Copyright
United States. Dept. of State. Office of Public Co.

Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

. (page 108 of 116)
Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 108 of 116)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Further development of the resources of the United
Nations for mediation and conciliation should be under-
taken, including re-establishment of the regular practice
of private consultations by the representatives of the
five Great Powers, and a renewed effort to secure agree-
ment by all the Great Powers on limitations on the use
of the veto power in the pacific settlement procedures of
the Security Council.

2. A new attempt to make progress toward establishing
an international control system for atomic energy that
will be effective in preventing its use for war and pro-
moting its use for peaceful purposes.

We cannot hope for any quick or easy solution of this
most difficult problem of atomic energy control. The only
way to find out what is possible is to resume negotiation
in line with the directive of the General Assembly last
faU "to explore all possible avenues and examine all con-
crete suggestions with a view to determining what might
lead to an agreement.^' Various suggestions for finding
a basis for a fresh approach have been put forward. One
possibility would be for the Security Council to instruct
the Secretary-General to call a conference of scientists
whose discussions might provide a reservoir of new ideas
on the control of weapons of mass destruction and the
promotion of peaceful uses of atomic energy that could
thereafter be explored in the United Nations Atomic En-
ergy Commission. Or, it may be that an interim agree-
ment could be worked out that would at least be some
improvement on the present situation of an unlimited
atomic arms race, even though it did not afford full se-
curity. There are other possibilities for providing the
basis for a new start ; every possibility should be explored.

3. A new approach to the problem of bringing the artna-
ments race undei- control not only in the field of atomic
weapons, but in other weapons of mass destruction and
in conventional armaments.

Here is another area where it is necessary to re-activate
negotiation and to make new efforts at finding some area
of common ground. It must be recognized that up to now
there has been virtually a complete failure here and that
the immediate prospects seem poor indeed. Clearly dis-
armament requires an atmosphere of confidence in which
political disputes are brought nearer to solution. But
it is also true that any progress at all towards agreement
on the regulation of armaments of any kind would help
to reduce cold war tensions and thug assist in the adjust-
ment of political disputes. Negotiation on this problem
should not be deferred until the other great political prob-
lems are solved, but should go liand-in-hand with any
effort to reach political settlements.

Department of Stale Bulletin



4. A renewal of serious efforts to reach agreement on
the armed forces to be made araitahlc under the Charter
to the Security Council for the enforcement of its decisions.

A new approach should be made towards resolving
existing differences on the size, location and composition
of the forces to be pledged to the Security Council under
Article 43 of the Cliarter. Basic political dilliculties which
may delay a final solution should uot be permitted to stand
In the way of some sort of an interim accord for a small
force sufficient to prevent or stop localized outbreaks
threatening international peace. The mere existence of
such a force would greatly enhance the ability of the Se-
curity Council to bring about peaceful settlements In most
of the cases which are likely to come before it.

5. Acceptance and application of the principle that it
is wise and right to proceed as rapidly as possible toioard
universality of membership.

Fourteen nations are now awaiting admission to the
United Nations. In the interests of the people of these
countries and of the United Nations, I believe they should
all be admitted, as well as other countries which will at-
tain their independence in the future. It should be made
clear that Germany and Japan would also be admitted
as soon as the peace treaties have been completed.

6. A sound an4 active program, of technical assistance
for economic development and encouragement of broad
scale capital investment, using all appropriate private,
governmental and inter-governmental resources.

A technical assistance program is in its beginnings, as-
sisted by the strong support of the President of the United
States. Its fundamental purpose is to enable the people
of the under-developed countries to raise their standard
of living peacefully by specific and practicable measures.
It should be a continuing and expanding program for the
next 20 years and beyond, carried forward with the co-
operation of all Member Governments, largely through
the United Nations and the Specialized Agencies, with
mutual beneficial programs planned and executed on a
basis of equality rather than on a basis of charity.
Tlirough this means the opportunities can be opened up
for capital investment on a large and expanding scale.
Here lies one of our best hopes for combating the dangers
and costs of the cold war.

7. More vigorous use by all Member Oovernments of
the Specialized Agencies of the United yations to promote,
in the words of the Charter, "higher standards of living,
full employment and conditions of economic and social
progress."

