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failed, but if we are to be criticized it is perhaps

April 10, J 950


because we were not active and aggressive enough
to succeed. At least we tried.

The Senator states that I was active in the
launching of the American Union for Concerted
Peace Efforts. That is true and I am proud of
the fact.

He states that the American Union for Con-
certed Peace Efforts was cited as a Communist-
front organization. That is less than a half-truth,
It was, in fact, cited by the Dies Committee on
March 29, 1944, but not as a Communist-front
organization. It was cited as "an organization
with the same aims as the American Congress for
Peace and Democi-acy, a Communist-front advo-
cating collective security prior to the signing of
the Stalin-Hitler Pact" of 1939. The American
Union for Concerted Peace Efforts did advocate
collective security. So did the loyal members of
the League of Nations. So do all the loyal mem-
bers of the present United Nations. These aims
appear to have been shared by the American Con-
gress for Peace and Democracy up to the time of
the Stalin-Hitler Pact. No other aims were
shared by that organization and the American
Uhion for Concerted Peace Efforts. These aims
were, of course, abandoned by the Communists,
according to the party line, upon the announce-
ment of the Pact. They were not abandoned by
the American Union for Concerted Peace Efforts;
on the contrary they were intensified.

The Senator states that the leader of the Ameri-
can Union for Concerted Peace Efforts was the
editor of the Daily Worker. Tliis is entirely false.
The editor of the Daily Worker was a member of
the Executive Committee of the American Con-
gress for Peace and Democracy. Neither he nor
any other Communist played any part in the direc-
tion of the American Union for Concerted Peace
Efforts. The Chairman of the Executive Com-
mittee of the American Union for Concerted Peace
Efforts was Dr. Clark M. Eichelberger, at that
time President of the American Association for
the League of Nations and now President of the
American Association for the United Nations.
The fifteen other members of the Executive Com-
mittee, including myself, were persons of known
loyalty to the United States. There were no Com-
munists in this group. The American Uiiion for
Concerted Peace Efforts was succeeded by the Wil-
liam Allen 'WHiite Committee to Defend America
by Aiding the Allies. The work of this Com-
mittee, in combating the Communist Party line,
is well known. I was one of the founders of this

Mr. Chairman, I think I have answered Senator
McCarthy's charges against me. If any of my
answers is not entirely clear, I should be glad to
supplement them to the best of my ability. I
would like to present a group of letters which I
have been requested to deliver to the Chairman.

I offer also a list of my publications. It is pos-

sible that a very brief summary of the high points
in my career may save time in the end.

I was born and brought up in the State of Cali-
fornia. I received my Ph.D. at Stanford Uni-
versity in 1927 in History and Political Science.
My principal interest since my graduation has
been in international relations. My first job was
in that field. It lasted 17 years. It was with
the American Association of University Women.
I have been in the Department of State ever since.

One of my most important projects for the
American Association of University Women may
be considered to deserve special mention. This
was a study of national defense in relation to
foreign policy which was undertaken by the Na-
tional Committee on the Cause and Cure of War
under a commission of which I was chairman.
The report, entitled National Defense^ Institutions,
Concepts, Policies, was published in 1937 by the
Women's Press of the YWCA. After that, the
Commission reported annually on the problems of
the national defense establishment which were
important in the ever more critical international
situation. Admiral Standley, who was then Chief
of Naval Operations, has stated to me that he con-
siders that this study was largely responsible for
converting various pacifistic organizations in this
country and thus making possible an immediate
program of rearmament.

In this regard, I think the Committee will also
be interested in the part that I played in the inter-
national activities of the American Association of
University Women during the critical period of
1939-41, the period of the Stalin-Hitler Friend-
ship Pact. These activities culminated in the
resolution of May 8, 1941, adopted by the Biennial
Convention of the Association in which they voted

Recognition of a common cause with all nations resist-
ing totalitarian aggression and furnishing of whatever
aid we can give to make this resistance effective.

This was in direct opposition to the Communist
line at that time. Of course, I don't want the
Committee to believe that I did all this single-
handed. I was a staff member, but it was a
development of opinion in which I participated
and of which I am proud.

