United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor United States. Bureau of Foreign Commerce.

Consular reports, Issues 268-271 online

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The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to October i, 1902, have
been prepared to assist in computing the values in American money of the trade,
prices, values, wages, etc., of and in foreign countries, as given in consular and other
reports. The series of years are given so that computations may be made for each
year in the proper money values of such year. In hurried computations, the reduc-
tions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter for how many years,
are too often made on the bases of latest valuations. All computations of values,
trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the "fluctuating-currency countries" should be
made in the values of their currencies in each year up to and including 1898, and in
the quarterly valuations thereafter.

XI



Digitized by LjOOQIC



XII VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 1875-1877, 1879-
1882, 1S84-1887, 1895, and 1897 are omitted, these years being selected as show-
ing the least fluctuations when compared with years immediately preceding and
following.

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are divided into three
classes, viz: (A) countries with fixed currencies, (B) countries with fluctuating cur-
rencies, and (C) quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies.



Digitized by LjOOQ IC



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.



XIII



A. — Countries with fixed currencits.

The following official (United States Treasury) valaations of f oreifirn coins do not include ** rates of
exchange."



Countries.



Sundard.



Argentine Republic. Gold and silver..



Austria-Hungary*..

Belgium

Brazil



British North Amer-
ica (except New-
foundland).

British Honduras.....

Chile.-..



Gold

Gold and silver.

Gold

.do



Costa Rica.»
Cuba



Denmark..
Ecuador t .



Egypt.».

Finland .
France ..



Germany

Great Britain..



Greece .



Haiti ....
IndUt-



luly.



Japan f

Uberia

Netherlands......

Newfoundland .
Peru I

Portugal

Russia^



Spain

Sweden and Norway.
Switzerland



Turkey

Uruguay ....
Venezuela...



xio.,

.do.



Ao

Gold and silver.



Gold ...
Ao.



..«xio .



Ao

Gold and silver..



Gold ,-.
Ao.,



Gold and silver..



Ao.

Gold ...



Gold and silver.



Gold

....«xio

Gold and silver..

Gold

.do



...do ..
...do.,



Gold and silver.

Gold

Gold and silver.



Gold

Ao

Gold and silver.



Monetary unit.



Value in
U.S.goldJ



Peso..



Crown...
Franc ...
Milreis .
Dollar...



.do.,

Peso



Colon...
Peso....



Crown..
Sucre....



Pound (loo pias-
ters).



Mark...
Franc .



Mark

Pound sterling..



Drachma..



Gourde...
Rupee....



Lira.,



Yen

Dollar..
Florin ..

Dollar..
Sol



Milreis .,»
Ruble ....



Peseu..

Crown..
Franc ..



Piaster ..

Peso

Bolivar..



$0.96,5

.20,3
.I9i3
.54,6
z.oo

z.oo

.36.5
.46,5

.92,6

.26,8

.48,7

4-94.3

• iq,3

•19.3

.23,8
4.86,6J^



.96,5
.32,4

•19.3

.49.8
1. 00
.40,2

z.oz,4
.48.-

Z.08
.51,5

.19.3
.26,8
.19.3

•04.4

1-03,4

•19.3



Coins.



Gold— argentine ($4-82,4) and
K argentine; silver— peso
and divisions.

Gold — 20 crowns ($4.05,2) and
10 crowns.

Gold— zo and 20 franc pieces;
silver— 5 francs.

Gold— 5, zo, and 20 milreis; sil-
ver— >s, z, and 2 milreis.



Gold — escudo ($z.25), doubloon
($3-65). and condor ($7.30);
silver— peso and divisions.

Gold — 2, 5, zo, and 20 colons; sil-
ver — 5,zo,25,and socentisimos.

(Jold — doubloon ($5.oz,7); sil-
ver—peso (60 cents).

Gold — zo and ao crowns.

(Jold- zo sucres ($4.8665); sil-
ver — Sucre and divisions.