The great potentialities of the Specialized Agencies
to participate in a long-range program aimed at drasti-
cally reducing the economic and social causes of war,
can be realized by more active support from all Govern-
ments, including the membership of the Soviet Union in
some or all of the Agencies to which it does not now
belong. The expansion of world trade which is vital to
any long-range effort for world betterment requires tlie
early ratification of the Charter of the International
Trade Organization.



8. Vigorous and continued development of the work of
the United Nations for wider observance and rrspeet for
human rights and fundamental freedoms throughout the
world.

It is becoming evident that the Universal Declaration
of Human Kiglits, adopted by the General Assembly lu
1918 witliout a dissenting vote, is destined to become one
of the great documents of history. The United Nations
is now engaged on a program that will extend over the
next 20 years — and beyond — to secure the extension and
wider observance of the political, economic and social
rights there set down. Its success needs the active sup-
port of all Governments.

9. Use of the United Nations to promote, by peaceful
means instead of by force, the advancement of dependent,
colonial or seimi-colonial peoples, towards a place of equal-
ity in the world.

The great changes which have been taking place since
the end of the war among the peoples of Asia and Africa
must be kept within peaceful bounds by using the univer-
sal framework of the United Nations. The old relation-
ships will have to be replaced with new ones of equality
and fraternity. The United Nations is the instrument
capable of bringing such a transition to pass without
violent upheavals and with the best prospect of bringing
long-run economic and political benefits to all nations of
the world.

10. Active and systematic use of all the powers of the
Charter and all the machinery of the United Nations to
speed up the development of international law towards
an eventual enforceable world law for a universal world
society.

These three last points deal with programs already
under way to carry out important principles of the United
Nations Charter. They respond to basic human desires
and aspirations and co-ordinated efforts by aU Govern-
ments to further these programs are indispensable to the
eventual peaceful stabilization of international relations.
There are many specific steps which need to be taken for
example, under Point 10, ratification of the Genocide Con-
vention, greater use of the International Court of Justice,
and systematic development and codification of inter-
national law. More important is that Governments
should give high priority in their national policies to the
continued support and development of these ideals which
are at the foundation of all striving of the peoples for
a better world.

What is here suggested is only an outline of preliminary
proposals for a program ; much more development will be
needed. It is self-evident that every step mentioned,
every proposal made, will require careful and detailed,
even laborious preparation, negotiation and administra-
tion. It is equally self-evident that the necessary meas-
ure of agreement will be hard to realize most of the
time, and even impossible some of the time. Yet the world
can never accept the thesis of despair — the thesis of
irrevocable and irreconcilable conflict.



June 26, 1950



1053



Soviet Conduct IVIakes Settlement
of Trieste Problem Impossible
Under Terms of Italian Treaty

The foUowhu/ is thv text of a note delivered to the
Government of 'the Vninn of Soviet Soewlist Republics by
the United States Amiwssador at Moseow on June lb and
released to the press on the same dale in reply to the
Soviet note of April 20, 1950, on Trieste.

The United States Government has considered
the Soviet Government's note of April 'JO regard-
inii the Free Territory of Trieste. The United
States Government rejects categorically the alle-
.Tiition that the United States, United Kingdom,
and France have violated the Treaty of Peace
with Italy in respect to Trieste. Insofar as it has
not been 'posJ^ible to im])loinent the provisions of
tliat Treaty, responsibility lies squarely upon the
Soviet Government whose conduct following the
conclusion of the Treaty rendered the settlement
envisaged therein impossible of execution.

Continued administration of part of the Terri-
tory of Trieste by the United States and United
Kiiigflom and maintenance there of small Allied
]\Iiii7ary contingents to assist in that administra-
tion is pursuant to the obligations assumed by the
United States and United Kingdom under Article
1 of Annex VII of the Treaty. The United States
and United Kingdom have never had a naval base
or naval installations of any kind at Trieste.

