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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

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eral Assembly to provide a program of construc-
tive work for the refugees of Palestine in the Near
East. President Truman's signature on the bill
makes a substantial sum immediately available to
the agency. Congressional approval of an appro-
priation for the full sum of $27,450,000. the United
States contribution authorized in this measure,
must come later.



This advance comes at a most o])portune time.
The new agency has begun its woik in the Near
p]ast and urgently needs funds lo continue the
relief of Palestine refugees and (o initiate the
works program. In order to assure the successful
completion of the entire $.54,'.)()O,000 program,
prompt contributions from other member states
is essential. I earnestly hope that these contri-
butions will be forthcoming .soon.

This same legislation carries authorization for
the Point 4 Program of technical as-sistance to
underdeveloped areas. An arm of foreign pol-
icy, developed [jainstakingly over recent years,
now assumes major proportions in our conduct of
international affairs. It will utilize the far-tlung
machinery of the United Nations wherever prac-
ticable to bring health and skill and understanding
to people who today are unable to use their own
abilities to the full.

I am confident that this program will contribute
significantly to raising standards of living. But
it will go beyond that. It will raise standards of
friendship tliroughout the world.

This measure includes, in addition, authority for
the President to allot up to $15,000,000 to the
United Nations for its international children's
program. Additional action by Congress is re-
quired, however, before the funcls actually become
available. The United Nations children's pro-
gram is under reexamination by the Economic
and Social Council and in the view of the United
States should become a permanent part of the
United Nations structure, fully utilizing and co-
ordinating the activities in this field of all United
Nations and associated bodies. Pending establish-
ment of a permanent arrangement, the President
is authorized to make additional contributions to
the International Children's Emergency Fund.



U. S.-lsrael Sign Reciprocal
Air Transport Agreement

The Department of State announced the signing
on June 13 of a reciprocal bilateral air transport
agreement ^ between the Government of the United
States and the Government of Israel.

The agreement is the forty-third bilateral air
transport agreement negotiated by the United
States. The text follows closely theUnited States
standard form for such agreements. Under the
terms of the agreement, the United States flag
carrier TWA will conduct services to Lydda, and
the Israeli flag carrier will be authorized to con-
duct services to New York City across the north
Atlantic.



' For text of agreement see Department of State press
release 623.



June 26, 1950



1043



Mutual Defense Assistance Program and Military Aid
to Greece, Turkey, Iran, Korea, and the Philippines

[Released to Vie press June 9]



Following are the texts of statements submitted today
to the Senate Foreign Relations and Armed Services Com-
mittees and to the House Foreign Affairs Committee.

MUTUAL DEFENSE ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

Statement hy Lewis W. Douglas
Ambassador to the United Kingdom

I regret that urgent matters keep me at my post
in London and prevent my appearance before the
Committees that are considering the Mutual De-
fense Assistance Program [Mdap]. This state-
ment summarizes the views which I would have
preferred to make in person, had that been
possible.

During the months since the Congress last con-
sidered this program, the plans then outlined have
begun to produce the reality of strength and ac-
tion at which they aimed. This good beginning
is reflected in many ways and not least in the
heartening confidence which is developing among
our European associates.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
[Nat] has started work. The last meeting of the
Council of the Treaty Powers has indicated clearly
the beginnings of a realistic and forceful grap-
pling with the many problems involved in rees-
tablishing the strength of the West.

In Europe, the tangible flow of arms and
equipment from the current Mdap has demon-
strated the genuineness of American implementa-
tion of the mutual aid concept of the Treaty
and has encouraged all the member coun-
tries. Moreover, by making direct contributions
to the dollar material and machine tool require-
ments involved in the additional military produc-
tion projects of (he other Nat countries, we are
enabling these countries to utilize an increasing
portion of their own industrial cajjacity for the
production of military equipment. Our aid is
making a contribution to the build-up of the bal-
anced collective forces required for defense of the
North Atlantic community in a degree and to a



margin far greater than the mere mathematical
proportions involved would indicate.

