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program, to undertake, on a higlily confidential
basis, a study at Washington of the operations of
the Department's organization in 1946 for dealing
with problems of personnel security.

5. SENATOR MCCARTHY SAID : The man who makes
this report says in effect, "The only way we are going
to get rid of the other Communists is accidentally by a
reduction in the force." . . . From all the information
we have been able to obtain, none of the men who were
labeled by the FBI have been fired, but were allowed
to resign . . .

The Facts: The writer of the report said no
such thing directly or by implication. His report
dated August 3, 1946, in fact was intended to, and
did, explore the means for making existing se-
curity jirocedures more effective, especially against
the penetration of foreign intelligence agencies
into the Department of State. His reference to
reduction in force as a factor in eliminating per-
sons named on the chart was factual — but it did
not exclude otlier methods. Such other methods,
including resignation — wliich the Senator him-
self contradictorily names as tlie only method —
and firing, where investigation supported this
action, were effectively employed. No case today
remains unresolved.

6. SENATOR McCARTHY SAID: The FBI wisely re-
fused to submit top secret information to the State De-

1016



partment on these dangerous individuals . . . apparently
not trusting the State Department to that extent . . .

The Facts : The FBI has never refused to make
available to appropriate officers of the State De-
partment, through established liaison channels, in-
formation concerning State Department personnel.

7. SENATOR McCARTHY SAID: At least three of
those li.sted as Communist agents by the FBI 3 years ago
are still holding high positions in the State Depart-
ment . . . Those names are included among the 106 names
that I gave to the (Tydings) committee . . . Those names
I have checked and I know the persons are working in
tlie State Department . . . I . . . have the proof that
those men are working in the State Department as of
this very moment.

The Facts : This statement is absolutely false.
The Department of State has in its possession the
working chart itself, dated May 15, 1946. Of the
20 persons hypothesized on the chart as "agents,"
there is only one who — after thorough reinvestiga-
tion, including a full FBI investigation, and clear-
ance under the Department's loyalty and security
procedures — is still in the employ of the Depart-
ment. That one does not hold a "high position" ;
his grade is GS-9. Furthermore, that one is not on
the list of 106 Senator McCarthy gave the Tydings
Subcommittee.

8. SENATOR aicCARTHY SAID: You will note that
I am . . . only referring today to those who are listed
as Communist agents. I hope to be able to give the
Senate a complete picture of how many of the total of
106 agents, Communist sympathizers, and so forth, are
still on the State Department's pay roll . . .

The Facts : Any person among those listed on
the old 1946 working chart referred to by Senator
McCarthy who is still employed in the Depart-
ment of State has been the subject of careful in-
vestigation and has been cleared for security after
thorough study of his case either by the Division
of Security, acting with the benefit of the FBI's
information, or by the Loyalty Security Board of
the Department. Each loj'alty decision by the
Department's Loyalty Board has been post-
audited by the Loyalty Review Board, and in no
case was the recommendation of the Department's
Board changed.

9. SENATOR McCARTHY SAID: Take, for example,
case No. 1, which I presented on the Senate floor, the name
has not yet been made public, so we shall not use it now.
The Committee has the name. In that case the Loyalty
Review Board made what is known as a post-audit, and,
after looking at the post-audit, they said, "We are not
satisfied with the finding." They sent it back to the State
Department Lo.valty Board, and that Board said "The case
is closed." That man is still on the State Department
pay roll.

The Facts : Once again. Senator McCarthy's al-
leged quotations are not quotations — they are typi-
cal misstatements. The Loyalty Review Board
did not advise the Department of State that they

Department of Stale Bulletin



were "not satisfied with the finding" in this case;
they did make a procedural reconiniendation, and,
thereafter, the case was not "closed." On the con-
trary, appropriate action was taken by the State
Department Loyalty Security Board, and clear-
ance, in this case, was ajrain post-audited by the
President's Loyalty Review Board. The Loyalty
Review Board has in no way criticized or changed
the final action and findings of the Department's
Loyalty Security Board.

10. SENATOR McCarthy said-. ... in the Office
of War Information, Mr. Owen Lattimore . . . went to
bJit for one Communist . . . who had been officially turned
down by the Loyalty Board . . . and another Chinese who
had been rejected by one memtter of the Board . . .