Gold — zo, 20, 50, and i(» pias-
ters; silver— z, 2, zo, and 20
piasters.

Gold— zo and 20 marks ($z.93
and $3.85,9).

Gold — 5, zo, 20, 50, and zoo
francs; silver— 5 francs.

Gold — 5, zo, and 20 marks.

Gold— sovereign (pound ster-
ling) and half sovereign.

Gold — 5, zo, 20, 50, and zoodrach-
mas; silver— 5 drachmas.

Silver— gourde.

Gold— sovereign ($4.8665); sil-
ver-rupee and divisions.

Gold — 5, zo, 20, so, and zoo lire;
silver— 5 lire.

Gold— z, 2, 5, zo, and 20 yen.

Gold— zo florins; silver— 5^, x»
and 2^ florins.

Gold— $2 ($2.02,7).

Gold— libra ($4.8665); silver— sol
and divisions.

Gold— z, 2, 5, and 10 milreis.

Gold— imperial ($7,718) and %
imperial (lv8o); silver— 5<, J^,
and z ruble.

Gold— 25 pesetas; silver— 5 pese-
tas.

Gold — zo and 20 crowns.

Gold — 5, zo, 20, 50, and zoo
francs; silver— 5 francs.

Gold— 25, 50, zoo, 200, and 500
piasters.

Gold— peso; silver— peso and
divisions.

Gold— 5, zo, 20, 50, and zoo boli-
vars; silver— 5 bolivars.



•The gold standard went into effect January z, z9oo(sce Commercial Relations, Z899, Vol. II, p. 7).
Values are still sometimes expressed in the florin, which is worth 2 crowns.

t Gold sundard adopted in November, Z900. (See Consular Reports No. 225, June, 1899.)

X For an account of the adoption of the gold standard, see Consular Rrports No. 238, p. 359.

f GoU sundard adopted October z, Z897. (See Consular Reports No. 20Z, p. 259.)

I Gold sundard adopted October zj, Z900.

^For an account of the adoption of the gold sundard, see Review of the World's Commerce,
x896-^, p. aS4. Digitized by VjVJ^V IC



XIV



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.



B. — Countries with fluctuating^ currencies^ i874-i8g8.



Countries.



Austria-Hungary*.
Bolivia



Central America...

China

Colombia

Ecuador

Egypt t



India

Japan |

Mexico

Netherlands^



Peru

Russia...
Tripoli .



Standard.



Silver .
.do..



^o .

.do.

.do.

.do.

Gold ...



Silver

Gold *

Silver \

.do..;

Gold and
Silver.

Silver

.do

.do



Monetary unit.



Florin

Dollar until
1880; bolivi-
ano there-
after.

Peso

Haikwan tael..

Peso ,

.do

Pound (100
piasters).

Rupee.

Yen ]

Dollar

Florin.

Sol

Ruble

Mahbub of 20
piasters.



Value in terms of the United Sutes gold dollar
on January 1—


1874.

|o.47,6
.96.5

•96.5
1. 61

.96.5
.96,5


1878,

$0.45.3
.96.5

.91,8


.883.


1888.


1889.


1890.


$0.40,1
.81,2


$0.34.5
.69,9

.69,9


$0.33.6
.68

.68


$0.4^

.85

.85






.96.5

.91.8

4.97.4

.43.6
•99.7


.81. J
.81, a
4.90

.38,6


.69,9

.69,9

4.94,3

.32.2

•99,7
.75.3
.75,9


.68
.68


•85
.85


.45.8
.99,7


.32.3
•99,7
.73.4
.73,9


.40.4
•99.7
.91,7
•92,3


.87,6
.88,2


1.04,75
•40,5

• 9^,5
•77,17
.87,09


.99.8
.38.5

.91,8
.73.4
• 82,9


.81,2

.65

•73,3


.69,9
•55,9
.63


.68

.54.4

.61,4


.85
.68
.76,7



Countries.



Austria-Hungary*.