The impossibility of execution of the Treaty was
at the base of the proposal addressed by the three
Govermnents to the Soviet Government on March
2(1, r.t-ts, which proposal has continued to reflect
the attitude of the United States Government.^
Far from representing an attempt to violate the
Peace Treaty, as the Soviet note further alleges,
this ])roposal was an invitation to the Soviet Gov-
ernment to join in amending the Peace Treaty to
achieve a permanent, peaceful settlement of the
Trieste question based on consideration of the wel-
fare and wislies of the inhabitants of the area.
The United States (iovernment is convinced that
such a settlement can best be achieved by agree-
ment among the parties directly concerned. The
Soviet Government's latest intervention in this
qucslion was obviously designed to sow confusion
and impede sucli mutually satisfactory agreement
and. hence, injure fiie ca\ise of peace.

Delaying Tactics by U.S.S.R.
Continue on Austrian Treaty

Stat(in( III III/ Secretarij Aehi'son
[III ii-asi tl 1,1 the jtrcss June 7 1

Al the last meeting of ihc treaty deputies in
London on May 2ti, the Soviet deputy continued

' I'.ci.i.KTi.N (if .Mar. lis, I'.lis, ji. •12.'').

1054



his delaying tactics by again raising extraneous
issues.

The Soviet deputy took the position that no
date could be set for the next meeting until the
Soviet Government had received a reply to its
note of April '20 concerning Trieste. The meeting
adjourned with an announcement by the Western
deputies that they would present themselves in
London on Julv 10 prejiared to resume the treaty
discussions. The Soviet deputy did not commit
himself as to attendance at the July 10 meeting.
The inference to be drawn from the recent
Soviet maneuvers is obvious, namely, that the
Soviet Government does not wish to conclude an
Austrian treaty at this time.

The position of this Government is that there
is no connection between the Soviet note on Trieste,
which will be handled in due course, and the Aus-
trian treaty negotiations. Any attempt to link
these two issues is pure subterfuge.

As announced after my recent meeting in Lon-
don with the British and French Foreign Min-
isters the Governments of the United States,
United Kingdom, and France are in entire agree-
ment in their desire to complete the Austrian
treaty at the earliest possible time, in order to re-
establish Austria's independence in accordance
with the Moscow Declaration and to provide for
the withdrawal of all forces of occu^xition from
Austria. To this end the three Governments
stand ready at any time to settle without delay
all outstanding issues of the treaty, provided that
this will definitely bring about agreement on tlie
treaty as a whole.



Letters of Credence



Tngoshrvia



The newly appointed Ambassador of the Fed-
eral Peopk^ Eepublic of Yugoslavia, Vladimir
Popovic, presented his credentials to the President
on June 5, 1950. For texts of the Ambassadors
remarks and the President's reply, see Department
of State press release 5U;3 of June 5, 1950.



U.N. Nominations

(In May IT. Ilu- Sfiialf iM.nliniuMi the nominations of
the followinn-ManKMl iiiTsons to lie ivprcscniative.s of the
Uniloii Stales to tlu' lil'lli .session of the Cfncral Confer-
ence of llic I'niled .\alioMs Kdiioational, Scienlilie and
Culliiral Oiranizalicpu: llowiaiid H. Sai^'oant, Isidor I.
Ral.i, r.vov^,' n. Stoddard, Ceor^'e F. Zooli and Bernice
BaxI'T.

iMlwin !•', Sianlon, now .\nuTiran Amliassador lOxtraor-
dinarv and I'lmipotentiaiy to Tliailand. to serve con-
curreiitlv and williout additional eonu'en.salion lis the
represen'lative of llie I'niled Slates on tlie Keonomic
Connnission for .Asia and tlie Far East eslalilislied by
the Keonoiiiir and Sori.al Conncil of the United .Nations
Mareli 2S. IHIT.

Department of Sfafe Bulletin



The Need for an International Trade Organization



Views of Louis Johnsan
Secretary of Defense



The -foUoicing letter, dated February 28, 1950, teas
sent from the Secretary of Defense, Louis Johnson, to the
Chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs,
John Kee.