The Facts : As the Department pointed out in
its analysis of the Senator's Rochester, New York,
speech on May 25. he now appears to be reduced
to an attempt to divert attention with 1943 Civil
Service Commission clearances for Office of War
Information employment of two Chinese.

As for Mr. Owen Lattimore, both Mr. Lattimore
himself and the Department of State have re-
peatedly reiterated that he is not an employee of
the Department.

At Wheeling, West Virginia, on February 9,
1950, Senator McCarthy asserted in a speech :



. . . While I cannot take the time to name all the men
in the State Departmc[it wlio hiive been iianifd as active
members of tlie Communi.st Party and members of a spy
ring, I have here in my hand a list of 20.') — a list of names
that were made known to the Secretary of State as being
members of the Communist Party and who neverthe-
less are still working and shaping iwlicy in the State
Department.

The next day, he said he had the names of "57
card-carrying members of the Communist Party,"
allegedly working in the Department. Later, he
talked in terms of a "big three" and of 81 security
risks of various sorts. He told the Tydings Com-
mittee to investigate 106 cases. Eventually, he
said he would stand or fall on his ability to prove
that there was one "top Soviet espionage agent"
in the State Department.

And then, on June 6, we hear of lOG names on
a 4-year-old working chart and three "agents"
purportedly still at large in the Department of
State.

But the record — the facts — speak for them-
selves: Senator McCarthy has utterly failed to
show that there is a single Communist or pro-
Communist in the State Department. His num-
bers change ; his credibility does not.



U.S. Position Remains Unchanged on Polish-German Boundary



[Released to the press June 8]

In response to inquiries, the Department of State re-
leased today the following excerpts from (1) the agreed
protocol of the Berlin conference (Potsdam Agreement of
August J, 1945) ; (2) the address hy Secretary of State
James F. Hyrnes, delivered at Stuttgart, Ovrmnny, on
September 6, 19.'i6; and (S) the statement on April 9, lOlp,
by Secretary of State George C. Marshall at the Moscow
meeting of the Council of Foreign Ministers, all relating
to the United States position regarding the question of
the final determination of Polish-Oerman boundary.
United States policy on this question remains unchanged.



POTSDAM AGREEMENT (PAR. Vill B,
WESTERN FRONTIERS OF POLAND)

In conformity with the agreement on Poland
reached at the Crimea Conference, the three heads
of government have sought the opinion of the
Polish Provisional Government of National Unity
in regard to the accession of territory in the north
and west which Poland should receive. The Presi-
dent of the National Council of Poland and mem-
bers of the Polish Provisional Government of
National Unity have been received at the confer-
ence and have fully presented their views. The
three heads of government reaffirm their opinion
that the final delimitation of the western frontier



of Poland should await the peace settlement.
The three heads of government agree that, pend-
ing the final determination of Poland's western
frontier, the former German territories east of a
line running from the Baltic Sea immediately west
of Swinemunde, and thence along the Oder River
to the confluence of the western Neisse River and
along the western Neisse to the Czechoslovak fron-
tier, including that portion of East Prussia not
placed under the administration of the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with the
understanding reached at this conference and in-
cluding the area of the former Free City of Danzig,
shall be under the administration of the Polish
State and for such purposes should not be consid-
ered as part of the Soviet zone of occupation in
Germany.



EXCERPT FROM STUTTGART ADDRESS
BY SECRETARY BYRNES

At Potsdam, specific areas which were part of
Germany were provisionally assigned to the Soviet
Union and to Poland, subject to the final decisions
of the Peace Conference. . . . With regard to Si-



June 19, 1950



1017



lesia and other eastern German areas, the assign-
ment of this territory to Poland by Russia for
administrative purposes had taken place before the
Potsdam meeting. The heads of government
agreed that, pending the final determination of
Poland's western frontier, Silesia and other east-
ern German areas should be under the administra-
tion of the Polish state and for such purposes
should not be considered as a part of the Soviet
zone of occupation in Germany. However, as the
protocol of the Potsdam conference makes clear,
the heads of government did not agree to support
at the peace settlement the cession of this partic-
ular area.