Between 1941 and the beginning of 1946, there
is nothing of particular interest to this Committee
in my career except my work with Mi'. Bloom at
San Francisco in 1945. In February 1946, I was
designated representative of the United States on
the Preparatory Commission for Unesco. In my
work with Unesco, I have attended sessions of the
general conferences at Paris, Mexico City, and
Beirut. Those who have worked with me could
tell you that I have been diligent in devising ways
to thwart the attempts of Communists to use
Unesco for their own purposes.

Milton Eisenhower, President of Kansas State
College, was at those conferences as a delegate.


Department of Slate BuUelin

He has iisked me to deliver a letter to you, Mr.
Cliairmaii, in wliicli he is kiiul enoujih to make the
followiiig statement regarding my work :

I would say that the present ideolotilcal warfare in tlie
world is Doctor Brnnaiier's chief concern, and in this she
is constantly workiiis to uphold United States policy, as
well as the democratic philosophy generally, and to de-
feat the devious and clover tactics of the Russians and
their satellites. At the .Mexico City conference In 1047,
for example, she spent a f\ill menth in counteracting the
efforts of the Uussian-dominated Polish delcRation to pin
the tas of ••warmonger" on the Western democracies, and
esi>ecially on the United States. She worked with de-
votion, precision, and effect. She was completely sincere
in all she did.

I would like to refer briefly to the charges made
by Senator McCarthy against my husband, Dr.
Stephen Bninauer. As to my hus\)and's past, his
Communist connections existed a very long time
ago, more than 20 years ago, in fact. He came to
this country at the age of 18 as an immigi-ant.
He was without friends, without money, and with-
out a command of the language. He was eager for
American companionship, but this was largely de-
nied him. His need for friends and companions
was filled, in his first years here, by a group of
young people of similar national origin who spoke
the same language, and these people unfortunately
were largely Communists. They brought him into
the Hungarian section of the Young Workers
League. After about 3 years, he began to under-
stand the operations of the Communist movement
more clearly and to see more clearly its conflict
with American institutions. He dropped out of
the Young Workers League early in 1927 and has
not been a member of any Communist group since
that time. His association with individuals in the
Communist movement diminished rapidly after he
came to Washington in 1928. By 1932, he' had been
denounced by the Comminiists as a deserter from
their cause.

My husband is a loyal American. He has de-
voted himself to our national defense, and his posi-
tive contributions have been widely recognized.
My husband is an outspoken opponent of commu-
nism. He has done whatever lay -within his power
to thwart the Communists. We have as a neighbor
and are privileged to have as a friend one of your
former colleagues. Senator Joseph H. Ball. He
has asked me to present a letter to the Chairman
and I would like to do so now. I would like to
quote the last few lines of the letter :

As you know, Stephen Brunauer was born in Hungary
and spent his youth there. Many of his boyhood friends
have been victims of Communist dictatorship. He is per-
haps the most violently anti-Communist i>erson I know.

I have no he.sitation in vouching for the complete loyalty
of Stephen and Esther Brunauer to the United States
and to our way of life.


Mh. Cii.muman : I appreciate tiie opportunity to
appear before your Conmiittee.

On March 13, Senator McCarthy testified before
this Committee that I had "pro-Communist pro-
clivities" and that I was a man with "a mission
to communize the world." He even compared a
book I once wrote with Hitler's "Mein Kampf."

Mr. Chairman, "Communist" is the nastiest
word in (lie American vocabularj' today. In this
country, it stands for an individual who is a sneak,
a thief, a liar, a traitor. It makes no difference
whether you qualify the word and say a man is
pro-Conmiunist, or has an aflinity for communism,
or has pro-Communist proclivities. They all mean
that he is the dirtiest, lowest type of man.

I deeply resent this attack upon my loyalty. I
wish to state now, under oath, that I am not a
Communist. I have never been a Communist. I
have never belonged to an organization cited by
the Attorney General as being a Communist-front
organization. I have never knowingly associated
with an espionage agent of a foreign power. I
have never advocated the Communist form of gov-
ernment anywhere, at any time, for any people.