Bolivia

Central America

Colombia

Ecuador

India

JapanJ

Mexico

Peru

Russia!

Tripoli



Sundard.



Silver .,

xlo.

Ao.

.do.

.do.,

xlo.

.do.

xlo.

Ao.

.do.

^o.



Monetary unit.



Florin

Boliviano

Peso

Ao

Ao

Rupee.

Yen

Dollar

Sol

Ruble

Mahbub of 20
piasters.



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar
on January i —



1891.

0.38,1
.77,1
77,1
• 77,1
.77,1
.36.6
.83.1
.83.7
.77.1
.61,7
.69,5



1892.


1893.


1894.


1896.


189S.


$0.34,1

•69.1










$0.61,3


$0.51,6


$0.49.1


$0.42.4


•69.1


.61.3


.51,6


.49.1


•41*4


.69,1


.61,3


.51,6


.49,1


.42.4


.69.1


.61,3


.51,6


.49.1


.42,4


.3^,8


.29,2


.24.5


.23.3


.20,I


.74.5

•75


.66,1


.55.6
.56


.52,9
.53.3




.66.6


•46


.69.1
.55,3
.62.3


.61,3
.49,1
•55.3


.51,6
.41,3
.46.5


•49.1
.39.3
.44.3


.42*4






* See footnote, page xiii.

tThe Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887.

tThe Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year 1880, when it became fixed at 40.2 cents.

% See footnote, table of fixed currencies.



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VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES.



XV



C. — Quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies.









Z9oa






1901.




Countries.


Moneury unit.


































Silver boliviano.


Jan. 1.

$0.42,7
.42.7

.69,1
.68.9


April 1.


July I.


Oct. 1.

$0.45.1
.45.1

.72,9
.72,7


Jan. I.


April I.


July ,.

$0.43.6
.43.6

.70,5
.70.3


Oct. I.


Bolivia


$0.43.6
.43.6

.70.5
•70,3


$0.43.8
.43.8

.70,9
.70,7


$0.46,8
.46,5

■75.7
• 75,5


$0.45.1
■45.'

.72,9
.72,7


$0.42,8
.42,8

.69.1
.68,9


Central Amer-


Silver oeso


ica.


Afnoy t^^el -r rt-




Cantontael.«




Chefoo uel


.66,1


.67.4


.67.8


.69.7


.72,4


.69.7


•67.4


.66,1




Chinkiang uel ..


.67.5


.68,8


.69,3


.71,2


•74


.71,2


.68.8


.67.5




Fucbau uel


■64


.65,2


.65.6


*67,4


.70,1


.67,5


.65.2


•64




Haikwan Uel...


.70,3


•71.7


.72,1


•74.2


•77.1


•74.2


.71.7


•70,4


China


Hankau Uel


•64.7


.65.9


.66,3


.68,2


.70,9


.68,2


.65.9


.64.7


Hongkong Uel..


(•)


(♦)


(♦)


(♦)


(*)


(•)


(♦)


(•)




Ningpo uel


.66,5


.67.7


.68,2


.70,1


.72,8


.70,1


.67,8


.66,5




NiuchwangUel.


.64.8


.66,x


.66,5


.68.4


.71


• 68,4


.66,1


.64,8




Shanghai tael....


.63.1


.64,4


.64.8


.66,6


.69,2


.66,6


•64,4


.63.2




Swatow tael


•63.9


.65.1


.65.5


.67.4


.70


.67,4


.65.x


• 63,9




Takao Uel


.69,6


.70,9


• 71.4


•73,4


• 76,2


■73.4


.70,9


.69,6




Tientsin uel


.67


.68,3


.68,7


.70,7


.73.4


.70,7


.68,3


.67


Colombia


Silver pcaa

Ao


.42,7


.43,6


.43,8


•45.1


.46,8


.45.1


.43.6


.42.8


Ecuador t


India


Silver rupees

Silver dollar


.20,3

.46,4
.07,9
• 42,7


.20,7

.47,3
08


. .20,8
.47.6
08 I












Mexico


.49

.08,3

.48,7


.50,9
.08,6


•49
.08,3


.49
.08,3


.46,4
.07,9


Persia


Silver kran.