The Soviets and the Poles suffered greatly at
the hands of Hitler's invading armies. As a re-
sult of the agreement at Yalta, Poland ceded to
the Soviet Union territory east of the Curzon
Line. Because of this, Poland asked for revision
of her northern and western frontiers. The
United States will support a revision of these
frontiers in Poland's favor. However, the ex-
tent of the area to be ceded to Poland must be
determined when the final settlement is agi-eed
upon.



EXCERPTS FROM STATEMENT

BY SECRETARY MARSHALL AT MOSCOW

The time has now come for the Council of For-
eign Ministers to examine the problem of the final
determination of the Polish-German boundary.
The Potsdam protocol provided that "the final
delimitation of the western frontier of Poland
should await the peace settlement." Pending that
final settlement, about 40,000 square miles of east-
ern German territory were, at Potsdam, placed
under the administration of the Polish state.

We are agreed that Poland should receive sub-
stantial accessions of territory in the north and
west in compensation for territory acquired by the
Soviet Union east of the Curzon Line.

In the peace settlement, therefore, a substantial
revision of the prewar German frontier in Po-
land's favor is required. Our problem is how
and where to draw the final line so as to avoid
unnecessary and unjustified economic upset and
to minimize inescapable irredentist pressure in
Germany.

The area in question is very important to the
livelihood not merely of those who live there but
of many others who live in neighboring areas.
• • • . ■

A solution of the problems involved in the char-
acter and location of the Polish-German frontier
must be sought. While it will require precise and
informed investigation, the main limits to this in-
vestigation can be stated now. It will be accepted,
I think, that southern East Prussia should become
Polish territory. German Upper Silesia and its
industrial complex should also become Polish, but

1018



there should be provisions to assure that its coal
and other resources will be available to help
sustain the economy of Europe. The division of
the remaining territory which is largely agricul-
tural land, requires consideration of the needs of
the Polish and German peoples and of Europe as
a whole. Accordingly, I propose that the follow-
ing be agreed here in Moscow :

The Council of Foreign Ministers establishes a special
boundary commission to function under the direction of
the deputies. It will be composed of representatives of
the U.S.S.R., the United Kingdom, the United States,
France, and Poland, and a convenient number of other
Allied states to be designated by the Council of Foreign
Ministers. The Council of Foreign Ministers will invite
Poland and each of the designated countries to appoint
a member.

The function of the commission shall be to consider and
recommend to the Council of Foreign Ministers :

fa) A revision of the pre-war Polish-German boun-
daries which will fairly compensate Poland for tlie cession
of territory east of the Curzon Line to the Soviet Union.

(b) The economic arrangements appropriate to assure
that such raw materials and heavy industrial resources
of the area in question as are vital to European economy
shall fairly serve that need, including particularly tbe
need of Poland.

In making its recommendations, the commission shall
inquire into the report upon Polish resettlement and Ger-
man settlement in the areas in question and the best
means to assure effective utilization of such areas for the
economic well-being of the Polish and German peoples
and of Europe as a whole.



Statement on Repatriation of German Prisoners
of War From the Soviet Union

[Released to the press at London May IS]

The three Foreign Ministers have noted with sur-
prise and deep concern the Soviet statement of May
4 which declared that the repatriation of German
jn-isoners of war from the Soviet Union to Germany
has now been completed. They recall the repeated
efforts made by the three Western Occupation
Powers to secure the Soviet Government's com-
pliance witli the quadripartite agreement to repa-
triate all German prisoners of war by December 31,
1948.

The Soviet statement stands in sharp contradic-
tion with the fact that a very large number of
German families are still awaiting the return of
their relatives taken prisoner of whom they have
had direct news during their captivity in the Soviet
Union. The Ministers note furthermore the in-
consistencies among the scant data furnished at
different times by the Soviet Government concerning
the numbers, whereabouts and fate of German pris-
oners of war and deported civilians. This situation
reveals a grave disregard for human rights.

It is moreover apparent that this is not an isolated
incident since the Soviet Government has also failed
to repatriate numerous nationals of German oc-
cupied countries taken prisoner during tlie war as
well as more tlian 300,000 Japanese nationals who
still remain unaccounted for in Soviet territory.

