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the Government and people of India than they
have at present.

There is growing daily in the United States a
better understanding of the high aspirations of
India and of the difficult and complicated problems
which must be overcome in the attainment of such
aspirations. The Ajnerican Government and peo-
ple wish to do what is proper, effective, and pos-
sible to be of assistance. They realize, however,
that India's problems are of a character wliich can
be solved basically only by the Government and
people of India, and they have confidence that
India is equal to the tasks before it.

During recent weeks, there have been current in
New Delhi rumors to the effect that there is a grow-
ing coolness on the part of the Government and
people of the United States toward India. I un-
derstand that these rumors have come to the atten-
tion of a number of members of the Council. I am
told that some of my friends who are inclined to
believe in the truth of these rumors submit as evi-
dence of this growing coolness various articles
which have appeared in the American press criti-
cizing the position taken by India with regard to
various international problems. The fact that the
United States representatives in the Security
Council have also not always seen eye to eye with
those of India is also advanced as evidence of a
lack of friendliness on the part of the American
Government toward India.

I refer to these rumors with some hesitation
since I am sure that most of you and, in fact, most
Indians who have been following international
developments give no credence to them. The ma-
jority of you are aware that, in a democratic coun-
try, the press is free to criticize, from time to time,
the policies of its own government as well as those
of various foreign governments. Some of this
criticism is constructive ; some of it, unfortunately,



is not helpful. A careful study of all of the ar-
ticles relating to India which have appeared in the
American press during the last few months, I am
convinced, would indicate a friendly attitude and
a desire for greater understanding between our
two countries. Similarly, it is not likely that our
two Governments should always regard interna-
tional problems from precisely the same point of
view. The fact that, with respect to some point
or other, the Government of the United States
may not have been in full agreement with the Gov-
ernment of India in the United Nations should not
be interpreted as an indication that the attitude
of the United States with regard to India is grow-
ing unfriendly.

The United States, like India, is really trying
to make decisions on the basis of merit with regard
to each international problem which presents it-
self to the United Nations. Like India, we try
not to permit considerations of friendship or close
association to influence such decisions. It is a
matter of record that from time to time sharp
differences arise with respect to particular prob-
lems between the United States and countries with
which it has a long history of friendship and
cooperation. Such differences, however, are not
allowed to affect the general relations between the
United States and these countries.



Security Measures Against Aggression

I am sure from conversations which I have had
with some of my friends who are here this after-
noon that they are thinking somewhat as follows:
We have no criticism of the foreign policies of the
United States as outlined but if the United States
is really pursuing a policy of i)eace why does
it have the atomic bomb and why is it develop-
ing the hydrogen bomb? A peace-loving state
should have nothing to do with instruments of
destruction.

My answer is that these bombs, as well as other
equally terrifying weapons, are just as abhorrent
to the United States as they are to India. Tlie
United States, however, may not be the only comi-
try capable of producing them. For quite a num-
ber of yeai-s, other powers have been concentrating
their efforts to manufacture weapons of this kind.
So long as there is a possibility that forces of ag-
gression may be developing these instruments of
ma.ss destruction, the United States caimot afford
to fall behind.

It would be a gross betrayal of the free peoples
of the world, including those of the United States,
foi- the American Government to pursue a policy
which might result in a situation in which the sole
possessors of these weapons would be countries
which would not hesitate to use them for the pur-
pose of reducing the whole world to a kind of
serfdom which prevails among those nations over



566



Department of State Bulletin



whom they have already succeeded in obtaining
doinination.

In order to prevent the use of atomic energy in
the destruction of mankind, the United States lias
proposed several years ago that, under the auspices
of the United Nations, there be international con-
trol of atomic materials and of (he operation of
atomic plants. Unfortunately, tiie Soviet Union
has not agreed to this suggestion. The United
States therefore has no choice other than to con-
tinue to develop these deadly weapons.

It is significant, in this connection, that no
neighlK)rs of the United States have indicated
fe4ir that it might take advantage of its possession
of atomic weapons in order to enforce its will upon
them or to deprive them of their freedom.