Perut


Silver sol


.43.6


.43.8















Countries.



Bolivia

Central America..



China..



Colombia
Mexico ...
Persia ....



MoneUry unit.



Silver boliviano.

Silver pesa..

Amoy Uel

Canton Uel

Chefoo Uel

Chinkiang Uel.

Fuchau uel

Haikwan Uel...

Hankau uel ,

Hongkong tael

Ningpo ueL

Niuchwang Uel
Shanghai Uel...

Swatow Uel

Takao uel

Tientsin tael

Silver peso

Silver dollar ,

Silver kran



Jan. I,


1902.


Oct. I.


April I.


July I.


$o^4i.3


$0.40,3


$0.38,2


$0.38.4


-41,3


.40,3


.38,2


.38.4


.66,9


•65.1


.61,8


.62


.66,7


.64,9


.61,7


.61,9


.63.9


.62,3


.59,1


.59.3


.65.3


.63,6


.60,4


.60,6


.61,8


.60,2


.57.2


•57,4


.68


.66.3


.62,9


•63.1


.62,6


.60,9


•57,9


.58


(♦)


(*)


(*)


(•)


-64,3


.62,6


• 59.5


• 59.6


.62,7


.61,1


.58


.58,2


.61,1


.59.5


.56,5


.56,7


.61,8


.60,2


• 57,1


.57.3


.67.3


.65,5


.62,2


.62.4


.64.8


.63.1


.59.9


.60,1


.41.3


• 40,3


•38,2


.38.4


•44.9


•43.7


.41,5


41.7


.07,6


•07,4


■07


.07,1



Jan. I.



$0.36,1
36.1
58,4
S8.2
55.8
57
54

59.4
54.6
(♦)
56,1
53.3
53.9
58,8
56,6
60,1
36.1
39.2
06,6



April I.

$0.35.2
.35.2

• 57
.56,8
•54.5
.55.7
.52.7
.58

• 53,3

.54.8

•53.4

.52

.52,6

.57.3

.55,2

.35,2

■38,3

.06,5



(•



*Thc ''British dollar" has the same legal value as the Mexican dollar in Hongkong, the Straits
Settlements, and Labuan.

t Sec footnote, table of fixed currencies.

$Thc sovereign is the sUndard coin of India, but the rupee is the money of account. Sec also
table of fixed ci rrencies.



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Google



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



The following table embraces only such weights and measures as
are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commer-
cial Relations:

Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents.



Denominations.



Where U8cd.



Almude .
Ardeb....
Arc



Arobe

Arratel or libra

Arroba (dry)

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Arroba (liquid).^....

Arshine

Arshine (square)...

Ariel

Baril

Barrel

Do

Berkovets

Bongkal

Bouw

Bu

Butt (wine)

Caffiso

Candy

Do.„

Canur

Do

Do

Cantaro (cantar)...

Carga

Catty

Do*

Do

Do

Centaro

Centner

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Do

Chetvert.«

Chlh...



Portugal 4.422 gallons.

Egypt 7-6907 bushels.

Metric 0.02471 acre.

Paraguay 25 pounds.

Portugal.^ i.oii pounds.

Argentine Republic 25.3175 pounds.

Brazil 32.38 pounds.

Cuba 25-3664 pounds.

Portugal 32-38 pounds.

Spain ' 25.36 pounds.

Venezuela 25.4024 pounds.

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela. 4.263 gallons.



American equivalents.



Russia..

.do

Morocco

Argentine Republic and Mexico..

Malta (customs)

Spain (raisins)..



28 inches.
5.44 square feet
1. 1 a pounds.
20.0787 gallons.
Z1.4 gallons.
100 pounds.



Russia.. ' 361.12 pounds.



India...