The Ministers have agreed that they will take all
po.ssiblo steps to obtain information bearing on the
fate of prisoners of war and civilians not yet repa-
triated from the Soviet Union and to bring about
repatriation in the largest possible number of cases.



Department of State Bulletin



U.S. Rejects Czechoslovak

Sham Peace Resolution to Congress

[Released to the press May 2;}]

Following is the text of a note delivered hy Acting
Secretary Webb to the Czechoslovak Embassy today:

Tlie Actinp: Secretary of State presents his coni-
plinients to His Excellency the Ambassador of
Czechoslovakia and has the honor to refer to his
note No. 2482/50 of Ai)ril 27, 1950, transmitting
copies for forwarding to the Congress of the
United States of the text of tlie resolution adopted
by the Czechoslovak National Assembly on
February 22, 1950.

Astonished by the offensive and baseless ref-
erences to the United States contained in the reso-
lution, this Government is completely unable to
understand how one government, uttering profes-
sions of peace, could send to another government
an official communication so inconsistent with
mutual understanding and normal relations
between nations.

It is obvious that this resolution, far from
making a contribution to peace, increases the diffi-
culty of developing international amity.

The copies of the resolution transmitted by the
Embassy's note are accordingly returned herewith
as unacceptable.

* * *

On April 27, 1950, the Czechoslovak Ambassa-
dor, Dr. Vladimir Outrata, called on the Under
Secretary James E. Webb, to present a note
enclosing copies of a resolution adopted by the
Czechoslovak National Assembly on February 22
for forwarding to both Houses of Congress.

The resolution accused the "imperialist powers,"
led by the United States and Great Britain, of pur-
suing a policy of aggression and threatening world
peace in a ''desperate'' attempt to save the "crum-
bling capitalist order" and destroy "true democ-
racy," in contrast to the Soviet Union which leads
the "camp of peace and progress" ; demanded the
cessation of "imperialist production" of arms; and
called upon "all parliaments of the woi'ld" to take
a stand against war preparations and support the
"world peace movement."

Five additional demands were:

1. prohibition of production and use of atomic
and other weapons of mass destruction,

2. cessation of the "unjust" wars in Vietnam,
Malaya, and elsewhere,

3. an end to the revival of nazism and fascism
and the policy of turning Western Germany into
an "imperialist war base,"

4. an end to the persecution of "fighters for
peace" in capitalist, colonial, and semicolonial
countries, and



5. the conclusion of a Great Powers "peace
pact" within the framework of the United Nations.

On May 24, the Department of State said that
the resolution constitutes an integral part of the
Soviet-Comnumist "peace" campaign sponsored
by the World Congress of the Partisans of Peace.
This so-called "peace" campaign serves as a propa-
ganda cover and a pivot for all Communist and
fellow-traveler activities ranging from "peace"
demonstrations in Western Europe to armed con-
flict in Indochina.

The AVorld Partisans of Peace Movement,
founded in April 1949 at Paris, is staffed by Com-
munist and fellow-traveler officials, with Frederic
Joliot-Curie as president. The movement has
undertaken what it calls "concrete" actions, the
most important of which are (1) the formation of
"peace" committees to prevent the unloading of
Mutual Defense Assistance equipment and (2) a
world-wide campaign to support Soviet proposals
in the United Nations on disarmament and the
atomic bomb.

The movement's methods include the collection
of petitions for pi-esentation to the parliaments of
the world; the dispatch of international delega-
tions to various countries to present Soviet pro-
posals ; the convocation of world peace congresses ;
and the formal peace proposals by Communist
governments to the Western legislatures.

The resolution was shown to and discussed with
the leaders of the Senate Foreign Relations Com-
mittee and the House Foreign Affairs Committee,
who endorsed the Department of State's opinion,
that the reply to the Czechoslovak Ambassador
should be simply to hand back the resolution.



Department's View Concerning
Current Philippine Legislation

[Released to the press May J2]

The Department of State has received many in-
quiries concerning its attitude in regard to legis-
lation now under consideration by the Philippine
Congress. In particular, inquiries have been re-
ceived with regard to import-control legislation
which would set aside certain percentages of im-
port quotas for new Filipino importers.