The beginning of a cooperative and coordinated
plan of defense made by the nations of the Brus-
sels pact is now being advanced steadily within
the newer and broader context of the North At-
lantic Treaty. The European countries of the
Treaty are making substantial defense efforts.

In other fields, than that of defense, there is
more significant evidence than ever before that
the nations of Western Europe recognize the im-
portance of a real and enduring unity of purpose
and the importance of giving it form and direc-
tion. The Council of Europe, which the West
German Government has been invited to join, is
evidence of this understanding. The achieve-
ments of the Organization for European Economic
Cooperation — the Oeec — including the European
Payments Union that is about to be established
are real and significant. The imaginative and
courageous projiosal of the French Government
for the creation of a free trade area in respect of
coal and steel, for the abolition of discriminatory
freight rates and prices, and for the establishment
of an international authority to insure that these
things be put into effect and to discharge certain
other responsibilities is one of the most important
and constructive concrete proposals since the end
of World War II for advancing the economic
amalgamation and, therefore, the strength of
Western Europe through unity that has been
made.

In the economic field, which, I am sure, Ambas-
sador Harriman will cover in greater detail, there
has also been genuine progress. This progress
reinforced the determination of the free peoples
of Europe. It is axiomatic that the will to resist
tyranny and aggression — the will to fight for one's
own community — must stem from knowledge that
there exists something worth fighting for. The
Marshall Plan has accelerated the efforts of the
Europeans to reestablish a state of affairs in wliich
their liberty can flourish and their faith in liberty
can take firmer and deeper root.



1044



Department of State Bulletin



All of these factors, and I wish to emphasize
that American military assistance is a most im-
portant one, have engendered a "[rowing confi-
dence, shared by all members of the North Atlantic
Treaty, that they can and will develop the military
strength necessary to deter aggression, prevent
war, and reestablish stability in the world.
American participation in the North Atlantic
Treaty and American support throngli the Md^vp
have vastly strengthened the determination of our
allies to join with us to win the peace. These are
not mere words. The abysmal failure of the
efforts of the Communists to incite strikes against
the unloading of Mdap cargoes is one clear evi-
dence of the truth of tliese statements.

By direction of the Kremlin and as a matter of
the highest priority, the Cominform undei'took
many montlis ago an organized campaign to
foment and incite such strikes. The Cominform
made a bad mistake. It underestimated the in-
trinsic determination of the Europeans when faced
so boldly with the alternatives of accepting the
spurious concept of "peace at any price" as against
action to strengthen free men for the defense of
their freedom. The Communist campaign is di-
rected not only at the Europeans, but also, in-
directly, at ourselves. They, no doubt, hoped to
bring doubt to our minds as to the fortitude of
the Europeans and to persuade us that Communist
subversive forces in Europe were so strong that
military aid would be going down a rat hole. The
non-Communist labor unions, the governments, the
people of the countries at which this campaign
was directed have overwhelmingly repudiated the
siren call of the Cominform. Mdap cargoes are
being unloaded regularly, and they are being un-
loaded by regular longshoremen, working of their
own volition to do a job they are anxious to
perform.

I do not mean to imply, by the enumeration of
these signs and portents, that the job the North
Atlantic community has cut out for itself is well
on the way to completion, because it is, in fact,
only well started. But I do find the very real
progress which has been made all the more re-
markable in the light of certain psychologically
upsetting and disturbing developments during the
last year. The knowledge that Russia has
achieved an atomic explosion, the announcement
of the possibilitj' of the hydrogen bomb, the in-
excusable action of the Soviets in shooting down
an American plane over the Baltic, the reinspired
tensions around Berlin, the engulfing of vast
areas of the Far East by the evil forces of Soviet
communism — these and other events have brought
home to every thoughtful American and every
thoughtful European the enormity of the problems
we face and the consequences to ourselves, our
children, and our civilization if we do not face
these problems together and solve them.