Sumatra

Japan

Spain

Malta

India (Bombay)

India (Madras)

Morocco

Sjrria (Damascus)

Turkey

Malu .^

Mexico and Salvador.

China

Japan

Java, Siam, and Malacca.....

Sumatra

Central America

Bremen and Brunswick

Darmstadt

Denmark and Norway

Nuremberg

Prussia

Sweden

Vienna

Zollverein

Double or metric.

Russia

China ;



832 grains.

7,096.5 square meters.

o.z inch.

140 gallons.

5.4 gallons.

529 pounds.

500 pounds.

Z13 pounds.

575 pounds.

124.7036 pounds.

175 pounds.

300 pounds.

i.333>^(iM) pounds.

Z.31 pounds.

z. 35 pounds.

2.12 pounds.

4.263Z gallons.

117.5 pounds.

110.24 pounds.

no. II pounds.

112.43 pounds.

113.44 pounds.
93.7 pounds.
123.5 pounds.
1x0.24 pounds.
aao.46 pounds.
5.7748 bushels,
Z4 inches.



•More frequently called
avoirdupois.
XVI



'kin.*' Among merchants in the treaty ports it equals 1.33M pounds



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



XVII



Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Where used.



Coyan...

Do

Cuadra.

Do

Do

Do...

Cubic meter

Cwt. (hundredweight)

Deasiatine

Do

Drachme.»

B^ptian weights and measures....
Fanega (dry)

Do

Do

Do

Do



Do

Do

Do

Fanega (liquid)..

Feddan

Frail (raisins)

Frasco

Do

Frasila.

Fuder

Funi

Gamice ....

Gram

Hectare

Hectoliter:

Dry

Liquid

Joch

Ken

Kilogram (kilo)..

Kilometer

Klafter

Koku

Korree

Kwan

Last

Do

Do



Sarawak

Siam (Koyan)

Argentine Republic

Paraguay

Pa ragxiay (square)

Uruguay

Metric

British

Russia ,

Spain.

Greece

(.S"*-^ Consular Rkports No. 144.)

Central America

Chile

Cuba ,

Mexico ,

Morocco ,



Uruguay (double)

Uruguay (single)

Venezuela

Spain

Egypt

Spain

Argentine Republic.

Mexico

Zanzibar

Luxemburg

Russia

Russian Poland

Metric

/io



.do

.do

Austria-Hungary

Japan

Metric

Jio

Russia .*.

Japan

Russia

Japan

Belgium and Holland-
England (dry malt).......

Germany



Do

Do

Do

League (land)..
Li



American equivalents.

3,098 pounds.
2,667 pounds.
4.2 acres.
78.9 yards.
8.077 square feet.
Nearly 2 acres!
35.3 cubic feet.
112 pounds.
2.6997 acres.
1.599 bushels.
Half ounce.

1-5745 bushels.
2.575 bushels.
z. 599 bushels.
1.54728 bushels.
Strike fanega, 70 lbs.;
full fanega, ti8 lbs.
7.776 bushels.
3.888 bushels.
1.599 bushels.
16 gallons.
X.03 acres.
50 pounds.
2.5096 quarts.
2.5 quarts.
35 pounds.
264.17 gallons,
o 9028 pound.
0.88 gallon.
15-4.32 grains.
2.471 acres.

2.838 bushels.

26.417 gallons.

1.422 acres.

6 feet.

2.2046 pounds.

0.621376 mile.

216 cubic feet.

4.9629 bushels.

3.5 bushels.

8.28 pounds.

85.134 bushels.

82.52 bushels.

2 metric tons (4,480

pounds).

112.29 bushels.

11^ bushels.



Libra (pound)....
Do



Do...
Do...
Do...
Do...
Do...
Do...
Do...
Do...



No 268 03 B



j Prussia

Russian Poland ,

I Spain (salt) ] 4,760 pounds.

I Paraguay I 4,633 acres.

I China. I 2,115 feet.

Argentine Republic 1 1.0127 pounds.