It is the Department's view that much of this
legislation would be highly discriminatory
against American and other foreign business. Ac-
cordingly, Ambassador Cowen has been instructed
to make inquiry regarding such measures and,
specifically, to make representations against the
discriminatory provisions of the proposed legisla-
tion in regard to import control.



June 19, 1950



1019



The United States in the United Nations



REVIEW, MAY 1-JUNE 15, 1950



During the past 6 weeks, the Security Council
has held one meeting and the Working Committee
of its Commission for Conventional Armaments,
two. United Nations field bodies established by
the General Assembly have continued to function
in Korea, Greece, Libya, and other jjarts of the
world. At Lake Success, the Trusteeship Council
is now having its seventh session. The Interna-
tional Court of Justice, sitting at The Hague, held
public hearings on the question of tlie interna-
tional status of South West Africa and set a June
5 deadline for the filing of written briefs on the
two remaining questions concerning the interpre-
tation of the satellite peace treaties in connection
with the alleged violations of human rights in
Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania. Suborgans of
the Economic and Social Council have met in the
Far East, Europe, and South America, as well as
at Lake Success, and four of the specialized agen-
cies have held conferences. In addition, a spe-
cial Migration Conference, held under Ilo aus-
pices, and a United Nations Technical Assistance
Conference have been held.

The Soviet boycott of all United Nations organs
on which the Chinese National Government is
represented continued and was carried over to
the specialized agencies, on most of which the
U.S.S.R. is not represented, through satellite
walk-outs.

Secretary-General Lie, in an effort to relieve
East-West tension, held discussions in Washing-
ton, Paris, Moscow, and London on the basis of
his 10-point, 20-year program for the United Na-
tions. Following these conversations, he said he
was convinced that "the reopening of genuine
negotiations on certain of the outstanding issues
may be possible," contingent upon prior settle-
ment of the Chinese representation question.
Commenting on Mr. Lie's proposal. Secretary
Acheson said that the United States is "willing to
consider any possibilities put forward by Mr. Lie
or by any other member of the United Nations
which are believed to be practical" but that ".so
long as the Soviet Government continues its pres-
ent policies," the free nations must proceecJ "to
create situations of strength in the free world be-



cause this is the only basis on which lasting agree-
ment with the Soviet Government is possible."

On May 24, President Truman proclaimed that
October 24, 1950, will again be observed as United
Nations Day.

Security Council

At its one meeting on May 24, the Security
Council unanimously de^^ided to appoint, "should
an ajDpropriate occasion arise," a rapporteur or
conciliator for a situation or dispute brought to
its attention. This decision was based on a 1949
General Assembly recommendation. The Council
has used this technique, notably in the Kashmir
case. The two meetings on May 18 and June 8
of the Working Committee of the Council's Com-
mission for Conventional Armaments were de-
voted to consideration, on the basis of United
States proposals primarily, of the "safeguards"
question in connection with any future agree-
ment for the regulation and reduction of arma-
ments. The United Nations rejiresentative in
Kashmir, Sir Owen Dixon, is now on the Indian
subcontinent and has taken over the powers and
responsibilities of tiie United Nations Commis-
sion for India and Pakistan, in conformity with
the Council's resolution of March 14, 1950. The
United Nations Commission for Indonesia con-
tinues to be available in that country to observe
and assist in, at the request of the parties, the gen-
eral implementation of the Hague agreements es-
tablishing the Republic of the United States of
Indonesia and to carry out certain specific respon-
sibilities with respect to the withdrawal of troops
and the holding of elections.

General Assembly

Field bodies established by the General Assem-
bly to deal with problems in Korea, Palestine,
Greece, and the former Italian colonies liave con-
tinued their work, and the International Law
Commission opened its second session on June 5.
The Interim Committee's subcommittee on inter-
national cooperation in the political field has
been active.



1020



Department of Sfafe Bulletin



Korea. — The UiiitiHl Nations Commission on
Koreji, in Jicconlance with its decision of May 4,
observed tlie May oO elei-tioiis in the Republic of
Korea, witli a view to reporting to tlie General
Assembly on their nature "as a eontinainjJTtlevelo])-
ment of representative f^overnment in Ivorea."' On



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 101 of 116)