A pix)minent member of the United States Sen-
ate in commenting upon the decision of the Presi-
dent that the Atomic Energy Connnission should
continue its work on atomic weapons, including
the hydrogen bomb, summarized the feelings of
most Americans when he said,

The country has no alternative except to build the hydro-
gen bomb. We have tried to get international control of
these bomb weapons with accompanying rigid inspection
to see that the agreement is carried out. We have been
unsuccessful in this quest. Therefore we must provide
for our own security weapons at least equal and we hope
superior to those of any conceivable would-be aggressor.
In the present circumstances this is the surest way to pre-
vent an attack upon us. Our failure to build while other
nations are building the hydrogen bomb conceivably could
put us at the nicny of a foreign power and destroy at once
our own security as well as dismember the democratic
liberty-loving world. However, while we are doing this
we should keep the door open for control of these mass-
destruction weapons with a rigid inspection that would
give us the security we must have.

I am sure that, although some of the coimtries of
the free world may disagree with various aspects
of the policies of the United States in respect to
Asia, the majority of them within the limits im-
posed upon them by force of geogi-aphical, eco-
nomic, and other factors are in general following
policies similar to those which I have tried to out-
line. The United States does not have the power,
the influence, the resources, or the ability to attain
singlehanded the objectives of its policies with
regard to Asia. It is not endeavoring so to do.

It depends upon the cooperation of all those in
Asia as well as in other continents who feel that
it would be unspeakably tragic if the peoples of
Asia, after having made so gallant a struggle for
the realization of their right to national existence
and after having attained a position which would
enable them to shape their own destinies, be forced
under a new tyranny much more ruthless and total
than any that they have hitherto experienced.



Radio Stations in U.S. Area

in Germany Shift to New Frequencies

[Released to the press March IS]

All radio broadcasting services in the United
States area of control in Germany will shift to a
new pattern of frequencies beginning March 15,
1950. The pattern of frequencies arranged for the
United States area of control in Germany should
not be confused with the Copenhagen Plan, which
goes into effect on the same day and provides for
the redistribution of medium- and long-wave
broadcasting frequencies throughout most of
Europe,

The shift in frequencies in the United States
area of control of Germany moves to new wave
lengths the operations of the established radio sta-
tions in the United States area of control in Ger-
many, together with the radio broadcasting serv-
ices necessary for the Occupation Forces and the
Voice of America relays. Under the Copenhagen
Plan, the frequencies used for these broadcasts
would have been, for the most part, withdrawn
from Germany and distributed among other Euro-
pean areas. The United States considers it is im-
portant that the jjeople of Europe be given access
to all possible radio services and feels that the
significance of the free flow of information in
the development of democratic institutions and
the conditions favorable to an enduring peace can-
not be overestimated.

In the summer of 1948, representatives of most
European nations gathered in Copenhagen. They
drafted a plan now known as the Copenhagen
Plan which calls for a redi.stribution of European
radio broadcast frequencies. Germany was with-
out representation at the Conference. The United
States was invited to attend but only in the ca-
pacity of an observer. The Conference failed to
take into account the minimum essential require-
ments for radio broadcasting in the United States
area of control in Germany, and the United States
announced that it did not feel bound to the ob-
servation of the Copenhagen Plan.

Since the summer of 1948, the United States has
made every effort to contribute to an equitable solu-
tion of the problem of allocating European fre-
quencies. The new pattern of frequencies which
will be used in the United States area of control
in Germany after March 14, 1950, is expected to
represent a number of agreements which the
United States is negotiating. They include the
shared use of certain frequencies with other Euro-
pean nations. The United States is prepared to
continue its efforts in the search for arrangements
which will protect the interests of all parties
concerned.



Apr/7 10, 7950



567



Soviets Exploit Sinkiang
Oil and IVIineral Resources

Statement ly Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press March 31]

Several weeks ago, I emphasized Soviet moves
against China's border provinces as one of the
most significant developments in Asia today.
Wlien the texts of the Sino-Soviet agreements con-
cluded in Moscow were announced, I pointed out
that the important thing was not the provisions in
them but the results which would flow from them.