I Central America i.o43pounds.

' Chile • 1.014 pounds.

I Cuba I 1.0161 pounds.

Mexico I 1.01465 pounds.

I Peru I 1.0143 pounds.

I Portugal I i.oii pounds.

Spain I 1.0144 pounds.

I Uruguay 1-0143 pounds.

> Venezuela t 1.0161 pounds.



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XVIII



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



Foreign weights and measures ^ with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Where used.



Liter i Metric...

Livre (pound) | Greece.

Do

Load.~~



Guiana

England (timber)...



Manzana.

Do

Marc :

Maund

Meter

Mil

Do

Milla

Morgen

Oke

Do

Do

Do

Do Hungary and Wallachia..

Pic I Eg>'pt

Picul I Borneo and Celebes

Do China, Japan, and Sumatra...

Do I Java

Do Philippine Islands.



Cosu Rica.

Nicaragua and Salvador....

Bolivia

India

Metric

Denmark.

Denmark (geographical)....
Nicaragua and Honduras..

Prussia

Egypt

Greece

Hungary

Turkey..



American equivalents.

1.0567 quarts.

X.I pounds.

Z.0791 pounds.

Square, 50 cubic feet;
unhewn, 40 cubic feet;
inch planks, 600 super-
ficial feet.

if acres.

1.727 acres.

0.507 pound.

82! pounds.

39.37 inches.

4.68 miles.

4.61 miles.

1.1493 miles.

0.63 acre.

2.7225 pounds.

3.84 pounds.

3.0817 pounds.

2.82838 pounds.

3.5 pints.

21 J^ inches.

135.64 pounds.

»33>^ pounds.

135. 1 pounds.

137.9 pounds.



Argentine Republic _ 0.9478 foot.

Spain. 0.91407 foot.



Pic

Do

Pik.

Pood

Pund (pound)

Quarter

Do

Quintal Argentine Republic

Do I Brazil

Do I Castile,* Chile, Mexico, and Peru

Do ] Greece

Do I Newfoundland (fish).

Do

Do



Turkey...

Russia.

Denmark and Sweden-
Great Briuin.

London (coal)



Paraguay .
Syria



Do..



Metric.



Rottle I Palestine..

Do

Sagene

Salm

Se

Seer

Shaku

Sho

Standard (St. Petersburg)

Stone.

Suerte



Syria

Russia

Malu

Japan

India

Japan

Ao

Lumber measure..

British

Uruguay



Sun I Japan .^..

Tael I Cochin China

Tan I Japan

To Ao

Ton I Space measure

Tonde (cereals) ' Denmark.

Tondeland xlo

♦Although the metric weights are used officially in Spain, the Castile quinul is employed in com
merce in the Peninsula and colonies, save in Caulonia; the Caulan quintal equals 91.71 pounds.



27.9 inches.
36. 1 12 pounds
Z.102 pounds.
8.252 bushels.
36 bushels.
101.42 pounds.
130.06 pounds.
101.41 pounds.
123.2 pounds.
1 12 pounds,
zoo pounds.
125 pounds.
220.46 pounds.

6 pounds.
5^ pounds.

7 feet.

490 pounds.

0.02451 acres.

1 pound 13 ounces.

> 1-9305 inches.

Z.6 quarts.

165 cubic feet.

14 pounds.

3,700 cuadras (see cua-

dra).
1. 193 inches.
590- 75 grains (troy).
0.25 acre.
3 pecks.
40 cubic feet.
3.94783 bushels.
X.36 acres.



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FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.



XIX



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued.



Denominations.



Where used.



Tsubo

T«un.

Tunna

Xunnland .
Vara

Do

Do

Do



Japan

China

Sweden.

Sweden

Argentine Republic.

Central America

Chile and Peru.

Cuba



Do ' Curafao..



Do....

Do....

Do....

Do....

Vcdro

Vergect..

Verst

Vlocka....



Mexico

Paraguay

Spain

Venezuela

Russia

Isle of Jersey

Russia

Russian Poland..



