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Department of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) online

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270-acre cattle farm in Loudon County, Virginia,
which I bought in 1945. Last year, I fattened 60
head of cattle and produced approximately 100
hogs. I have spent from 40 to GO days a year, in-
cluding most weekends and all my vacations, work-
ing on this farm, putting up new fences, repairing
buildings, and helping with the animals. I live
there with my family 7 or 8 months of the year and
commute to Washington.

My wife has been in real estate work, between
babies, and her earnings helped to pay for a new
silo and two cattle ponds at the farm.

If I have any "mission," other than trying to do
a good job at my work, it is to make tiiat a model
farm which will pay back the substantial amount
invested in new buildings and fences.



I should now like, Mr. Chairman, to take up
some of the specific items which Senator McCarthy
cited as evidence.

I take first his reference to my newspaper dis-
patches which were smuggled out of guerrilla ter-
ritory by arrangement with Chinese Communist
generals.

Senator McCarthy neglects to state that I was
with the Communist Army by assignment as a war
correspondent of the Associated Press, that this
was during the Japanese invasion of China ; that,
at the time, the Chinese Communists had signed a
truce with Chiang Kai-shek and were fighting
against the Japanese under the supreme command
of Chiang Kai-shek.

As a reporter, I found that the Chinese Com-
munists were putting up a good fight against the
Japanese, and I wrote about them as I saw them.

Now, it is grossly misleading to take objective
journalistic reports about the Chinese Communists
in 1938, at the time of a United Front with Chiang
Kai-shek against Japan, and to deduce from them
my attitude toward the Chinese Communists 11
years later, in the midst of a cold war between the
democracies and world communism.

I hesitate to draw such a comparison, but the
Senator could conclude with equal logic that Wins-
ton Churchill is guilty of pro-Communist pro-
clivities because, back in November 1943 he said :

That monstrous juggernaut engine of German might
and tyranny has been beaten and broken, outfought and
outmaueuvered by Russian valor, generalship and science.

There is no question in my mind that, since V-J
Day, the Chinese Communists have been guided
by their joint interests with the international Com-
munist movement.

Incidentally, Senator McCarthy stated under
oath tliat I had spent 2 years with the Chinese
Communists. Actually, as my book shows, it was
4 months.

Senator McCarthy also concluded that the mere
fact I was able to travel with Chinese Communist
troops was evidence that I was pro-Communist.
I went to Chinese Communist territory because I
was ordered there by Associated Press and also
because as a good newspaper man I wanted to go
where the news was. It makes no more sense to
say that I was pro-Communist because I spent 4
months behind the Chinese Communist lines than
to say that I was pro-Japanese because I spent 11
months behind the Japanese lines. I was later
cleared by Chiang Kai-shek's army intelligence
for an assignment at his General Staff Head-
quarters, living in the same hotel with the staff.

If there had been anything pro-Communist
about those dispatches of mine, I am sure my own
AP superiors would have been the first to protest.
I looked in my AP file for that period and fomid a
letter from my New York office dated November
30, 1938. It is signed by John. Evans, Chief of
the AP foreign service. It reads in part:



580



Department of State Bulletin



I send you my own and others' compliments on the
guerrilla stories. The attached clipping shows how a
half dozen of your stories were dovetailed to make two
long stories in the Sunday Service. You know that Mc-
Daniel had a hand in shaping up your notes and messages.

The stories were used widely and attracted such atten-
tion that Readers Diycst asked to reprint them ....

The page from Time is another proof of general interest
In the human narrative you pulled out of interior China.
The world is somewhat tired of war communiques but it
welcomes a fresh view of life behind the lines and the blood
and iron that carries on the war.

I received a further letter from the Associated
Press office in New York dated December 13, 11)38.
It was signed by the General Manager, Kent
Cooper. Sir. Cooper described the arrangements
with Readers Digest for publishing some of my
stories on the guerrillas and concluded :

May I add my personal congratulations to you on the
excellence of your work in this connection?

Now, tlie book about which Senator McCarthy
spoke is entitled Humane Endeavor, The Story of
the China War. It is a book of 380 pages, pub-
lished in the fall of 1939 by Farrar and Rhinehart.

It was my first and, so far, my only book. It
was published when I was 27 years old. It is not
a great book. It did not sell well. I consoled
myself at the time that its publication was almost
simultaneous with Hitler's invasion of Poland, a
fact which focused attention on Europe.

The book attempted to give a balanced picture
of the China war. I devoted 12 chapters to my
experiences with the Japanese Army, 9 chapters to
my experiences with the Communist guerrillas,
and 10 chapters to the military and economic effort
of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces.