The recent announcement in the Soviet press of
the setting up of two joint companies to exploit
the oil and mineral resources of Sinkiang Province
gives further point to what I said. We now see
the apparent resumption on a grand scale of the
process of detachment of Sinkiang Province, a
process begun years ago and interrupted only
briefly during the most desperate period of the
last war. The device now being employed is that
of the joint stock company, now familiar as an
instrument of Soviet economic penetration and
control in Manchuria and Eastern Europe. It
seems clear that the effect of one of the unpub-
lished agreements arrived at in Moscow last winter
was to award the U.S.S.E. pre-eminent rights in
China's strategic western province.

The peoples of Asia will be interested to note
that, under the terms of the agreements, as an-
nounced, one-half of the rnineral and petroleum
production accomplished will go to the U.S.S.R.,
leaving only one-half for the use of impoverished
China. Evidently, Soviet economic "aid" is not
cheaply bought, requiring, as we see in this case,
both impairment of sovereignty and relinquish-
ment of 50 percent of current production.



Evacuation of Americans
From Shanghai

Statement hy Secretary Acheson
[Released to the press March SI]

Every effort is being made to carry out the evac-
uation of American citizens from Shanghai. We
are hopeful that it will be completed shortly.

Shanghai authorities refused permission for the
LST's to be used as shuttle craft on the Yangtze to
carry passengers and cargo from Shanghai to the
General Gordon which was unable to enter the
Yangtze because of the danger of mines.

Our consul general, together with the American
President Lines' agent in Shanghai, then worked



out a local plan to charter two shallow draft
Chinese-owned ships to ferry passengers down the
Yangtze to the Gordon; but, by the time this plan
had been worked out, the General Gordon was al-
ready en route to Honolulu, where she arrived to-
day on her regular schedule.

Since it would cost almost one-half million dol-
lars to turn the Gordon back to Shanghai, it is not
considered feasible to do so. Since the two LST's
also cannot be used, we have today ordered their
return to Japan.

We are now making arrangements in Manila to
charter three commercial ships, two flying the
Philippine flag and one under Panamanian regis-
try. These ships will rendezvous off the Yangtze
for the transfer of passengers and cargo from the
Chinese ships.

These arrangements, of course, are subject to
securing the approval of the Chinese Communist
authorities in Shanghai for this operation. We
assume they will approve and, accordingly, are
proceeding with the plan as I have outlined it.



U.S. and U.K. Discuss Administration
for Canton and Enderbury Islands

[Released to the press March 27]

Representatives of the United Kingdom and
the United States met in Washington today to dis-
cuss the establishment of a system of joint admin-
istration for Canton and Enderbury Islands. The
meeting is expected to continue through March 29.

The Government of the United States and the
Government of the United Kingdom, without
prejudice to their respective claims to Canton and
Enderbury Islands, agreed, on April 6, 1939, to a
joint control over these islands for a period of 50
years. This agreement also provided that the ad-
ministration of the islands should be determined
by the two Governments in consultation as occa-
sion might require.

Sir Brian Freeston, British High Commissioner
for the Western Pacific and Governor of Fiji,
heads the United Kingdom delegation which is
composed of K. K. Thompson, Colonial Attache
British Embassy, J. E. S. Fawcett, Legal Adviser,
Britisli Embassy, D. C. Tebbit, Second Secretary,
British Embassy.

The United States is represented by Conrad E.
Snow, Chairman, Department of State, William
R. Vallance, Department of State, J. Harold Shul-
law, Department of State, Mrs. Shirley Boskey,
Department of the Interior, Franklin S. Pollak,
Department of Justice, R. D. McCree, Depart-
ment of Commerce, C. O. Schick, Department of
Connnerce, and Matthew J. Marks, Department
of the Treasury.