The unity of thought and purpose which is
growing among Europeans, their new confidence



in their joint efforts, are tied intrinsically to the
faith of the peoples of the North Atlantic com-
munity in the intentions of the United States.
Our country occupies a position of moral and nuite-
rial leadership of vital importance to all the world
which believes in freedom and the dignity of man.
More than any other one thing, our leadership
holds together the free peoples of the world. For
the United States to falter now might be a fatal
blow to the West of which we are such an impor-
tant part and to our undertaking so to restore the
strength of the Atlantic community that war may
be avoided and a lasting peace established.

Having prepared jointly with our associates of
the North Atlantic Treaty a foundation and a
framework for real strength, it is important that
we proceed without hesitation to the development
of that power which will preserve the peace we
cherish. We have learned that only the strong
can settle issues with the Kremlin peacefully.
Collateral dividends are derived from a condition
of strength. Not only does the spirit of the North
Atlantic nations move forward with each new
demonstration of their growing security, but our
combined strength exercises a powerful attraction
on neighbors as well, whether they are in Europe
or somewhere else. I am well aware of other areas
of the world in which our interests are gravely
threatened by Russian aggression and subversion.
The situation in Southeast Asia, for instance, is
one of vital importance to Western Europe, to
ourselves, and to our common problem and joint
endeavors. Wliat happens in Asia effects Europe
profoundly. The reverse is equally true — the
achievement of a state of strength and readiness in
the North Atlantic community, which will permit
the stabilization of our relations with Russia on
a secure and peaceful basis will do much to give
assurance — and a sense of direction — to those
Asiatic nations which are struggling to protect
their new and unfamiliar freedom from Soviet
aggression.

Last year, I ended my statement on the Mutual
Defense Assistance Program by saying that I had
become more and more convinced of the interde-
pendence of the countries on both sides of the
North Atlantic and that in no field was this more
true than in the field of defense. Our enlightened
self-interest calls on us to assist the nations of
Western Europe in putting into effect our collec-
tive defense plans, for in the world in which we
live today their defenses are in effect our defenses.
In my statement last year I also said :

A redressing of the unbalance of power in Europe caused
by the last war to an extent unprecedented iu modern
history is a prerequisite to stable relations. For this rea-
sou it is, I believe, essential to our vital national interest
to give no evidence of slackening or faltering but rather
to press on full steam ahead with our program. I there-
fore hope that the military assistance legislation will be
promptly enacted by the Congress. This is the language
which is understood.



June 26, 1950



1045



Those statements I now reaffirm, with my con-
victions strengthened by the developments during
the past year which I have outlined. I am aware
of the danger of weakening ourselves and the com-
munity of which we are a part by undertaking to
carry a burden heavier than our resources can sus-
tain. But I have no doubt that this danger can be
avoided and that the task to which in our own
national interest we have set our hands and minds
can be successfully carried through. I am confi-
dent that the brains, the learning, the ingenuity,
and the advanced technology of our Western civili-
zation can secure for us the peace we seek without a
burdensome and unimaginative balance of mere
mass against the mass which threatens us. I be-
lieve we will find among our resources those which
are essential to strengthen our military position
sufficiently to satisfy our security requirements
and that we will do this without endangering our
political and economic structures.

It is equally my belief that the peoples and the
governments of Western Europe are prepared to
meet the problem and to shoulder their share of
the burden. The Atlantic pact countries comprise
over 300 million active and intelligent people with
resources — spii'itual and intellectual, technical and
material, industrial and political — which are
vastly superior to the resources commanded by
another power which employs communism as a
weapon to further its imperialistic designs.

We have made an encouraging start along the
difficult road to security and peace. Our defense
plans are being integrated through the actions of
the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Our
American investments aimed at restoring the eco-
nomic health of Western Europe and reestablish-
ing the strength, which, combined with our
strength, is needed to preserve the peace, are al-
ready proving their soundness.