My Dear Mr. Kee: I understand that the
Charter of the proposed International Trade Or-
ganization of the United Nations is now under
consideration by your Committee. I wish to lend
my full support to the objectives of this Organiza-
tion as expressed in its Charter. As I understand
them, these objectives seek to assure a growing
volume of production, consumption, and interna-
tional exchange of goods, all contributing to a
balanced and expanding world economy. To
reach these objectives requires the reduction in
barriers including discriminatory practices both
by governments or by private interests which im-
pede the interchange of goods and capital. These
objectives can only be reached, in my opinion, by
collaboration among the nations which sincerely
desire their attainment.

I believe that such collaboration will be to the
advantage of all nations which participate, and
of particular advantage to the United States.
Over a period of 35 years, through two world wars,
and continuing into peace years, this country has
sustained an enormous net drain upon its ex-
haustible resources, largely on a grant basis. I
hardly need to emphasize the significance of this
fact from a security point of view. To the extent
that foreign production and freer international
exchange of such commodities will be facilitated
through the International Trade Organization,
it seems to me that the United States will become
one of the principal beneficiaries. Our industrial
eccniomy, upon which the security of this country
is based, will require ever increasing supplies of
materials from abroad to operate it. Also, main-
tenance and expansion of world markets for manu-
factured goods should assist this country in main-
taining a firm economic base. Industrial poten-



tial in being and full employment are the essence
of security.

I wish to call your attention to two points of
more specific interest to the Dejnartment of De-
fense. The first point involves Defense responsi-
bility in the revival of the external trade of oc-
cupied Japan in order to reduce the burden of
taxation upon this country to support that area.
The policy of the United States is to extend most-
favored-nation treatment to imports from all
countries which do not discriminate against our
exports. It is to our interest to obtain agreements
from the other principal markets for Japanese
exports along these lines. I believe that consum-
mation of this action has more chance of success
under a multilateral arrangement in accordance
with the principles of Ito than it would on a
bilateral basis.

The second area of direct interest to the De-
partment of Defense is that embracing the security
safeguards in the charter of the Ito. Staff mem-
bers of the Department of Defense, at Geneva in
1947 and Havana in 1948, assisted in the drafting
of these safeguards. I am informed that, in
general, they are fully adequate for the purpose.

General security exceptions are contained in
Article 99. This article provides (paragraph 1)
that nothing in the Charter shall be construed to
require any member to furnish any information
which it considers contrary to its essential security
interests. The same paragraph allows any mem-
ber to take any action it considers necessary to its
security interests with regard to fissionable
materials, munitions of war or goods for the
supply, directly and indirectly, of its militai-y es-
tablishment. Furthermore, any action may be
taken in time of war or "other emergency in inter-
iiational relations" without regard to the provi-
sions of the Charter. In addition, this paragraph
allows any member to enter into intergovern-
mental agreements made by or for a militaiy



June 26, 1950



1055



establishment for national security purposes.

Certain stockpile safeguards are contained in
Article 29, paragraph 2 and Article 18, paragraph
8(a). Article :52 imposes certain obligations on
stockpile disposal but are not considered more re-
strictive than provided for in the Stockpile Act
(PL 520).

Another specific safeguard is that affecting the
domestic s}-nthetic rubber industry. Article 18
in paragraph 5 limits the use of mixing regula-
tions. But paragraph 6 specifically exempts those
mixing regulations in force on July 1, 1939, April
10, 1947 or the date of the Charter at the option
of the Member. This would allow the continu-
ance of United States regulations requiring the
use of synthetic rubber which is of obvious interest
to the Department of Defense.



Uruguay To Present Artigas
Statue to the United States

The Department of State announced on June 11
that the Government of Uruguay will formally
present a statue of General Jose Artigas, national
hero of Uruguay and the father of Uruguayan
independence, to the United States on June 19,
19.")().

Dr. All>erto Dominguez-Campora. Ambassador
of Uruguay to the United States, will present the
statue. Acceptance of the statue for the people of
the United States will be made by Secretary
Acheson.

The statue is the gift of the people of Uruguay
to the people of the United States and was made
])ossiblc through the contributions by Uruguayan
school children, as well as Uruguayan public
fuiifls.

Other American Republics which have received
Artigas statues are Venezuela. Paraguay, Cuba,
Colombia, Argentina, Peru, and Mexico.