568



Deparfmenf of State Bulletin



INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND CONFERENCES



NAC Invited To Meet at London

[Released to the: press March ^S]

The Department of State has been actively con-
sidering for some time the possibility of a meeting
of the North Atlantic Council (N.vc) in Europe
with Foreign Ministers attending. Representa-
tives of other North Atlantic Treaty nations have,
on several occasions, during the past few months,
communicated with Secretary' Acheson as to the
possibility of such a meeting in the spring. Mr.
Bevin has communicated to the Secretary, as the
first j-ear chairman of the Council, an invitation
for the Council to meet in London, probably in
May.

Yesterday, there was a meeting here of the In-
ternational Working Group which serves the
Council, and Mr. Bevin's invitation was communi-
cated to the representatives of the other North
Atlantic Treaty nations. It was proposed by the
United States representative that Mr. Bevin's
invitation be accepted and that the Council meet
in London about the middle of Maj'. It is ex-
pected that the views of all member nations will
be received shortly as to the desirability of a Coun-
cil meeting and as to location and exact date.

In view of the desire of Mr. Bevin, Mr. Schu-
man, and the Secretary to meet as often as is useful
and convenient, they will take the opportunity
affoi-ded by the Council meeting to conduct discus-
sions on certain other problems of mutual concern.



Tin Study Group Estimates

Future Production and Consumption

[Released to the press March SO]

The International Tin Study Group met in
Paris during the last week under the chairmanship
of Georges Peter, Director of Economic Affairs at
the Ministry for French Overseas Territories.
The Group included representatives from Bel-
gimn, Bolivia, British colonial and dependent ter-
ritories, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, France,
India, Indonesia, Italy, the Netherlands, Thailand,
the United Kingdom, and the United States, and



observers from the United Nations, the Organiza-
tion for European Economic Cooperation, and the
Tin Research Institute. Clarence Nichols on the
Economic Resources and Security Staff Depart-
ment of State, was the United States delegate.

The Group examined the future position of the
tin industry and the likely trends in its production
and consumption under assumed conditions. It
estimated tliat world production, which had been
161,000 long tons in 1949, would be 172,000 tons in
1950, 191,000 tons in 1951 and 199,000 tons in 1952.
In these estimates, it was assiuned that conditions
conducive to full production and also political and
social stability in the main producing countries
would exist; it further assumed only production
from plant and equipment already in operation,
under rehabilitation and under commitment.

Unrestricted consumption of tin for commercial
purposes under full industrial production was esti-
mated at 127,000 long tons in 1950, 136,000 tons
in 1951, and 140,000 tons in 1952. World consump-
tion of tin, in 1949, had been 118,000 tons.

These estimates of production and consumption
did not take account of the U.S.S.R., whose posi-
tion is not known. Only nominal production and
consumption figures were included for China.

The estimates showed, therefore, that there
might be an excess of production over consump-
tion for commercial purposes of about 45,000 tons
in 1950 and higher figures later. On the other
hand, it appeared very likely that for some time
(although the Group could not indicate for how
long ahead) substantial tonnages of tin would be
absorbed by the United States for strategic stock-
piling purposes over and above the demand for
commercial purposes.

The Group also considered a draft international
tin agreement drawn up by a working party in
November, 1949, the objective of which was to at-
tain a degree of equilibrium between supply and
demand in general harmony with the principles
of the Habana charter. The Group amended and
modified this draft agreement in numy respects as
regards its general provisions as well as its de-
tailed provisions for the control of exports and a
buffer stock.

The Group did not reach unanimous agreement
concerning future steps. The Group, by a ma-
jority, adopted a resolution requesting the Secre-
tary-General of the United Nations to convene,



April 10, 1950



569



in accordance with the ijrovisions of the Habana
charter, a United Nations conference at any early
date to which all members of the United Nations
would be invited in order to discuss a commodity-
control agreement on tin. Nine members (Aus-
tralia, Belgium, Bolivia, British colonial and
dependent territories, Canada, India, the Nether-
lands, the United Kingdom, and Indonesia) sup-
ported the resolution. Three members (China,
Thailand, and France) abstained. Two members
(Italy and Czechoslovakia) were not present at
the final session and took no part in the considera-
tion of the resolution. "W^iile none of the govern-
ments at this stage is committed to any text, the
draft agi-eement prepared by the Study Group will
be submitted by the Study Group to the Secretary-
General of the United Nations as the basis for dis-
cussion at such a conference and will be published
by the secretariat of the Study Group in the near
future.