I have never committed any act which was disloyal
to the United States.

If Senator McCarthy will say directly what he
has insinuated, if he will call me a Communist in
that kind of direct American English which Mid-
Avesterners are accustomed to using, and say it
without the benefit of Senatorial immunity, I as-
sure him that he will be called upon to answer to
me in a court of justice at the earliest practicable

On what does Senator McCarthy base his serious
charges that I have pro-Communist proclivities
and that I have a mission to communize the world ?
Does he base these charges on evidence that I am
a member of the Communist Party ? Does he claim
to have evidence that I have been associated with
organizations which have been designated by the
Attorney General as Communist fronts? Does
he have any evidence that I have followed the
Communist Party line in its slavish adherence to
the needs of Soviet foreign policy during the past

II years? Surely a man with a mission to com-
munize the world would have performed some
overt service for the Communist Party during this
period. The reason Senator McCarthy does not
have this evidence is because it does not exist. I

' Made before a Subcommittee of the Senate Committee
on Foreign Relations on Mar. 28, 1930, and released to the
press on the same date.

April 10, 1950


am confident that an investigation of my political
philosophy and my moi'al character will convince
you that both compare favorably with those of any
loyal American who is conscious of his duties of
citizenship and is striving to live honorably in his

An examination of my record will disprove
Senator McCarthy's accusations. That record has
been examined by the Government through a com-
prehensive FBI investigation comiileted in 1948
under the President's government-wide loyalty
procedures. My activities in China as well as in
the United States were covered, and my writings
were reviewed. Senator McCarthy produced no
new facts before this Committee which were not
available to those investigators. In fact, he pro-
duced nothing that I hadn't put in a public library.
After the FBI investigation, I was given a com-
jilete clearance by the Department of State.

In the course of these investigations, I made
available to the officers concerned not only a full
file of my public writings but even a personal diary
which I had kept during the entire period that I
was with the Chinese Communists.

Mr. Chairman, I wholeheartedly believe in the
President's loyalty program, and I want to help
in every possible way to maintain the public's con-
fidence in the loyalty of its servants.

I believe that subversives can be ferreted out of
the Government by the quiet, sober, thorough
methods now used by the FBI. The kind of public
denunciation, labeling, and hate-mongering with
which we now are dealing is alien to the traditions
of the United States and more closely resembles
the purges of another political system.

Mr. C'hairman, let me tell you what the impact
was on me when my picture suddenly appeared in
the newspapers under the caption '"'Red in State

On March 13, without any warning or oppor-
tunity to present my side of the case, I was called
out of a meeting and told that Senator McCarthy
had named me to this Committee as one of the cases
which he claimed would prove his charge that
there were Communists in the State Department.

I spent the rest of that day and practically all of
the following day answering queries from the
jjress and radio.

By the third day, I acquii'ed a false feeling of
optimism that came from reading and listening to
viewpoints that coincided with my own. Many
editorials said Senator McCarthy had not proved
his case. So did many columnists and connnen-
tators. Telegrams and letters from my personal
friends told me it was ridiculous. Colleagues in
the State Department told me not to worry abovit
it. I thought that by the end of the week it would
be forgotten, hoping that reasonable people who
read the newspapers would know the charges were
not true.

That was the point at which I got my second
shock. I went to see an elderly neighbor about

helping me with some fencing on a farm I own in

He told me that the day before he had been
standing at this mail box when several other neigh-
bors stopped by. One said, "Could you believe it,
that we have had a Russian spy living in our
neighborhood all these years and didn't know it?"

I went on to the home of the man who has been
feeding my cattle this winter. He said he had
been asked by a lumiber of persons in Leesburg, the
county seat, whether he intended to keep on work-
ing for "that Communist."

From a housewife in the village near my farm,
]\Irs. Hanson got word of a petition being circu-
lated, calling my family undesirable and asking
us to get out of the community. I have since veri-
fied this report from several sources.