But I don't believe the excerpts chosen by Sen-
ator McCarthy give a balanced picture of my book.

For example, Senator McCarthy used the fol-
lowing characterizations in an attempt to show my
pro-Communist feelings :

General Ho Lung : He is a living picture of Rhett Butler
from the pages of "Gone With the Wind."

General P'eng Teh-huai : A most rigid disciplinarian and
the most f>ersistent student of world affairs.

Mao Tze-tung : The least pretentious man in Yenan and
the most admired.

And for the group: My attitude toward Communist
China's leaders was a mixture of respect for their per.sonal
integrity and a resentment of their suspiciousnes.s. They
Impressed me as a group of hard-headed straight-shooting
realists.

Incidentally, that was a misquotation by Senator
McCarthy. What I wrote was "hard-headed,
hard-shooting realists."

If the Committee will turn to the section of the
book devoted to Chiang Kai-shek's government
and armies, it will find even more favorable refer-
ences to Nationalist leaders.

For example, I referred to "the progress toward
honest government which Chiang Kai-shek is pro-
moting in China." And here are some other such
references :



Chang Chun, governor of Chiang Kai-shek's war base:
"A reputation for integrity, diplomacy, and absolute
loyalty."

Madame Chiang Kai-shek: After a de.scriptlon of her
war orphanages— "Such a development Is extraordinary in
China where people have so long been Indifferent to the
welfare of the lower classes. The credit must go to the
Madamissinio and her American Ideas of philanthropy."

Dr. F. C. Yen, Chiang Kai-shek's MlnLster of Health:
"As fearless u crusader against quackery as Dr. Morris
Flslibein of the American Medical Association Journal."

Dr. Wong Wen-hao, Chiang Kai-shek's Director of
Economies: "An able executive and an excellent Judge
of men. . . . One of Wong's first acts In office was to insti-
tute into the government an able group of professors from
Feiping and Tientsin. This little clique of nonpartisans
included Dr. T. F. Tsiang, recent Ambassador to Russia;
Dr. Uu Shih, Ambas.sador to the United Slates; and a
score of scientific experts in engineering, mining and agri-
culture. The scientists of this group now form a brain
trust for the Ministry of Economics, . . ."

This book is a report of what I saw, what I was
told, and what I recorded as accurately as I could
at the time.

No author is a competent witnei3s regarding his
own book. I think it is pertinent what the news-
papers and book reviewers had to say about this
book at the time of its publication. Surely, if this
book had been biased, some reviewer would have
said that it was pro-Communist, or that "here is
a man with a mission to communize the world."

I have about 100 clippings, the kind of thing
that a first author generally keeps in a scrapbook
in the attic. I will skip mere literary criticism
and give you the comments which will help you
to judge my objectivity.

The Associated Press, September 10, 1939, signed by John
Selby ::

Hanson is that priceless thing, a good and objective
reporter ... He comes to some reasonable conclusions
about the fracas in the East, now overshadowed by the
geographically nearer drama on the European stage . . .
The author has, first, an eye for the colorful fact. He
has sympathy without sentimentality.

Philadelphia Inquirer, December 13, 1939, signed by
Alexander Kendrick :

All the other books on the Chinese war, and there have
been many, have simply kept the seat warm for Mr. Han-
son, who was the Associated Press correspondent in North
China from the time of the Marco Polo bridge "incident"
in 1937 until a few months ago. Han.son's news accounts,
as any copyreader knows, have been a model of unbiased
understanding, and vivid reporting. Now, reading his
book, the first full and comprehensive account of the long
war, it is easy to see why he made such an excellent job
of things.

The Herald, Durham, North Carolina, December 17,
1939:

Haldore Hanson's new book on the Sino-Japanese con-
flict does not preach any doctrines; It does not seek to
warn us of any danger which might come to us out of the
Chinese nightmare. His job is a piece of straight report-
ing, like his newspaper work for the Associated Press, and
he has done it well.

The News and Courier, Charleston, South Carolina,
January 7, 1940 :



April 10, 1950



581



By far the best of the personal experience stories that
has come out of the China war is "Humane Endeavor" by
Haldore Hanson . . . Hanson, although frankly critical
of Japan and sympathetic toward China, nevertheless re-
veals China's vast military impotency ; the treachery of
some grafting generals, and the lack of support given to
the Chinese Communist army — which all writers seem to
agree has the best miUtary record of any combatant unit
on the Chinese side.