South Pacific Conference

The Department of State announced on March
31 that South Seas Islanders — representatives of
various Pacific island peoples, Samoans, Fijians,
Solomon, and New Guinea islanders — will hold a
conference, April 25-May 6, at Suva, capit^al of
Fiji, to discuss common problems of health, village
schooling, and their general economic and social
welfare.

This South Pacific Conference is unique in that,
for the fii-st time in history, representatives of the
various territories of the region are meeting to-
gether to consider their mutual problems and to
make recommendations for solving these problems
on a regional basis. The convening of such a
conference has been made possible through the
collaborative efforts of the six Metropolitan Gov-
ernments which are members of the South Pacific
Commission.

This Commission was established in 1948 as a
consultative and advisory body to the six Govern-
ments with non-self-governing territories in the
Soutli Seas area — Australia, France, Netherlands,
New Zealand, United Kingdom, and the United
States.

The South Pacific Conference is an auxiliary
body to the Commission and was provided for by
the terms of the agreement establishing the Com-
mission in order to associate with the work of the
Commission representatives of the local inliab-
itants and official and nonofficial institutions in
the territories of the area. The agreement states
that a session of the Conference shall be convoked
within 2 years after the agreement comes into
force, and after that, at 3-year intervals. The
Conference will be convened at such intervals in
one of the territories within the scope of the Com-
mission, and the chairman of each session will be



one of the Commissioners of the Government in
whose territory the session is held. Sir Brian
Freeston, K.C.M.G., O.B.E., Senior Commissioner
for the United Kingdom, British High Commis-
sioner for the Western Pacific and Governor of
Fiji, will preside at this first session.

The one United States possession which falls
within the scope of the South Pacific Commission
is American Samoa. The delegates to attend tliis
first meeting from American Samoa were selected
bytheFono (Island Legislature) of that territory
and consists of two of the senior chiefs. High
Chief Tuitele and High Chief Tufele. Advisers
will be High Talking Chief Tuiasosopo and Lt.
E. V. P. Home, USN, Assistant Attorney Gen-
eral for the Island.

In addition to the 15 non-self-goveniing terri-
tories (Papua, New Guinea, Nauru, Western
Samoa, Cook Islands, Tokelau Islands, New Cale-
donia and dependencies, French Oceanic Estab-
lishments, Fiji, British Solomon Island Protector-
ate, Condiminium of New Hebrides, Gilbert
Islands, Ellice Islands, Netherlands New Guinea,
and American Samoa) , the independent Kingdom
of Tonga will send a delegation.

Meetings will be held at Nasinu Training Col-
lege. One interesting feature of the Conference
will be the exhibits brought to the meeting by the
delegates which will enable the various groups to
become acquainted with each other's ways of liv-
ing. Tlie exhibits will generally be limited to
portable items such as fishing tackle, tools, maps,
photographs, and films. Any such exhibits
donated by the delegates will form part of the
Commission's library-museum.

English and French will be the official languages
of the Conference. Various delegations are bring-
ing their own interpreters to translate into the
dialects of the region.

The Conference will have three main topics for
consideration and papers are, in some instances,
being prepared by the delegates themselves. All
of the subjects will be presented by the delegates.

The main topics of discussion are: Public
health — (mosquito control and the healthy vil-
lage) ; social development — (the village school,
vocational training, and cooperative societies) ;
economic development — (fisheries methods, im-
provement and diversification of food and export
crops).

The last item on the agenda will give the dele-
gates the opportunity to propose subjects for the
next session of the Conference.

The Conference will be followed by the fifth
session of the South Pacific Commission at which
recommendations made by the Conference will be
considered.

The two United States Commissioners, Dr.
Felix M. Keesing of Stanford University, and
Milton Shalleck, attorney of New York City, will
attend the Conference as observers. Robert R.



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 13 of 116)