The Mutual Defense Assistance Program for the
coming year has been presented to Congress by the
Executive Br-anch. No nation should embark on a
program of this character or having embarked on
it should continue to, unless its national interests
dictate that it do so. Our national interests, the
ultimate preservation of our institutions require,
I believe, that we firmly and steadfastly carry for-
ward the progi'am we have commenced. The en-
during peace we seek may be achieved by following
this course. It cannot be achieved by faltering.



MILITARY AID TO GREECE

Statement hy Henry F. Grady
Ambassador to Greece ^

Th7-ee years ago Congress passed the first Greek
Aid Bill. In that year, 1947, many people were
doubtful about the advisability and efficacy of this

'Mr. Grady is Ambassador designate to Iran.

1046



aid. By 1948, we had made some progress, but
there had been discouraging turns of events in
both the military and economic fields; there was
talk in some quartere about "operation rathole."

The next year, 1949, when the Executive Branch
again requested Congress for substantial aid for
Greece, we could point to a period of relative
economic stability and to a trained and partially
equipped Greek Armed Service. We were hope-
ful.

This year, 1950, we can point to a continuation
of the economic stability and to a completely vic-
torious Greek military force. With the help of
American arms, the Communist guerrilla forces
have been reduced to a few hundred scattered,
ineffective men. The remainder of the 20,000 who
were in Greece a year ago have been killed, re-
patriated, or have withdrawn into the "curtain
countries," and the guerrilla recruiting and supply
facilities within Greece have been broken up. By
some time this summer, the remainder of the 700,-
000 refugees from the war areas will have returned
to their homes.

The basic purpose of the original Greek aid
program has been accomplished. I think we can
honestly use the word "success."
., I do not mean to say that we have finished our
work in Greece. Far from it. The poverty, the
insecurity, the threat from the north, and many
of the other factors which originally caused the
problem in Greece still exist. We still have a job
to do. But Greece is no longer an emergency case
as it was in 1947, and, as soon as possible, we hope
to stop calling it a special case.

We have met the emergency problem ; our pro-
gram is now aimed at placing the country upon
a firm basis which will enable it to stand on its
own. This program involves continuation of
American economic and military aid through
1952, and, even more important, it involves ac-
ceptance of responsibility and inauguration of
vigorous action by the Greeks themselves. As I
outlined in a letter to the Greek Government in
April of this year, the Greeks themselves must
greatly improve their government finances and
government administration if American aid is to
bring capital improvements and not just relief.
- In the past, Greece's need for military aid has
been great because she was carrying on active
warfare against an invader. Even now, when the
war is over, the needs of Greece are large in pro- i
portion to her population. Whereas the United |
States Government may furnish only a fraction
of the armaments for some Western European
countries, it must supply virtually all of the arma-
ments and purely military supplies for the Greek
Armed Forces. Greece has virtually no active
armament industry, and, even if she did have, she
would find it almost impossible to pay for arma-
ments; in the past year, the Government ti'easury
has had a deficit amounting to one-third of the
total exi^editures. Nor does Greece have foreign

Department of State Bulletin



exchange to buy the armaments abroad; of the
400 million dollui-s Greece spent abroad for civil-
ian piuposos this past \ei\v, 250 million dollars
had to be supplied l)y ECA.

Greece still lives in a dangerous corner of the
world. Since she does not have the money to
support her own defense forces, we must foot the
bill or leave her easy jirey to the Connnunists.

Next year, Greece wdl be spcndinjj: the i^iuival-
ent of alxiut 125 million dollars in lier own cur-
rency for her Armed Services. kShc needs further
funds for the purchase of needed military sup-
plies abroad; tne whole of this burden must be
borne by the American military aid.

There are several reasons why this figure is
lower than the sum finallv allocated to Greece last
year for military aid. "First, the guerrilla war
IS over. Second, the Ai'uied Services are presently
being better equipped and require only mainte-
nance; and. third, the food, clothing, fuel, forage,
tires, and other civilian type items are to be sup-
plied through the domestic economy this year
rather than from American military aid as was
the case last year. It is expected that the ECA
aid to Greece for next year will be supplemented
by 36 million dollars to assist the domestic econ-
omy in bearing this transposed burden.