Jose Artigas was the "George Washington'" of
Uruguay, and he was the special champion of
representative government in the River Plate area
which encompasses Uruguay. Paraguay, and Ar-
gentina. ]5orn on June 19,"^ 17()1, he devoted the
major \r,ivt of his life fo tiie creation of a federa-
tion of (lie River Plate countries based on the
example set by the then young republic of the
United States of America. When these efforts
failed, he was instrumental in the creation of the
Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Artigas died on September 2;'.. ISGO, aiid. today,
his name is remembered not only for his military
prowess but also for the democratic principles
whicli always guid(Ml his actions.

'l"he present gift is really the second .statue of
Artigas to he given to the United States; the first
was presented to the city of Montevideo. Minne-
sota, wjiere it was dedicated last July.



Supplementary Tax Conventions
Signed by U.S.-Canada

[Rclcdscd to the press June i.}]

On June 12, 1950, there were signed in Ottawa,
by the American Charge d'Affaires ad interim and
the Canadian Minister of Finance, two supple-
mentary tax conventions (treaties) between the
United States and Canada. One of the conven-
tions supplements the income-tax convention and
protocol of March 4, 1942, and the other supple-
ments the estate-tax convention of June 8, 1944.

These supplementary conventions will be sub-
mitted to the President for transmission to the
Senate for consideration with a view to ratification.

The supplementary conventions set forth cer-
tain modifications in, or additions to, the respec-
tive conventions to which they relate and, accord-
ing to their terms, will enter into force upon the
exchange of instruments of ratification.

Physiologist To Visit Brazil

Dr. Harold F. Deutsch, associate professor of
physiological chemistry at the University of Wis-
consin Medical School, has been awarded a grant-
in-aid to serve as visiting professor at the Univer-
sity of Brazil during the sunmier term.

Peace Through Strength — (Continued from page 10J,l)

recent developments in otir foreign affairs stem-
ming from the London meetings and their relation
to the total pattern of our efforts, necessarily
leaves aside many other important aspects of our
foreign policy.

There are the problems concerning Germany
and Japan, concerning our relations with other
important areas of the world, such as Asia, Africa,
and the Near East, and with our neighbors in
Latin America. Any complete review of our for-
eign policy nnist also speak of the importance we
attach to our relations with the United Nations
aiul the kind of a world order toward which we
hope our efforts will lead.

Some of these matters, I hope to take up in the
course of several public talks wiiich J am to give
later this month.

]My i)uri)().se tonight has been to tell you of the
progress we are making toward greater strength
and unity among free peoples.

'J'his jirogress has been heartening, hut much re-
mains to he done. With your understanding and
your support, we shall succecil in our efforts to
preserve the jjcace, for the creative power of free
]n'iiplc is an in\incible force.



1056



Department of Sfafe Bulletin



The United States and the Underdeveloped Areas



hy George C. McGhee, Assistant Secretary for Near Eastern,
South Asian and African Affairs '



In discussing the subject of our interest and role
in the underdeveloped areas of the world, illustra-
tions shall be drawn chiefly from the area repre-
sented in the Bureau of Near Eastern, South
Asian, and African Affairs, which includes
Greece, Turkey, and Iran, the Arab states and Is-
rael, Afghanistan, Ceylon, Burma and the sub-
continent of India and Pakistan, and most of the
African continent. This region covers about 28
percent of the world's area. It is inhabited by
more than 690 million people, or some 30 percent
of the population of the world. It comprises the
majority of the underdeveloped areas of the world
to which we currently have access.

The diversities between these territories are
striking. It would be difficult to find a generali-
zation which was truly applicable to all of them,
but if there is a common denominator, it is the very
one with which we are concerned today. Through-
out these enormous land masses, there exists petro-
leum and mineral resources, forests and river sys-
tems, and potentially rich lands, which have in no
sense been developed to a degree commensurate
with the great numbers, needs, or aspirations of
the peoples to whom they belong as a natural in-
heritance. These people know that their coun-
tries are underdeveloped. They feel strongly
that they are entitled to participate in the world's
material progress. Because they have been so
long delayed, they are the more impatient to get
on with their development.

Influencing Factors

In broad terms, the United States has an inter-



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 108 of 116)