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United States. Dept. of State. Office of Public Co.

Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

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of Middle East stability, additional American
assistance is needed.



MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO IRAN

tStatiJincnf hi/ John C. 'Wiley
Avibasmdor to Iran

Iran is one of the few countries along the Rus-
sian border that has remained outside tlie Com-
munist fold. It is no satellite of Moscow. In
spite of Russian pressure over many years, it still
retains its independence. Since World War II, it
has b(H'n under increased pressure from Moscow.
Tlirough appeal to the United Nations, it was in-
strumental in effecting the withdrawal of the Red
Army from Iranian soil — Azerbaijan. With its
own army, it overthrew the puppet government
left in Azerbaijan when the Red Army withdrew.
By its actions, it has made its position clear.

Though the Red Army withdrew from Azer-
baijan, pressure from Moscow has not abated.
There are si^ns that it is increasing. Iran is in
the midst of the cold war. It constitutes part of
the '"front"' ujion which that cold war is conducted.
The methods emjiloyed by Moscow are too well-
known to require elaboration. Though beset with
difficulties, Iran is standing firm in that war. It
wishes to preserve its independence and hopes for
the aid of like-minded countries in attaining
that end.

It does not appear necessary to explain the un-
foitunate i-c^sults that would come were Iran to
succumb to Soviet aggression. It is not in the
United States interest that Iran should disappear
behind the Iron Curtain.

Iran needs an ai-my capalile primarily of main-
taining orilei' within (he count i-y. an army capable
of putting down any insui'i-ection — no matter
where or i)y wliom inspired or abetted. Such an
ai-niy could also contribute materially in any over-
all defense by othci- countries against an aggressor
nation.

For the eqnipnnMit and supply of siicli an army,
Iran requested military aid from the United
States. The amount considered for fiscal year
Y,)U\ is in continuation of the program iruvugu-
rated during the current fiscal year. It will be
for necessary equipnu-nt and for services and sup-
jilies incidental tiiereto, none of which is pro-
curable in Iran. It is within the capabilities of
the ])resent Iranian army to absorb this aid. It
will not provide all that coidd be ])r()rital)lv used
by the Iranian army but will assist materially in
r>vercoming jirescnt deficiencies. It is a continua-
tion of llic program already begun and will fur-



ther increase the ability of the Iranian army to
carry out the mission previously mentioned.
P'urthermore, it will encourage Iran in the main-
tenance of her present position as a free and
independent country. It is definitely in the United
States interest.



MILITARY AID TO KOREAN SECURITY FORCES

Statement hy John J. Miiccio
A?nbassador to Korea

In order to implement United States policy ob-
jectives and assist the Korean people in the
achievement of their aspirations toward a united
and independent democratic statehood, this Gov-
ernment has adopted a policy which includes (1)
political support of the Government of the Re-
])ublic of Korea within and outside the United
Nations; (2) economic assistance designed to
achieve a stable economy and a greater measure
of self-sufliciency ; (3) vigorous information and
education programs; and (4), as a final step, and
one without which both United States assistance
and the effoi'ts of the Korean people would be un-
availing, military aid to the Korean security
forces.

The uniquely compelling urgency which at-
taches to the military assistance requirements of
the Republic has been brought about by virtue of
the i>resence on its very frontiers (and not more
than 30 miles from the capital city of Seoul) of
an aggressive Soviet-dominated Communist re-
gime which is publicly committed to the destruc-
tion of the Republic, bj- force of arms if necessary.
The resultant serious problems of internal and
external security threaten the continued survival
of the Republic as an independent democratic
nation.

There can be little doubt that the policies and
intentions of the north Korean regime, which are
but manifestations of the expansionist policies of
(lie Soviet Union, are aimed at achieving eventual
Connnunist domination of the entire peninsula.
In order to prevent this threat from becoming an
actuality, the United States has assisted the Ko-
rean security forces through (1) the transfer, prior
to, and during United States troop withdraw.ol. of
military equipment and supplies with a replace-
ment value of more than 50 million dollars; (2)
the establishment of a Military Advisory Group to
assist in the training and development of those
security forces; and (;!) the ])assage by the United
States Congress of the Mutual Defense A.ssistance
Act Mhicli jirovides for continued support of those
foi-i'cs (lui-ing fiscal j'ear 1050.

The Korean Govermnent has exhibited a wil-
lingness and ability to utilize this aid effectively.
Internally, the Government is achieving increas-
ingly favorable results in the vigorous cam]iaign
now being waged against Communist guerrillas.
The fact that armed guerrilla strength has been



1048



Department of Sfofe Bulletin



reduced from an estimated peak of 2,000 to 577 men
from September 1949 to April 1950 and that more
than 5,000 guerrillas have been killed during that
same period may be taken as a measure of the suc-
cess of army and police operations.