Since most of the capital military equipment
will be supplied from fiscal year '50 funds and
since the domestic economy with ECA help is tak-
ing over the supply of food and other civilian
type items, the Alilitar}- Defense Assistance Pro-
gram aid we are requesting for next year will
be used essentially for maintenance of military
equipment and for military supplies.

Our program for next year is essentially an
extension and continuation of last year. We
must repair or replace the equipment of the last
3 years which has been damaged through active
use in battle. We must provide the ammunition,
spare parts, and supplies which make it possible
for the Greeks to use and keep in readiness the
equipment we have already given them.

We are, insofar as possible, converting the pat-
tern of aid in Greece to that which has been estab-
lished for the countries of Western Europe. We
hope that the days of large-scale relief aid and
of large-scale transfers of military equipment for
Greece are over. Because the threat to Greece is
more active and because Greece has even fewer
resources to meet this threat than the countries of
Western Europe, the aid to Greece is propor-
tionately high. '\^niile we have chided the Greek
Government at times for not moving more rapidly,
our fundamental feeling is that Greece has
put up a gallant fight and has made good use of
the 1.5 billion dollars American aid and the 0.5
billion dollars other foreign aid which has been
given to her since liberation. We think she needs
and deserves this reduced appropriation next year
to make effective the Armed Services we have
already trained and equipped.



MILITARY AID TO TURKEY

Statement by (leorge Wadsworth
Ambassador to Turkey

The Military Aid to Turkey Program has made
a substantial contribution toward modernizing
and, consequently, strengthening the Turkish
Armed Forces and toward creating a reliable and
eft'ective ally for AVestern democracy in the criti-
cal Middle East area.

Prior to the inception of the aid program in
1947, Turkey maintained over 500,000 men under
arms at a heavy sacrifice to the national economy.
During the 3 years of military assistance, the
peacetime strength of Turkish Armed Forces has
been considerably reduced. With the modern
equipment thus provided and the complementary
educational system established and supervised by
the American Military Mission, the combat capa-
bilities of the 1950 military establishment are
greater than when the Armed Forces were double
their present size.

On the international stage, Turkey occupies a
unique and conspicuous position. It has a com-
mon eastern boundary with Soviet Russia and a
common western boundai-y with Soviet-dominated
Bulgaria. It controls the strategically important
water route from the Black Sea to the Mediter-
ranean and flanks the land route from Russia to
the oil fields of Iran and Arabia.

Although subjected to continuous Soviet pres-
sures and proj)aganda, the Turks have not faltered
or weakened in their spirit and determination to
maintain their territorial integi-ity, independence,
republican form of government, and democratic
institutions.

Despite American assistance in the form of
equipment and training, Turkish expenditures, in
1950, for national defense are expected to amount
to about 35 percent of total budgetary expendi-
tures; and, for the jjrevious 10 years, they have
ranged between 35 percent and 59 percent of such
expenditures. While Turkey is receiving ECA
assistance, this assistance is enabling it to under-
take a program of economic development which
would otherwise not have been possible. Ulti-
mately this program will contribute to an increase
in the Turkish national income and in its ability
to support these heavy defense expenditures.
Ultimately the Turkish economy will benefit from
the return to productive civilian pursuits of a
substantial number of its military personnel, many
of whom have received or are now receiving tech-
nical training in the new Turkish military school
system. At the present, however, Turkey is un-
able to bear the burden of continuing the program
of modernizing its armed forces without outside
assistance.

Although the Turkish military establishment
has benefited greatly from the military aid pro-
gram of the past 3 years, the equipment and
training provided have not yet accomplished the



i»nQ 26, 1950



1047



modernization of the Turkish Anned Forces that
is envisaged. To achieve this end, to further
strengthen recognized Turkish determination to
resist Soviet aggi'ession and to make of the demon-
strated resistance capabilities of Turkish man-
power an even more effective supporting element



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 106 of 116)