572.
Bergholz, L. (consul, Erzerum), invoices,

Turkey, 751.
Berlin:

Congress for suppression of tuber-
culosis, 188.
Motor-carriage exposition, 250.
Berries, market, England, 392.
Beutelspacher, G. (commercial agent,
Moncton), coal. New Brunswick, 338.
Bicycle trade:
Canada, 696.
United States, obstacles, France,

383.
Bicycles:

Aden, 39.

Foreign countries, 33.

La Rochelle, 34.

Madagascar, 40, 41.

Rheims, 33.

Siam, 758.

Straits Settlements, 41.

Sweden, 35.

Switzerland, 37.

United States, wanted, France, 197.
Bittinger, J. L. (consul-general, Mon-
treal):

Dairy products, Canada, 17.

Telephone service, Canada, 341.
Blom, J. (vice and deputy consul, Co-
penhagen):

Boots and shoes. United States, Den-
mark, 237.

Cable to Iceland and Greenland, pro-
posed, 574.
Blotting paper, Netherlands, 273.
Board contracts, Germany, 200.
Bohemia, trade in Prague, 652.
Bolivia:

Exports, mineral, 356.

Trade, 398.
Bolts and nuts, United States, Scotland,
249.



Boots and shoes:

Scotland, 631.

United States, Denmark, 237.
Bottles, Mexico, 156.
Bourse of Commerce, Paris, 569.
Boxes, orange, Syria, 186.
Boyle, J. (consul, Liverpool):

Certificates of identification, Spain,
182.

Diseases, tropical, study. Great
Britain, 500.

Locomotives, United States, Eng-
land, 98.

Motor-vehicle competition, Liver-
pool, 183.

Shipping and shipbuilding. Great
Britain, 274.
Brandy making, France, 265.
Brass and copper:

Jamaica, 735.

Japan, 683.
Bray, J. T. (consul-general, Melbourne),

trade conditions, Australasia, 401.
Brazil:

Coal, bids, 351.

Commerce and industries, i.

Minas Geraes, agriculture, 551.

Minas Geraes, diamond and gold
mining, 53s.

Minas Geraes, immigration and pop-
ulation, 552.

Monazite concession, 143.

Para, trade, 349.

Rio de Janeiro, textile trade, 206.

Steamship trust, 575.

Tariflf changes, 199.
Brazil, northern, notes, 352.
Bread, potato, for horses, Germany, 385.
Breslau, railways, electric, 254.
Breweries, Jamaica, 577.
British and United States trade, China,

hindrances, 325.
British Columbia:

Lumber industry, 697.

Mineral production, 703.

Mining and trade, 697.

Mining laws, 529.

Salmon canneries, 578.

Shipping, demand, 746.

Trade openings, 709.
British Guiana:

Debts, collection, 171.

Shoe trade, 669.



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764



INDEX.



British Honduras, postal money-order

service with United States, 578.
Brodowski, E. Z. (consul, Solingen),

knife shields, Germany, 751.
Broom handles, Great Britain, 282.
Brush, H. W. (consul, Clifton):
Canadian ocean traflSc, 579.
Klondike, gold output (1899), 582.
Market for berries, England, 392.
Petroleum, freight charges, Can-
ada, 184.
Postal changes, Canada, 344.
Tariff changes, Canada, 199.
Telegraph line, Dawson: Yukon,
temperature, 190.
Brussels, electrical works, 383.
Bryan, C. P. (minister, Petropolis), dia-
mond and gdld mining, MinasGeraes,

S35.
Buchanan, W. I. (minister, Buenos
Ayres):

Freight rates, ocean, and trade, Ar-
gentine Republic, 141.
Tariff changes, Argentine Republic,

345. 583.
Buck, A. E. (minister, Tokyo), Japan,

tariff conventions with Germany and

France, 48.
Building material, new. Germany, 571.
Butter trade, Australia, ^88.

Cable, Canadian-Australian, 391.
Cable to Iceland and Greenland, pro-
posed, 574.
Cake, United States, linseed, criticism,

Scotland, 386.
Calendar, Russian, change, 750.
Canada:

Bicycle^ trade, 696.

British Columbia, lumber industry,

697.
British Columbia, mineral produc-
tion, 703.
British Columbia, mining and trade,

697.
British Columbia mining laws,

529.
British Columbia, salmon canneries,

578.

British Columbia, shipping, de-
mand, 746.

Cable to Australia, 391.

Dairy products, 17.



Canada — Continued.

Dawson City, sanitary condition,

390.

Dawson, telegraph line, 190.

Forests, 335.

Klondike gold output (1899), 582.

Klondike, notes, 705.

Machinery, United States milling.
198.

Mineral production (1898). 334.

New Brunswick coal, 337.

Ocean traffic, 579.

Petroleum, freight charges, 184,

Postal changes, 344.

Tariff changes, 199.

Telephone service, 341.

Yukon, indigent sick, 190.

Yukon, notes, 338.

Yukon, temperature, 190.

Yukon, warning to investors, 191.
Canada, W. W. (consul, Veracruz), cot-
ton mill, new, Mexico, 747.
Canal dredge, Russia, 79.
Canals, Milan, 200.

Candles, exports from Netherlands to
Philippine Islands, Cuba, and Puerto
Rico, 520.
Candy, coloring, Germany, 118.
Canton-Hankau Railway, survey, 3ou.
Canned meats. South Africa, 693.
Canneries, salmon, British Columbia,

578.
Canvas, Paraguay, 129.
Cape Colony:

Debts, collection, 169.

License and stamp act, 393.
Car couplers, automatic, Europe, 516.
Carriage and wagon factory, Mexico,

158.
Carriage, motor, exposition, Berlin, 250.
Cars, auto, Scotland, 630.
Castor-oil plant, India, 686.
Cattle:

Paraguay, 564.

Uruguay, 135.
Cattle fairs, interdiction, Belgium, 12S.
Cement, Scotland, 632.
Cereal harvest, European Russia, 80.
Certificates of identification, Spain, 182.
Ceylon, State railways, 586.
Chamber of commerce:

Hamburg, report, 115.

Manila, 760.



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INDEX.



;65



Chambers, J. C. (consul, Batum), petro-
leum trade, Russia, 209.
Chart of Russia, Paris exposition, 392.
Cheese, exports from Netherlands to



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