Altliough the tlireat of north Korean aggression
seems, temporarily at least, to have been success-
fully contained, the undeniable materiel superior-
ity of the north Korean forces would provide north
Korea with the margin of victory in the event of a
full-scale invasion of the Republic. Such super-
iority is particularly evident in the matter of
heavy infantry support wea])ons, tanks, and com-
bat aircraft with which the U.S.I^.R. has supplied
and continues to supply its Korean puppet. It has
been aggravated also b.y the recent Communist suc-
cesses in China which have increased considerably
the military potential of the north, particularly by
releasing undetermined numbers of Korean troops
from the Chinese Communist armies for service in
Korea. The threat to the Republic will continue
as long as there exists in the north an aggressive
Communist regime desiring the conquest and
domination of the south. It is, therefore, vital that
the Republic's security forces, which are almost
entire!}- dependent upon the United States for
logistical support, be maintained on an effective
defensive level of equality, in manpower, equip-
ment, and training, in relation to those which
immediately threaten it.

I am convinced that termination of United
States military assistance after 1950 would mean
both a nullification of the success which the secur-
ity forces have thus far achieved in maintaining
internal and external security and the substantial
loss of the investments which we have made in the
form of both military and economic assistance.
Furthermore, the political support which this
Government and the majority of the United Na-
tions has extended the Republic in its struggle to
survive would be rendered meaningless, and mil-
lions of people in the Far East who are now faced
with the choice between communism and democ-
racy would lose faith in the United States and
would rapidly succumb to the aggressive tactics of
Communist expansion.

On the other hand, it is my confirmed opinion
that continued military assistance to the Republic
of Korea is the best assurance not only for the
protection of our investment but also for the suc-
cessful implementation of our policy with respect
to both that country and the entire Far East.



MUTUAL DEFENSE PROGRAM
FOR THE PHILIPPINES

Statement by Myron Melvin Cowen
Ambassador to the Philippines

The Mutual Defense Assistance Program for
fiscal year 1951 is intended to provide essential



materiel required by Philippine Armed Forces
so as to insure that the current and continuing
campaign against Communist-led guerrillas and
dissidents not fail by reason of insufficient arms,
ammunition, and other equipment necessary to
success. Thi! guerrilla methods of warfare used,
the swampy and mountainous terrain in which
operations must be carried on, the lopg periods of
extremely heavy rainfall, and the flexible and
highly dispersed combat units of the dissidents all
combine to make the type of operations conducted
unusually severe on equipment and materiel. The
aid extended by the United States through the
Mutual Defense Assistance Program augments the
self-help which the Philippines extends its Armed
Forces by providing them with spare parts to keep
equipment in operation, with weapons and with
other key items of equipment which are not ob-
tainable within the economy of the Philippines.

The necessity for a sound, internal condition
within the Philippines should not be underesti-
mated. Communistic forces working from within
the Hukbalahap and other dissident groups can-
not be permitted to continue to spread lawlessness
and banditry throughout the archipelago. Effec-
tive organization of the Armed Forces of the Phil-
ippines, which, in time, should suppress these dis-
sidents, is now under way. Their continued sup-
port by the United States, through the supply of
critical items made available under the Mutual
Defense Assistance Progi-am, is fully justified and
is a portion of the insurance which the United
States desired for maintenance of this island of
democracy in the Southwest Pacific.

In addition, the Mutual Defense Assistance Pro-
gram pi'ovides for the continued schooling of
carefully selected Philippine Armed Forces offi-
cers and enlisted men in the United States Army,
Navy, and Air Force technical schools of their
particular branch.



Educators, Artist To Visit Korea

Dr. William Lonsdale Tayler, educator, lecturer,
writer, and political scientist of Dickinson College,
Carlisle, Pennsylvania; and Dr. Grace Stuart
Nutley, instructor in English at Brooklyn College,
and her husband, Cyril Nutley, illustrator and
owner of a New York commercial art studio, have
been awarded grants-in-aid by the Department of
State to enable them to serve as visiting professors
in Korea.

Drs. Tayler and Nutley will serve as professors
of political science and education, respectively, at
Chosen Christian University, Seoul, and Mr.
Nutley will serve as professor of commercial arts
and design at Seoul National University.



June 26, 7950



1049



Comment on Moscow Visit of U.N. Secretary-General



Sfatcm-c7it hy Secretary Acheson



IRvlca-tcd to the press June 7]



T iniapine tliat you will want me to make some
coinmciit on Mr. Lie's report on his trip to Europe,
and on the memorandum wjiicli he left with the
Pi-esident on April 20.

In the first place, I want to say, generally, that
I think it is proper for Mr. Lie in his capacity as
Secretary-General of the United Nations to take
wiiatever steps he thinks desirable in his eifort to
reduce the existin



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 107 of 116)