American equivalents.



6 feet square.
1. 41 inches.
4.5 bushels.
X.33 acres.
34. zx>8 inches.
33.87 inches.
33.367 inches.
33.384 inches.
33.375 inches.

33 inches.

34 inches.
0.914117 yard.
33.384 inches.
2.707 gallons.
71. 1 square rods.
0.663 mile.
41.98 acres.



METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Metric weights.
Milligram (y^jViF gram) equals 0.0154 grain.
Centigram (yj^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain.
Decigram {^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains.
Gram equals 15.432 grains.
Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce.
Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces.
Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds.
Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds.
Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds.
Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds.

Metric dry measures.
Milliliter (y^ liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch.
Centiliter (jj^y liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch.
Deciliter {^ liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches.
Liter equals 0.908 quart.
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts.
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels.
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards.

Metric liquid measures.

Milliliter {j^tn licci*) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce.

Centiliter {^^ liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce.

Deciliter (3*5 liter)equals 0.845 gill.

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts.

Decaliter (10 liters)equals 2.6418 gallons.

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.417 gallons.

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons.

Metric measures of length.
Millimeter {^^^ meter) equals 0.0394 inch.
Centimeter (^Ju meter) equals 0.3937 inch.
Decimeter (1*5 meter) equals 3.937 inches.



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XX FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

Meter equals 39.37 inches.

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches. •

Hectometer (loo meters) equals 328 feet i inch.

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches).

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles.

Metric surface measures,

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches.
Are (100 square meters) equals 119. 6 square yards.
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres.



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CONSUI^AR REPORTS-



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC.



Vol. LXXII. MAY, 1903. No. 272.



THE RUSSIAN PETROLEUM TRADE.

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE OIL IN THE BAKU FIELDS.

The cnide-oil production of the Baku fields, for the first time
since 1894, fell off last year, leaving 1901 the record year as far as
the volume of production is concerned. The falling off was cer-
tainly not great, but it was a break in the monotony of steady
increase which has been going on for eight years, resulting in more
than doubling the production in that time.

The statistics show results only, and do not indicate any of
the causes for the falling off or give any reliable basis upon which
to predict the future. The undoubted cause of the decline in the
production was the overproduction of 1901, which was brought about
by the opening for drilling of considerable tracts of territory belong-
ing to the Russian Government. The result of this overproduc-
tion was a decline in the price of crude oil to a figure which was in
many cases less than the amount to be paid the Government as roy-
alty on the territory — to a figure, almost the whole year through,
at which the lessee of Government territory could not work without
considerable loss. The falling off from 1901 in the amount of the
production from this Government territory in 1902 was not great,
but there was little or no drilling done on it and no new work com-
menced. Few producing wells were pumped in the territory where
the royalty was excessive, and many of the wells which were drilling
No 272—03 1 I



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AUTOMOBILES IN EUROPE.



TARIFF.



The Austrian duty on automobiles, it is said, is not sufficiently
protective. It amounts to 75 g61d florins ($36.49) per piece, with the
additional duty on fine iron and steel ware of 15 gold florins ($7.31) on
220 pounds for the weight of the motor. For this reason, it is impossi-
ble to profitably undertake the building of motor carriages on for-
eign models in this country. As a consequence, only such factories
as turn out specifically Austrian types, with electric motdrs chiefly,
and styles that are not made abroad, can continue work, while the
manufacturers who construct automobiles on foreign models are
obliged to materially decrease their output, until a reform in the
present tariff has been introduced.

STYLES AND PRICES.

The demand for large, heavy wagons has diminished, and the
small, light carriage is now generally preferred. This is owing in
no small measure to the- lower cost of motor power for a lighter
wagon. The prices of automobiles are very high, as much as $6,000
to $8,000 being paid for a really fast machine, while $2,000 to $4,000 is
the average cost. The main obstacle to a lively business in this line



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