My latest information of this kind concerns a
meeting of a counti-y agricultural committee at
Leesburg at which a Virginia State official from
Richmond, in the presence of a number of farmers,
denounced the growing number of Communists in
government and named me as one of them. As far
as I know, he had never heard of me until Senator
McCarthy's charges.

I do not recount these facts to appeal for
sympathy. The farming connnunity in which I
live consists of no more than 50 families. It is
noted for its active church and PTA. It is a good
American community. I want you to know what
is happening in this one community. It may be
happening in other communities across the land.
I learned one thing from these experiences. To
many loyal Americans, who have read the asser-
tions about Communists still in the Government,
any American whose name a]3pears in the news-
papers charged with being a Communist is guilty
until proved innocent.

I deeply resent the action of a United States
Senator, shielded by his Congressional immunity,
who makes charges without investigation and thus
starts a ground swell of hate.

Senator McCarthy recommended that this Com-
mittee examine my background and philosophy.
I would like to submit fuller information on this
subject than Senator McCarthy was able to quote
from the Department of State Register.

My Norwegian grandparents came to this coun-
try about 1870 and settled in the little town of
Sparta, Wisconsin, a little over 100 miles from
Senator McCarthy's home town. The family home
there is still occupied by Hansons. Various uncles,
cousins, and nephews of mine, including Thomp-
sons, Olsons, and Lundquists, are scattered in many
towns of Wisconsin.

My father aiid mother settled in the neighboring
State of INIinnesota, where I was born in the iron-
mining town of Virginia, Minnesota, the second of
five children. I went to public school in Duluth,

I was active in the YIMCA from the age of 10.
I went to YMCA .summer camps and was presi-


Depatimeni of State Bulletin

(lent of the Hi-Y Club duriiifi my liigh school
years. From the age of 12 I was a Boy Scout.
I became an Eagle Scout, a Boy Scout Camp
Counselor, and served as Scout Master during my
first year of college. I was active in the Presby-
terian Church, of which all my immediate family
were nicmbers. My father was a Sunday School

During my senior year in high school, I was
awarded a sununer in Eui'opo as a result of an
essay contest sponsored by a boys' magazine. The
award included only my travel expenses from
New York City to Europe and back to New York.
I recall I went through a period of some uncer-
tainty when I was unable to raise the necessary
travel costs to New York, but a neighbor, an arclii-
tect for the United States Steel Corporation, ar-
ranged for me to travel down the Great Lakes and
back on one of the compajiy's ore boats. I was
then able to spend several months visiting in
European homes, mainly in Scandinavia.

I attended Duluth Junior College for a year and
Carleton College at Northfield, Minnesota for 3
years. By means of scholarships, a job waiting
on table, and loans, I was able to finish my college
education during the depression. I majored in
historj- and political science. I was a debater
and on the track squad. I was elected to Phi Beta

Carleton College for 40 years has maintained an
afHliation with a Chinese high school, called Carle-
ton-in-China, located in Shansi Province. I sup-
]50se it was through hearing about this school that
I became interested in Cliina. Before I decided
to go there, I talked it over with a newspaper man,
Jeff Jones, of the Minneapolis Star, and with Dr.
Walter Judd, then doing medical research at Mayo
Clinic. Both encouraged me. After graduation
in 1934, 1 borrowed a small amount of money and
made my way to Peiping, China.

At fii-st, I lived with a retired Chinese Minister
of Finance, working as a secretaiy and teaching
in a YMCA college. I studied Chinese. That
j-ear the Japanese Army was already holding
maneuvers along the railroads east of Peiping,
under an old treaty right, and there were a number
of shooting incidents.

My second year in Peiping, I held several teach-
ing positions and began free lance writing for pub-
lications in Shanghai. I spent the winter and
summer vacations traveling through 14 Chinese
provinces and writing articles for magazines in
China. During that year the Japanese Army
smashed the Chinese Government authority over
the customs service in North China, by sending
gangs of thugs to beat up the Chinese railroad

My third year, I taught English at Central
China College, one of the 13 Christian colleges in
China. I worked simultaneously as a "string"
correspondent for the Associated Press and wrote
editorials for the Hankow Herald. That was the

year that Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped, a truce
was reached in the civil war. and the Chinese Com-
munists agreed to fight against the Japanese under
the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek.