Chicago Trihune, December 13, 1939 :

Just at the time when Russia's excursion into Western
imperialism is indirectly spotlighting the Chinese-
Japanese stalemate, Haldore Hanson, a young war cor-
respondent, gives us an exciting three-dimensional pano-
rama of that eastern conflict.

Hanson went to Japan and China in 1934 as a steerage
passenger, found friends among tlie natives, ate their food,
learned their language, eventually taught their children.
When war came he understood the strangely dissimilar
philosophies that liad so much to do with shaping its
course ... He was first to get into the guerrilla territory.
Free lance newspaper work had given him a background
of Information about China and Japan that lend authentic-
ity to his reports.

In commenting on the book, Senator McCarthy
used partial quotation from it as a basis for the
statement that "this young man has a criminal
record in China where he was arrested, not by the
Communists, but by the anti-Communists."

I have never been arrested by anti-Communist
officials of the Chinese Government. I have never
been arrested by any otlier kind of officials of the
Chinese Government. My only arrests in China
were by the Japanese Army military police, when
I tried to investigate atrocities.

Senator McCarthy's false statement that I was
arrested by anti-Communist officials is based on a
careless quotation from page 349 of my book. I
was talking about actions which threatened
Chinese unity and might lead to a reopening of
the civil war in the midst of the Japanese invasion.
This passage in my book reads :

Anti-Red officials witliin the government were taking
every possible opportunity for indirect attacks upon the
Communists. Local police made raids in a dozen cities
upon book shops that handled Communist publications.
Leaders of the Communist youth corps were arrested by
military officers at Hankow. I myself was the victim of
one of these incidents and found that local officials were
the instigators.

That is what Senator McCarthy read to this
Committee, but the very next sentence goes on to
explain what the incident was. It reads :

When I arrived in Sian from guerrilla territory and told
the police that I was proceeding to the Communist head-
quarters at Yenan, my American passport was seized and
held for 9 days.

Let me add that after my passport was returned
to me by direction of the Chinese Foreign Office,
the official who seized my passport gave an official
dinner in my honor attended by other high officials
at Sian and he issued a public apology.

Wliatever the circumstances might have been,
however, one would expect that a United States
Senator would at least read those two or three



sentences twice, and perhaps even make a little
inquiry about them, before publicly branding an
American citizen a criminal.

Mr. Chairman, I have noted in Senator Mc-
Carthy's statement before this Committee numer-
ous errors in quoting from documents. I mean
textual misquotations. In my experiences with a
press association, if a reporter made one factual
error, he was required to explain the circumstances
to the city editor. If the error was of a character
which might be libelous, the bureau chief was re-
quired to report to New York on the circumstances.
One libelous error could ruin a newspaper man.
If Senator McCarthy were a newspaper man, he
almost certainly would be fired for writing the
story he gave this Committee.

Senator McCarthy cites three other writing
activities which he believes will show that I am
"a man with a mission to communize the world."
They are:

1. That I was a contributor to Pacific Affairs.

2. That I wrote for the magazine Arnerasia.

3. That I was running a Communist magazine
in Peiping when the Japanese-Chinese war broke
out.

There were only a few American magazines
devoted to Far Eastern affairs when I was writing
about China. Among those few were Pacific
Affaij's put out by the Institute of Pacific Rela-
tions, and another was Amerasia. What was more
natural than that I should offer articles for sale to
these magazines? I sold two to Pacific Affairs
and two to Amerasia. The Amerasia articles were
chapters from my book, adapted for magazine use.

Senator McCarthy has played up the association
of these magazines with a doubtful character or
two, and has played down their connection with
eminently respectable American citizens. And
having in this manner associated the magazines
with communism, or disloyalty, or illegality, he
has tied me to the same stump by pointing out that
I sold articles to those magazines.

When I sold my few articles to Pa-ci-fic Affairs
and Amerasia they were eminently respectable
journals, dealing with Far Eastern matters, and
they carried articles by leading scholars on Far
Eastern affairs. Pacific Affairs stiWdo^s. Anier-
asiu is dead. But that is beside the point. The
point is that if we have got to the point in America
where writers must assume responsibility for the
political opinions, the morals, and the public activ-
ities which all of the editors or owners, or stock-
holders or writers that magazines may hold or
later develop — then we have traveled far indeed
from those basic principles upon which this coun-
try was founded. For my part, I do not believe
that we have reached this point. I believe that
base and loose charges of this sort, and those who
prefer them, will receive the scorn and contempt
of the American people that they deserve.

In connection witli my Amera-'



Online LibraryUnited States. Dept. of State. Office of Public CoDepartment of State bulletin (Volume v. 22, Apr- Jun 1950) → online text (page 16 of 116)