I have recently looked over my writing files for 3
years 1934 to 1937, inunediatcly preceding the in-
vasion. There are some (iOO pages of articles,
mostly contributed to pul)lications in China. I
was preoccupied with two subjects: one was the
menace of the Jai)ancso invasion; the other was
the appalling social problems of China. I wrote
articles about Chiang Kai-shek's military prepa-
ration, about the railroad network for defense, and
about the Japanese battle over the customs. I also
wrote about famines, flood control, the opium
trade, the land tax, and experiments with new
crops. I wrote no article about the Communists.

Then came the war. When the invasion began,
on July 7, 1937, it was no surprise. Our small
American community in China had witnessed
years of Japanese Army arrogance, bullying, and
deceit No normal American in China in 193^
could avoid a feeling of bitterness toward Japan
and an eagerness for successful Chinese resistance.
That was the big political issue. It was the mam
topic of conversation. It was the principal story
for newspaper men.

Two weeks before the war started, I returned to
Peiping, hoping to be around when the shooting
started!" For those 2 weeks, I assisted a Japanese
resistance magazine and did feature writing for
the Peking Chronicle. I was out at the Marco
Polo Bridge on the morning of the incident. I
was assigned thereafter as a full time correspond-
ent of the Associated Press and covered almost
every front in China.

I returned to the United States m January 1939.
During that year, I was married to Bernice Brovrn
of Chicago, who had been a fellow student m
college and later had served as a teacher at Carle-
ton-in-China. We now have two children: a
daughter, 4, and a son, 1.

I rejoined the Associated Press at Chicago m
1939, on the dav that Hitler invaded Poland, and
served as a staflf writer and editor until shortly
after Pearl Harbor. During this period, I studied
French and German at the Berlitz School in Chi-
cago, hoping that the AP would send me into the
European war zone.

In February 1942, I entered the Government.
It happened this way : The AP assigned me to
cover a meeting of the American Historical Asso-
ciation in Chicago during the Christmas holiday
season in 1941. I encountered a number of pro-
fessoi-s who had lived in China. They told me
that both the State Department and the Coordi-
nator of Information were looking for people with
China background. I wrote to both. I found that
the State Department was primarily interested in
someone to recruit civilian advisers for the Chinese
Government and wanted a per-son with a current
knowledge of conditions in west China where Gen-

April ?0, 1950


eral Chiang Kai-shek was making his war base.
I was hired by the Department to undertake that
assignment. I would like to submit, as an exhibit,
a list of the jobs I have since held in the Depart-
ment and the work I have done.

Without going into such details at this time, I
should like, however, to correct a few false impres-
sions given by Senator McCarthy.

In discussing my work with the Far East branch
of the FYiblic Affairs Overseas Program Staff in
1947-48, he implied that in this capacity I was
responsible for political policies. That staff was
entirely concerned with the Department's Far
Eastern information program, not with the formu-
lation of policies.

During my 8 years in the Department, I
have never been assigned to the Bureau of Far
Eastern Affairs, which is responsible for our politi-
cal policies in that area; nor have I ever held a
position which involved any responsibility for
such policies or in which my advice on such policies
was asked.

Also, in discussing my present work with the
Interim Office of Technical Cooperation and
Development, Senator McCarthy quoted from the
Departmental announcement of the creation of
this office a set of responsibilities which he said
were those of my division. He was quoting, how-
ever, the responsibilities of the Office Director, a
position now filled by a Class One Foreign Service
officer and to be filled under the new legislation by
an Administrator appointed by the President and
confirmed by the Senate.

Senator McCarthy then read another set of re-
sponsibilities which in actuality are those of not
one, but three Assistant Secretaries of State for
the various regional bureaus — i.e., Assistant Secre-
taries Butterworth, McGhee, and Miller — and
concluded :

This is all to be done by the unit to which Hanson has
been assigned as Chief.

I appreciate the promotion. My role is actually
of a more humble nature.

My only major private interest today, outside
the Department of State, is the management of a

Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 15 of 116)